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Anne Sexton#8217;s #8220;Cinderella#8221; Essay Sample. Through literary devices such as simile, repetition and symbolism, Anne Sexton delivers the message that there is no way to live #8220;happily ever after.#8221; Using four short stories as a lead in, Sexton makes powerful arguments about society by creating the symbol of the dove and master thesis of symbols, alluding to amazing the story of Cinderella. For Sexton there is thesis of symbols no Cinderella, there is no prince charming, and there is no happy ending. However, through #8220;Cinderella,#8221; she argues that the #8220;happy ever after#8221; ending remains an illusion society chases. Sexton initially presents examples of success stories in which people, with lives of hardship, receive everlasting happiness due to superficial commodities. Sexton creates emphasis for the multiple stories using sentence fragments such as #8220;from toilets to riches,#8221; (4) and repetition of #8220;that story#8221; to create colloquial tone. Since colloquial tone and repetition are devices used everyday during conversations, the reader experiences the stories on a more intimate level, as if they were communicating with a friend. Sexton#8217;s first story describes a #8220;plumber with the twelve children#8221; (2) who transforms his life from tragedy to triumph from winning the #8220;Irish Sweepstakes#8221; (3). Sexton uses the stories to point out a reoccurring theme: a person cannot become instantaneously happy despite their good fortune, because real life is filled with tribulation.

Similar stories of disheartened souls who change their lives from #8220;rags to riches#8221; are used as a lead in to the Sextons main allusion, #8220;Cinderella.#8221; Sexton leads into #8220;Cinderella#8221; by contrasting the supposed success stories to the tale of a young woman who searches for a similar fate, only to find a modicum of short on newgrange contentment after an ordeal. Cinderella, the main character in the poem, is master portrayed as being unfortunate, mistreated, and discouraged. Sexton creates understanding for Cinderella using similes. In the first stanza, Cinderella#8217;s step-sisters are said to be beautiful although they still have #8220;hearts like blackjacks#8221; (29). Sexton constructs the simile to compare the short on newgrange, sister#8217;s characteristics to that of a lethal weapon, heartless and violent. Furthermore, the comparison is made because it helps define a reoccurring theme: appearances can be deceiving. Master Of Symbols. Such a theme can also be applied to Cinderella. Sexton associates Cinderella#8217;s appearance, blackened with soot, to that of Al Jolson through metaphor. Al Jolson used make-up to on annual day celebration blacken his originally white skin.

Initially, the master list of symbols, metaphor implies Cinderella is arnold essaya not only tired and disheveled, but filthy from head to toe. Such a metaphor also reveals that Cinderella#8217;s personality, which is constantly overlooked, is white beneath the surface of a black exterior. Sexton establishes additional pity for Cinderella, by having Cinderella#8217;s father bestows gifts upon each sister, where the other sisters receive gifts fit for queens, and Cinderella merely receives a twig. The twig, planted upon the grave of Cinderella#8217;s mother, brings a symbol of protection and master, truth. A dove, which represents Cinderella#8217;s mother and protector, sits upon the newly planted twig and grants happiness to Cinderella whenever she requests it. Initially, the short essay, dove is assigned is to pick-up the lentils, spilt by the wicked step-mother, allowing Cinderella to master thesis list of symbols go to the ball. With the help of many other birds, the dove completes the extremely difficult task. Because of this, Cinderella is freed of the shackles bounding her to domestic housework, therefore, allowing her to pursue her happiness. Sexton relates Cinderella to the dove by essaya, announcing the thesis list of symbols, bird#8217;s #8220;warm wings#8221; (51) and gentle touch originate from the #8220;fatherland,#8221; (51) which represents Hitler#8217;s tyrannical reign.

Similarly, Cinderella#8217;s kindness and love are suppressed by the cruelty of her family. Short Essay On Newgrange. After the list of symbols, step-mother still does not allow Cinderella to go to the ball, Cinderella pleads to the dove, her provider of pleasure, and is answered in full. As the dove becomes more essential to essay day celebration of school the happiness of Cinderella, the dove also becomes more powerful. Thesis List. It is noted by the narrator that the essay day celebration, dropping off of a dress and shoes is #8220;rather a large package for such a simple bird#8221; (63). With her magnificent gown and majestic shoes in hand, Cinderella proceeds to the ball where the prince falls madly in love with her solely based on her appearance. However, the prince is unable to recognize Cinderella after she changes back to her sooty face and ragged clothes.

The shallow relationship between Cinderella and the Prince reveals another fault of society: the pressure placed on of symbols, superficial characteristics and the emphasis placed upon beauty is a priority set too high. When people must #8220;gussy up#8221; (30) to be noticed, the person within is unable to essaya be seen. The Prince searches for his beloved beauty using a golden shoe left by Cinderella at the ball. The shoe signifies the #8220;happy ever after#8221; ending that so many people in society pursue. The step-sisters, who are both #8220;delighted because they [have] lovely feet,#8221; (80) represent many citizens in society. Although their feet are beautiful, the step-sisters are willing to take their foot and #8220;slice it off and put on the slipper#8221; (83) to live the master, blissful ending they were hoping for. As the image of self-mutilation indicates, people across the world take extensive measures to try and obtain the happiness that they have sought after for so long. The same happiness the step-sisters are close to stealing is ruined by the dove. Cinderella#8217;s protector, the dove, speaks to the prince and announces his obvious mistake in choosing the wrong woman. By revealing the step-sisters as merciless frauds, to the Prince, the year of university, dove becomes defined as the revealer of truth in a story of thesis list corruption. The truth the amazing, dove relays to the Prince helps to relay a truth of society: competition for the same dream will not only turn fair intentions sour, but also cause people to use extreme measures against one another in hopes of accomplishing their goals.

The two sisters are willing to ruin Cinderella#8217;s happiness in exchange for their own. The subtle tragedy of the sisters is created by thesis of symbols, Sexton to strengthen her argument about people in society being able to hurt one another. The first sister suffers defeat and short essay on newgrange, is left with a mutilated toe: #8220;That is the way with amputations. They don#8217;t just heal up like a wish#8221; (86-87). Sexton then creates sympathy for the originally cruel sisters by stating their injuries will have a lasting effect. Sexton uses the comparison between the sisters#8217; amputation and a wish to list of symbols add emphasis to a prior theme: lasting effects occur when people in society compete for the same dream. Sexton alludes to social issues on the step-sisters to demonstrate that the injuries of those who cannot obtain the dream are often great.

Sexton acknowledges how oblivious people can be to each other by creating another simile. The reference to Cinderella#8217;s foot fitting the shoe #8220;like a love letter into master of symbols, its envelope#8221; (94) is psychology a contradiction. The connotations of a love letter are associated with true love, tender care, and a romantic life. These conceptions are very different from the supposed #8220;love#8221; the master thesis list of symbols, Prince and Cinderella share. Their love includes competition, superficiality, and a essay, agony upon master list others. Both of them become utterly unaware of the multiple people they crush in short essay on newgrange attempting to achieve their personal goals. Through the thesis list, irony of Cinderella#8217;s #8220;perfect#8221; relationship with the prince, Sexton displays how purposefully ignorant members of society can become in order to achieve their own happiness. Sexton distinguishes the dove as Cinderella#8217;s protector at Cinderella#8217;s wedding.

As the reflective essay on first year of university, wretched step-sisters make a final attempt to steal Cinderella#8217;s groom, the dove sees through their pretty faces to master thesis list their blackened hearts and dark intentions. To Write Essays On. The symbol of the dove gains importance as the announcer of truth because it destroys the sisters#8217; plans as well their exterior beauty by #8220;[pecking] their eyes out#8221; (97). Cinderella#8217;s goal is achieved. After a life of master thesis of symbols hardship she is able to obtain her #8220;happy ending#8221; at how do you write a essay introduction, the cost of her sister#8217;s anguish. However, throughout the final stanza Sexton uses similes to thesis of symbols show the reader that such a life of happiness does not exist.

Instead, the Prince and short, Cinderella are #8220;like two dolls in a museum case#8221; (103), always perfect, never facing adversity, and on display for others to envy. Sexton uses the example to state that many members in society look upon each other in envy because other people appear to have the perfect life. Furthermore, Sexton supports the statement by implying the Prince and Cinderella live like #8220;regular Bobbsey twins#8221; (109) comparing them to children who effortlessly solve mysteries with almost overwhelming perfection. These similes provide information to lend support to the theory that such a life is meaningless, because there is so much more to life than simply being happy. Although the dolls appear cheerful, they are not truly alive. Sexton uses parallel construction about problems in reality such as, #8220;arguing over thesis list of symbols the timing of an egg,#8221; (104) and #8220;getting a middle-aged spread#8221; (106), to state that living #8220;happily ever after#8221; is impossible because any real life contains hardship. Throughout the poem Sexton alludes to the story of Cinderella, uses the symbol of the reflective on first, dove, and various similes to create a concrete theme about society#8217;s deranged perspective of list of symbols what happiness is. Sexton couples allusion, symbolism, and simile with colloquial tone to matthew arnold essaya identify the theme as society#8217;s inability to thesis list recognize its wrongdoings. When a society places false value upon how do you write introduction superficial beauty, and feels the constant need to master of symbols strive for the unattainable #8220;happily ever after,#8221; nothing but destruction ensues. Is this the social issues on, perfect essay for you?

Save time and order Anne Sexton#8217;s #8220;Cinderella#8221; essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Anne Sexton#8217;s #8220;Cinderella#8221; With many variations of fantasies, #8220;Happily ever after#8221; is reoccurring in master thesis list of symbols every fairy tale. #8220;Cinderella#8221; by short essay, Anne Sexton is a different variation of the classic tale. The author sets up#8230; Satire in Anne Sexton#8217;s Cinderella. In Anne Sexton#8217;s #8220;Cinderella#8221; one may ponder what the purpose and tone is. Anne Sexton uses a strong satiric and humorous undertone when poking fun at marriage. The use of#8230; Comparative Analysis of #8220;Cinderella#8221; and #8220;Ashputtle#8221; The purpose of this paper is to make a comparative analysis of two perspectives on the children#8217;s story of Cinderella. It contrasts the master, time periods and cultures of France and#8230; ?Good Triumphs Evil: Cinderella. Cinderella, as told by essay on newgrange, Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm in Household Tales, is a tale most of us are familiar with. Most know the version of the tale as told in#8230; Cinderella: A Literary Analysis. The story of Cinderella is master thesis of symbols a timeless classic that characterizes the different aspects of historical writing.

Many later variations of the story derive their origin from classic antiquity, one being#8230; Symbolism in Disney#8217;s #8220;Cinderella#8221; The story of Cinderella has been shared through many generations, exploring the on annual day celebration of school, life of a beautiful girl who is cruelly abused by her wicked stepsisters and stepmother. The director of#8230;

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Mona Lisa – the most intriguing painting. Posted by on Sep 9, 2009 in Art Essays. Mona Lisa, 1 the portrait of a beautiful Florentine woman is probably one of the of symbols most known feminine images in the world, painted by the greatest artist of essay, The Italian Renaissance Leonardo da Vinci. Since 500 years its magnifying power has been inspiring unsolved mysteries and multitudes theories, concerning the origins of the characteristics deeply psychological expressions on her face: her dual smile and profoundly enigmatic regard of her eyes, but also her mysterious identity, as well as her personal connections to the artist. It is surprising how much attention is driven constantly to this particular artwork not only by scholars, but also by people of different professions digging literally Mona Lisa’s face for answers to their imaginary questions concerning this master chef of art.

Regarding to of symbols, the above statement, I would like to short essay, expose few of master list, many circulating suppositions as well as generally accepted facts, concluding with my personal opinion about it. First I would like to introduce some generally recognized and accepted by on annual day celebration, scholars evidences: Leonardo da Vinci was born 15 of April 1452 in Anchiano , near Vinci in Republic of Florence. Master List Of Symbols! 2 He was a child of unmarried couple, Caterina3 and Ser Piero.4 He grew up in to write essays on, his father family, receiving basic education appropriated to his social status.5 According to Vasari,6 his teachers were tired of his constant questions and his overwhelming curiosity about everything. In 1466 as 14 years old boy he moved to Florence where he started to learn painting in Andrea del Verrocchio’s7 atelier, where he was working with other famous artists like Botticelli, Perugino and Lorenzo di Credi. In June 1472 he was accepted to the Guild of painters in Florence.8 The quality of his work, innovatory techniques in painting,9 composition, and his extremely elaborated style, brought him fast to list of symbols, the top of artistic and social circles of Florence , giving him distinctive recognition, inspiring other great artists of Italian Renaissance , as Fra Bartolommeo, Andrea del Sarto, Corregio, Giorgione, but mostly Raphael.10 Painting wasn’t the only subject he was interested in. Amazing Psychology Personal Statements! With his multitalented mind he was exploring with scientific approach wide range of interests.11. Referring to thesis, the commonly accepted information coming from Vasari’s book,12 Leonardo was commissioned to amazing psychology personal statements, paint the portrait of Mona Lisa 13 in 1503, and list of symbols she was posing for him sometimes between 1503 and 1504. As stated by Vasari, Mona Lisa was a beautiful woman,14 and during the long hours of posing, he was entertaining her with buffoons, musicians, humoristic conversations, and readings, probably in order to keep the particular smile on her face.

From 1505 until 1506, he was mostly working on the portrait from his memory, as he used to do with other paintings as well. When he was leaving Florence in 1507, after working on it four years, the painting wasn’t finished yet. Day Celebration Of School! Leonardo never handed over the portrait,15 maybe because it wasn’t ready to him or for personal reason. He wanted to keep it for himself. Sometimes around 1510 and 1513 he finished it to some degree. Whenever da Vinci went, he always had the portrait with him, and never parted with, adjusting time to list, time some details on it, looks like he never finished it according to matthew essaya, his standards. Mona Lisa was painted in master thesis list of symbols, precursory technique developed to short essay on newgrange, the perfection by da Vinci, the Sfumato style.9 Leonardo’s composition of Mona Lisa, the half turned pose, was probably influenced by early Flemish portraiture. The Mona Lisa’s recent size is 77cm by master thesis, 53cm, however originally it was larger when Leonardo painted.

It had extra two columns on essay, both sides, which were cut out probably to of symbols, fit in an expensive frame or assign place. That’s why we don’t see that Mona Lisa is actually sitting on social issues essays, a terrace. To paint the portrait, Leonardo used the large piece of poplar-wood. The Mona Lisa’s particular composition of her eyes and her lips is list imposing to a viewer the impression of how do you write a essay, melancholic mystery. Once we look at master thesis list of symbols her eyes, they always fallows us with her regard, it doesn’t matter from which side we are looking at her. Her indecisive smile16 is rather philosophic and not too evident. It looks as she is in the way to stop her intention to smile. One thing is certain, whoever had seen the portrait was deeply amazed by matthew essaya, the quality he depicted the human face.

Her extremely elaborated futures perfectly shadowed, with perfectly balanced light were appreciated then as well as now. Master! Looking at the painting stunned Raphael, who visited Leonardo in his atelier many times. We can see very well how deeply he was influenced by da Vinci’s work, looking at the portrait of Dame a La Licorne. Short Essay! 17. The fantasist background behind Mona Lisa is as mysterious as the emanated futures of her face. The undisclosed place of master thesis of symbols, rocky mountains emerging from a thin mist of hidden natural paradise is a essay introduction not as any other landscapes painted by him before.

In the light of scholars’ interpretation, it might suggest the symbolic unity of mountains with water and all living things connected to the reality of passing time. Leonardo used in this portrait as one of the first a technique known as aerial perspective. Da Vinci’s painting represents a prototype of the master Renaissance portraiture, executed in precursory manner, which served as an example of perfection to many. Essay On First Of University! Leonardo’s portrait of Mona Lisa is the most ever copied artwork by many artists.18. In 1516 Leonardo moved to Chateau de Cloux 19 in France , invited by the King Francis I,20 where he spent the rest of his life. He sold the Mona Lisa portrait to the King for 4000 golden crowns.21 Since then the thesis list of symbols painting stayed in France at Fontainbleau ,22 from how do, where it was traveling from one place to another,23 to thesis, be finally settled down in The Louvre Museum . The mystic power of to write, Mona Lisa attracted also thieves and mentally unstable individuals. Leonardo’s masterpiece got to the news in 1911, when it was stolen24 from Louvre , and disappeared for two years from the master surface, founded later in matthew essaya, Italy in 1913 , returned to Louvre again in January 1914. Of Symbols! However the troubles didn’t finish than, in 1956, Leonardo’s Mona Lisa had been assaulted two times. First, the paining was heavily damaged by acid, and you write introduction then on the 30th of master list, December a tourist25 threw a stone at the portrait. Essay! Mona Lisa was exposed outside of the France few times in different countries,26 then by international agreement it was decided that the painting would stay permanently in Louvre , Paris , where it will be properly protected behind the triplex glass.27.

Mona Lisa’s mysterious magnetic power transfers to the viewer with personal interpretation of this extraordinary in many ways artwork. Leonardo’s desire to master thesis, keep the reflective of university painting always with him, created a mystic atmosphere around it, which reflected in posing unlimited quota of questions, concerning the identity of the portrayed person as well as it’s symbolic meaning. The lack of information concerning Da Vinci’s personal life stimulated the world of mystery believers. Leonardo’s protective attitude towards his private life, led to all kinds of suppositions. He was cautious in master list of symbols, each aspect of his activities, which in the light of his particular interests in human anatomy and mysterious inventions,28 was a necessary must.29 He wrote his notes in issues to write, reverse, so nobody could read his writings.30 After an anonymous accusation for his homosexual affairs on the 8th of April 1476, from which he was acquitted, he became rather protective, solitary, concentrated on his individual work.31. The Mona Lisa , considered as the most mysterious among all Da Vinci’s paintings, over passing all his other achievements in widely spread of interests in her uniqueness, as ideal artwork with something to hide. The sensationalism around her was created by master of symbols, curiosity to identify who is behind the enigmatic face.

The identity of portrayed woman as Mona Lisa32 is coming from Vasari’s writings, questioned by many as not always corresponded with reality. Leonardo didn’t left any written information about how do a essay this particular commission, that’s why some skeptics think that there wasn’t any commission at all, and master thesis Leonardo painted an imaginary woman created by himself to serve his purposes to study his innovatory aspects of short on newgrange, portraiture. List Of Symbols! Some scientifics tried to prove, that Leonardo painted himself as a woman. This theory supported by on annual day celebration, comparison of the sculls, one of Mona Lisa and Leonardo’s self-portrait. According to the outcome, they fit quite well and master referring to Leonardo’s presumed homosexuality that might make some sense. He could make a joke wandering if anybody would recognize him in on first of university, such camouflage or just from simple curiosity wanted to see how he would look as a woman. Sigmund Freud in his book Leonardo da Vinci and Memories of his Childhood 33 stated his own interpretation on the origins of the Mona Lisa’s particular smile, based on master thesis list, the artist’s psychoanalytic portrait. According to him Leonardo in Mona Lisa’s portrait wanted to impersonate the love of his mother and essay day celebration of school his admiration to master thesis list of symbols, her as a woman. He tried to recreate her smile as he remembered.

Such argumentation could be possible. When Leonardo was three years old, he was taken from his mother to his father’s house.34 It could’ve created some dramatic psychological trauma in his personality. Another possibility could be that when he met Mona Lisa , her particular smile reminded him of his mother’s smile. It could bring back the essay of school memories of his childhood, what could inspired in him the desire to produce a masterpiece in order to thesis, immortalize his mother’s smile. The possibilities of his theories are however questioned by of university, many. Andre de Havesky, in his essay published in 1952 in the Gazette des Beaux-Arts , suggested another probability. Lisa Gherardini, alias Mona Lisa , didn’t came from rich family, so as it was very common at those times, family was trying to get her married for somebody older but in thesis list, better financial shape than their own. Francesco Giocondo just lost his second wife and issues to write on was willing to marry again, as fathers of both families were friendly to each other, they come to an agreement and master list the couple got married in matthew essaya, 1495.

Because of significant age differences, Lisa was 19 years younger than her husband. Havesky35 let’s go his fantasy and suggests a possibility of close relationship between Leonardo and his painted model. Lisa’s marriage was arranged, her husband busy with the work, so she was young and probably most of the time alone. Leonardo in his 50’s, solitary artist, who knew, maybe two solitaries attracted each other. Da Vinci discovered a beautiful young soul, which gave him strength and desire to realize something extraordinary. He found perfect model to master of symbols, do it. That’s comfortable possibility and it might explain the reason of keeping the painting with him, or he maid a copy for her husband,36 and kept the original with him as a memory of his last vital arising. There are more than one circulating theories questioning Mona Lisa’s identity.

Some scholars propose as logical explanation Isabella of Aragon,37 Duches of Milan . Personal! They suggest as principal evidence of list of symbols, theirs claim is the widow’s veil, and the repetition of embroidered the Sforza emblems on her sweetheart neckline. Leonardo da Vinci was the Sforza’s court painter for almost 17 years. Then he knew certainly Isabella of Aragon, his patroness. Some sources went even further, disclosing their clandestine marriage in how do, 1497. As long as there are very little reliable written sources to contest such possibility, this matter is just another possible supposition. Master List! However in 2004, historian Maike Vogt-Luerssen38 from Adelaide , after 11 years of studies announced officially her theory concerning Mona Lisa’s identity. Amazing Personal Statements! According to thesis list, her research the woman painted by Leonardo da Vinci is Isabella of Aragon, to whom he was something more than just a dear friend. Because of the differences in social status, they couldn’t go public with their romance. She accuses the Louvre authorities for wrong doing and misleading the public about the how do introduction identity of Mona Lisa , as they decided to follow the Vasri’s fantasist story. In order to of symbols, promote her theory, she intends to come to Paris and essay distribute her book for free around Louvre . Little less popular among scholars speculation concerning Mona Lisa is the idea that she is a mistress of Giuliano de Medici, who asked Leonardo to master list of symbols, paint her for him in discreet way.

Among other presumptions referring this time to Mona Lisa’s particular smile is a statement of how do you write a essay introduction, Italian physician Filippo Surano, saying that Lisa suffered from bruxism . Probably triggered by long hours of posing making her unconsciously gtound her teeth, The Department of Otolaryngology in master list, Oakland ,39 proposed another reason for Mona Lisa’s smile. The facial nerve has undergone partial wallerian degeneration. Further more, Borkowski JE. from Operative Dentistry Georgetown University School of reflective on first year of university, Dentistry assumed that Mona Lisa is not smiling. Her enigmatic expression is current to the individuals who have lost their front teeth. By exploring little more the aspect of Mona Lisa’s mystic expression, group of researchers40 decided to list, find out what make’s her smile, eyes or lips. They did a survey using twelve observers showing them images of different parts of social issues essays, her lips and eyes applying noise on them.

The results of the survey revealed that the particularity of Mona Lisa’s expression is due to the way the lips shaped the smile. Slobodan Prvanovic, in Institute of master thesis list of symbols, Physics in Belgrade , did interesting research. Using the short essay on newgrange principals of master list of symbols, quantum mechanics, he collected the impressions of different moods caused by watching the painting with interruptions. He concluded his observations stating that the smile is an overlying composition of two forms of short essay on newgrange, lips, happy and unhappy. By using the soft shadowing, Leonardo was able to joint those two different shapes together, creating the distinct smile.

Professor Margaret Livingstone41 of Harvard University, studied the Mona Lisa’s smile and came to the conclusion, that by looking at the smile directly we don’t see her smiling. List! However, the smile become evident when we look at other parts of her face. Human eye is using two different types of vision, foveal 42 and peripheral. Mona Lisa’s smile is in very low spatial frequencies that are why we see better the smile when looking not directly at her lips. Leonardo was studying the aspects of human vision; therefore he probably knew how to build this kind of arnold, disappearing, when looked directly, at the smile. In the age of thesis list of symbols, computerization our possibilities to decoy any mysteries will consequently grow. The Mona Lisa’s enigma might be solved one day using computer technology. The Scientists from Universities of Amsterdam and Illinois were using specially created software, which examines the facial futures, to study the Mona Lisa’s mood when she was painted. Their conclusion was that she was 83% happy, 9% disgusted, 6% fearful, and 2% angry.

Another group of scientists from Japan recreated Leonardo’s and Mona Lisa’s voices using theirs futures from paintings, recreating first the skulls, and than other parts of the social issues body necessary to produce a sound. We know now the height of Mona Lisa . She was 5 feet and 6 inches tall. The reproduced voices are available on master list, Microsoft Japan’s web site. X-rays scanning of on newgrange, Mona Lisa shows another three faces under the original surface. It may be possible; that Leonardo could change few times the face until he got what he wanted: the perfect harmony of elaborated forms of light and shadows.

Mona Lisa culminated somehow his scientific approach to the art of list, painting. In conclusion based on all information I was able to essay day celebration of school, obtain and scrutinized, I would like to believe in a romantic story of love and passion between Leonardo and thesis list his Muse , whoever it was. Taking such approach to matthew arnold essaya, this beautiful picture we see the artist’s intelligent reasoning in thesis of symbols, depicting the transfer of sentiments towards each other trough the eyes filled up with enigmatic poesy of the moment. The eyes are speaking to social issues, the lover in thesis list of symbols, admiration of the you write a essay instance. The painted Muse is connecting two similar and master list of symbols different worlds, unclear to them, appearing from the how do you write a essay introduction mist of incertitude. Master List Of Symbols! The landscape on you write introduction, the right side of the master of symbols woman looks more solid, somehow much better organized: the bridge symbolizes the amazing connection and stability. On the left side the landscape is evidently divided by master thesis list of symbols, water on two parts. In the lower part, the day celebration road is not straight divided by master thesis list of symbols, a large river symbolizing the passing time, and the higher part symbolizes unknown future. Artists sensibility might feel that at the end of this road he has to pass to the other time, the less fortunate one. The bridge on the right side might symbolize a possible connection to the road on the left, but the possibility is just suggestive.

We know that this painting he had always with him since it was created, and Leonardo many times reworked it in some details. On! If this was for him somebody he loved that’s understandable that he never gave it away. Master Thesis Of Symbols! Every time he did some corrections or adjustment, he was caressing his memories of beautiful moments he enjoyed in her company. However the logical conclusion will be quite different. On Newgrange! It doesn’t really matter who the portrayed person is. It doesn’t change anything in list, this artwork; it wouldn’t be better than it is. I think that for Leonardo as a progressive artist, Mona Lisa was his laboratory of scientific research on painting mediums, compositions, visual effects, etc. He might decide to have one, when he started to paint the portrait of the reflective essay on first year of university model in front of him. He probably realized that he discovered his psychoanalytic power in depicting the human psychological portraiture and of symbols wanted to explore it more than ever. Mona Lisa became a practical Bible of his researches. We know that after this painting he wasn’t painting much.

He decides to explore his scientific innovations in many subjects. Reflective Essay Of University! Mona Lisa was probably an important element of his scientific explorations. Despite the commercialization of Mona Lisa’s portrait in unlimited use, not always appropriate to the respectful level of civility, there will be always scholars, scientists, researchers, willing to impose on public their own personal sensational theories about Mona Lisa . I believe that’s what Leonardo da Vinci wanted. To create an artwork which constantly provokes the viewer. To create an enigmatic mystery which embraces provocatively the viewer’s senses. He would’ve been happy to know that he finally got it. Leonardo da Vinci was well-advanced individual leaving and thinking ahead of master list of symbols, his contemporaries.

Andre de Havesky, L’histoire veridique de la Joconde, Vasari l’imposteur, La Joconde en France, Gazette des Beaux-Arts , 6th Periode, Tome XL, 94th annee, 1952, p. 5-26. Bradley I. Collins, Jr., Psychoanalytic Biography and Art History: Critical Study of social, Psycho-biographical, Approaches to Leonardo da Vinci , Columbia University, UMI Company, 1995. David Piper, The Illustrtated Library of Art, The History of Painting and list Sculpture, Parts 1,2,3,4, Portland House, Mitchel Beazley Publishers, 1981,1985. Frank Zollner, Leonard de Vinci, Tout l’ouvre peint , Taschen GmbH, 2005. George Boas, The Mona Lisa in the History of Taste , Journal of the History of Ideas , Published by University of short essay on newgrange, Pennsylvania Press, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1940, p. 207-224.

Leonard de Vinci, Le Carnets , introduction H.Anna Suh, Black Dog and Leventhal Publishers, Inc.,2005. French edition Parragon Books Ltd, 2006. Leonid L. Master Thesis! Kontsevich, Christopher W.Tyler, What makes Mona Lisa smile?, Vission Research, No. 44, 2004, p. Year Of University! 1493-1498, www.sciencedirect.com. Meyer Schapiro, Leonardo and Freud: An Art-Historical Study, Journal of the History of Ideas , Published by University of Pennsylvania Press, Vol. 17, No. 2, 1956, p. List Of Symbols! 147-178.

Molly Thomson ,produced and psychology statements directed movie “Leonardo da Vinci – Renaissance master” produced by master thesis list, History Television Networks, H-TV ©1996. Paul Barolsky, Why Mona Lisa smiles and social essays on other tales by thesis of symbols, Vasari , The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1991, p. 62-65. Slobodan Prvanovic, Mona Lisa – ineffable smile of quantum mechanics , Institute of Physics, Belgrad, Serbia, 25 Febrary 2003. Z.Zareba Filipczak, New Light on statements, Mona Lisa: Leonardo’s Optical Knowledge and His Choice of list, Lighting, The Art Bulletin , Published by College Art Association, Vol. 59, No.

4, Dec. Matthew Arnold! 1997, p. 518- 523. 1 Known also as Gioconda or Joconda ( French ). 4 Florentine notary and landlord. 5 Reading, writing, calculating, geometry, and Latin. 6 Art historian, painter, architect, author of “Lives of 70 the most Eminent painters, sculptors, and architects”, of the Renaissance , first published in master thesis list, 1550. 7 Verrocchio, painter, sculptor ( David ) and metalworker. He had the most important studio in Florence of XV century. Essay On Annual Day Celebration! According to the biographical information in a movie “Leonardo da Vinci – Renaissance master” produced by History Television Networks, H-TV ©1996, produced and directed by Molly Thomson, Verrocchio used Leonardo’s beautiful young body as a model for his famous sculpture of thesis, David . 8 Campagnia de Pittori.

9 Sfumato, charoscuro – modeling trough light and on first of university shadows. 10 Painter and architect (1483-1520), one of the greatest followers of Leonardo da Vinci’s sfumato technique and of symbols composition during the matthew Italian Renaissance. 11 Architecture, philosophy, engineering, armory and fortifications, science and astronomy, geography, biology and landscaping, anatomy, perspective and visual perception, sculpture and metal work, inventions (flying machines and others), aphorisms and writings. 12 Mentioned earlier on the first page note, he wrote his first book 30 years after Leonardo’s death, as he was almost his contemporary, most scholars recognized his information as scientifically reliable. 13 According to Vasari, it was Lisa Gherardini (1479-1551?), wife of Francesco del Giocondo (1460-1539), silk merchant. They were married on 5th of March1495. Leonardo got this commission trough his father’s connections. List Of Symbols! According to statements, the Renaissance custom, couples used to order two separate portraits. Thesis List! In regard to on annual, the statement of Anonimo Gaddiano, Leonardo maid only portrait of Francesco del Giocondo, and Mona Lisa was never delivered. 14 According to master thesis list, different sources, she wasn’t considered as beautiful in social essays on, references to the standards of that epoque, however Leonardo found probably something particular to work on for the rest of his life.

15 Some suggested that Leonardo handed over a copy to Francesco del Giocondo, and kept the original with him. 16 Leonardo was using this kind of smile in the majority of his paintings, however in Mona Lisa’s it’s more pronounced than in others. 17 Lady with Unicorn , painted by Raphael in 1504, is composed in the same way as Mona Lisa . This half turn composition became very common during the master thesis list of symbols Renaissance period, as well as others who followed later. 18 62 copies of amazing personal statements, Mona Lisa exist, including some representing her naked. Master List! The most known are in museums of Rome , Madrid, London, Innsbruck, Monaco, Baltimore, Bourg-en-Bresse and in privet collections, mostly in England . In Portland Museum of Art is on display a painting, which resembles Mona Lisa , the pigment analyses shows that it was done before 1510, looks as it is from the same period as da Vinci’s. Many copies of Mona Lisa exist, but none of social issues on, them from the same period.

The controversial copy of thesis list, Mona Lisa is in Vermont collection, where the sided columns are visible (as it was in the Leonardo’s original before it was cut out); the owners consider the painting as original and value it for $2.5 millions. 19 Later called Clos-Luce. 20 According to how do introduction, the legend, Leonardo died in thesis of symbols, King’s Francis I arms the 2 of May 1519 in Amboise . It might be just legend, because King Francis I was on the 1st of May 1519 in St-Germain en Laye , so he couldn’t come to Amboise on you write, the 2nd of May 1519. 21 King Francis I required the master thesis list painting either from Leonardo himself or after his death from the executor of his will, Melzi. 22 According to Vasari (1550), Lomazzo (1590), and Cassiano del Pozzo (1625). On the inventory list of King Louis XIII, it was the first time named as Mona Lisa . 23 Moved to Versailles by Louis XIV. After the French revolution at essay the end of XVIII century it was placed in Louvre. from thesis, there to the Napoleon’s bedroom, and then again to Louvre, where the painting had been exposed without intermission until 1911. 24 Vincenzo Peruggia, house painter, stole the painting and transported to the Italy, where he was apprehended trying to sell the artwork in Florence. 25 Tourist from Bolivia named Ugo Ungaza Villegaz.

26 The painting was exhibited in New York, Tokyo , and two times in Moscow . 27 The triplex glass was given as a gift after exposition of the how do you write a essay painting in 1974, in Japan . It was a last time when the artwork was moved from Louvre . 28 Projects of flying machines, helicopters, hydroplanes, etc. 29 For his studies of human anatomy he was using the death corps, which he dissected studying different organs. Thesis! He needed to be very cautious about it, because it wasn’t common practice at those times. He was accused for essay on newgrange charlatanry and in 1514 Vatican forbid him to continue his studies on human bodies. Once when he saw in hospital 100 years old man, he spend with him the last moments in master of symbols, order to make an autopsy in order to find out the cause of how do a essay introduction, his death.

That’s when the first time the case of arthrosclerosis was documented. Leonardo also was dissecting animals, insects, and birds for his scientific studies. 30 Which could be read only with the help of a mirror. 31 He is generally recognized as a homosexual or bisexual artist. There is master list of symbols no evidence proving this theory, however his particular interest in how do a essay introduction, studying of man’s bodies, which to him was an master thesis list, ideal structure, as well as living with two male assistants, Andrea Salai (from1490), and Francesco Melzi (from 1506), according to biographers might be truth. Both were living and traveling with Leonardo until his death. There are suppositions that he might have very closer relations with King Francis I. 32 Lisa Gherardini del Gioconda . 33 Freud analyzed Leonardo’s psychoanalytic portrait of his personality based on his famous artworks.

He published his theories on eighty-seven pages in 1910. Since that moment the psychoanalytic polemics started. Short On Newgrange! Many psychoanalysts (Kurt Eissler, Andre Green, Jean-Pierre Maidani-Gerard) and art historians (Meyer Shapiro, Bradley I.Collins, Jr.) published their own commentaries referring to Freud’s arguments. 34 In 1452, the year of Leonardo’s birth, his father Ser Piero married his first wife Albiera. They didn’t have any children, so Ser Piero adopted Leonardo as his own child. List Of Symbols! His father didn’t marry his mother because she was a countrywoman, considered as a low class and not appropriate to issues to write essays, him. 35 Meyer Sschapiro suggests similar possibility in his essay Leonardo and Freud: An Art-Historical Study , from 1956. Published in the Journal of the master of symbols History of Ideas . Also George Boas in The Mona Lisa in the History of Test published in the Journal of the History of Ideas in social issues to write, 1940. 36 Leonardo was paid full amount before starting the portrait. 37 Da Vinci used to list, mark symbolically the identity of portrayed persons, by painting objects in reference to their families emblems, other words, the Coat of Arms. 38 Maike Voght-Luerssen published her theories in the book titled: Who is a essay Mona Lisa?

39Adour KK. -Kaiser Permanente Medical Center, Oakland, CA. 40 Leonid L.Kontsevich and Christopher W.Tyler- Smith-Kettlewell Eye Research Institute, San Francisco , 2002. 41 This theory was presented in 2003 at The American Association for The Advancement of Science, Denver, Colorado. 42 Foveal -direct vision depicting details. Peripheral- exterior vision depicting shadows in low spatial frequencies. 3901 Bannantyne Avenue, Studio 203.

Verdun, Quebec, QC, H4G 1C2. Yet another day at the museum sketching passing by. excellent training. for visual memory.

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Containment - The background of the mr. x essay. Kennan, a member of the first generation of State Department specialists on master thesis list of symbols, the Soviet Union, was born in Milwaukee in 1904 to a well-to-do family, attended Princeton University in the early 1920s, and, perhaps because of his provincialism amid the glitter of the eastern elite, developed the sense of the outsider. A man of essay rarefied intelligence and list of symbols strained sensibility, he was in many ways a latter-day Jamesian character. He was sensitive to the slightest rebuff, to minor breaches in etiquette, but, judging from his memoirs, when he returned to the United States from foreign service overseas in 1937, remained curiously untroubled by the economic depression, with its ravaging poverty, in his own nation. In the diplomatic service, Kennan happily found what he termed #x0022;protective paternalism#x0022; and seemed to delight in on annual of school, the ordered tasks, the requirements of discipline, the thesis list acts of civic responsibility, the applications of intelligence, and the distance from the United States.

When the United States opened diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union in 1933, Kennan became third secretary in Moscow. He later claimed that his four years in Moscow were #x0022;unavoidably a sort of liberal education in the horrors of Stalinism,#x0022; and his hostility to Marxism and the Soviet system grew. They offended his taste, his sensibility, and his values. During those early years in the Soviet Union, he had a zest to understand, to penetrate, and to participate in Russian society. He soon complained to Washington about social essays on, repression in the Soviet Union, stressing, for example in 1937, that #x0022;the great majority of the Soviet citizens who have had #x2026; extensive social or official relations with diplomats during the past few years have now disappeared #x2026; they have been intimidated, arrested, exiled, or executed.#x0022; Such politics, he told Washington in terms that could suggest personal grievance, had destroyed #x0022;any prestige and popularity which foreign envoys might otherwise enjoy in the eyes of the Soviet public.#x0022; Having become a fierce critic of the master list of symbols Soviet system, Kennan deplored America#x0027;s welcoming the Soviet Union in 1941 as an #x0022;associate in defense of democracy,#x0022; for this alliance, he complained, would identify the reflective of university United States with Soviet oppression in Eastern Europe. By 1944, Kennan was already counseling that Soviet-American diplomatic collaboration was impossible. Fearing that the United States lacked #x0022;the political manliness#x0022; to stop the Soviets from carving out a sphere of thesis influence in Eastern and Central Europe, he proposed, in despair, that the essay on newgrange United States might as well divide Germany, partition Europe into spheres, and define #x0022;the line beyond which we cannot afford to permit the Russians to exercise unchallenged power or to take purely unilateral action.#x0022; This was the containment doctrine in embryonic form. In 1944 and 1945, Kennan#x0027;s analysis was unacceptable to many policymakers, including his immediate superior, W. Averell Harriman, the American ambassador to the Soviet Union. Harriman and many American policymakers had often defined American interests in universalist terms to include Eastern Europe, but believed that Soviet-American cooperation was possible#x2014;that the Soviets would withdraw or reduce their influence and accede in thesis list of symbols, this area to free elections. These policymakers concluded that American economic power and atomic prowess might compel the Soviets to on first year accede to master thesis list of symbols American wishes in this border area.

Unlike Kennan, they believed that Soviet policy was alterable, that accommodations could be reached#x2014;on American terms. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, by some historical interpretations, had temporarily acceded to psychology Soviet control in much of Eastern Europe, and thesis confirmed that arrangement at the Yalta Conference of the #x0022;Big Three#x0022; (with Premier Joseph Stalin and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill) in February 1945. But Roosevelt had also hoped to bring the Soviets into a condominium of great powers, to involve the essay on annual day celebration Soviets in the United Nations, and, through a combination of deftness and toughness, to push the Soviets to soften their policy in Eastern Europe. In certain ways, Kennan#x0027;s analysis of the Soviet Union seemed closer to list of symbols that of former President Herbert Hoover. Short! Most notably, Hoover, who had long chafed at the growth of Soviet power in thesis list, Europe, had serious doubts about negotiating with the essay Soviets. In mid-1945, Hoover even recommended, about master thesis list, ten weeks before the August atomic bombings of Japan and Soviet entry into the Pacific war, his own policy of containment. Hoover wanted President Harry S. Truman, who had just succeeded Roosevelt, to greatly soften the on surrender terms for Japan in order to end the war before Soviet entry into the conflict and in order to thesis list of symbols restrain Soviet influence in Asia.

Hoover had even proposed letting Japan retain Formosa and Korea, among other generous terms, in order to end the essay on first year of university war well before the Soviets could gain territorial advantages in Asia. Hoover#x0027;s counsel failed, largely because his proposal#x2014;very soft surrender terms for Japan#x2014; seemed politically unacceptable in America. But neither of the two high-level administration officials he approached#x2014;Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson and President Truman#x2014;seemed opposed, in principle, to Hoover#x0027;s motivating desire to contain Soviet influence and power. These two American leaders, however, knew something important that was kept secret from Hoover and master thesis list the American people#x2014;that President Roosevelt at essay on first of university, Yalta, in return for Stalin#x0027;s promise to enter the Pacific war within three months of Germany#x0027;s surrender, had granted some important territorial concessions in Asia. State Department efforts to master of symbols renege on those territorial terms failed in mid-1945, partly because Soviet armed intervention in the Pacific was still deemed necessary by American leaders in order to speed Japan#x0027;s surrender and reduce U.S. casualties. Practicing his own early form of containment in 1945, President Truman, disliking the fact that the Soviets had an occupation zone in Germany and thus a role in the postwar reconstruction of that nation, acted to bar the Soviets from any role in the postwar occupation and reconstruction of Japan. In mid-August 1945, when Japan surrendered, Stalin hoped speedily to land troops in northern Japan to establish a Soviet presence in Japan, but Truman insisted, successfully, that Stalin back down. The Soviets nevertheless stuck by their mid-August agreement with the essay on annual of school United States on Korea. The Soviets occupied only the northern half of Korea, and southern Korea was unoccupied by Allied forces, until the American troops arrived in September 1945, a few weeks after the Soviets could have taken over the south.

In early 1946, when Stalin publicly warned of future capitalist wars, called for Soviet military strength, and refused to join the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, the thesis of symbols Department of State asked for an analysis of Soviet policy. Short Essay On Newgrange! That request evoked from master thesis list of symbols, Kennan his famous Long Telegram (about 5,500 words) of 22 February 1946, an early statement of his #x0022;X#x0022; essay. #x0022;The more I thought about on first year of university, this [opportunity],#x0022; he later wrote, #x0022;the more it seemed obvious that this was #x0027;it.#x0027; For eighteen months I had done little else but pluck people#x0027;s sleeves, trying to make them understand the master thesis list nature of the phenomenon with which we in the Moscow embassy were daily confronted and a essay which our government and people had to learn to understand if they were to have any chance of coping successfully with the master thesis of symbols problems of the amazing personal world.#x0022; Kennan#x0027;s telegram#x2014;explaining that the Soviet Union was expansionist, malevolent, warlike, and uncompromising#x2014;neatly expressed the emerging conclusions among policymakers in Washington. The response was, Kennan recalls, #x0022;nothing less than sensational.#x0022; It lifted him from the relative obscurity of charg#x00E9; d#x0027;affaires in Moscow, won the affection of Secretary of the master of symbols Navy James Forrestal, brought Kennan a position at the newly created National War College, and gave him fame and amazing psychology statements popularity within the higher echelons of the Truman administration. Kennan had not offered new thoughts or insights, but rather, at a critical juncture, had phrased in telling words the emerging analysis within the administration. According to some revisionist historians, his message arrived shortly after policymakers had moved away from #x0022;liberation#x0022; in Eastern Europe and the hopes of master thesis list of symbols using #x0022;atomic diplomacy#x0022; to roll back Soviet influence there.

The Soviets, while delaying elections in amazing psychology personal, Bulgaria in August 1945, had not yielded further to implied threats. The result was a virtual stalemate in this area. While pledged to thesis universalism, and wanting democratic governments and how do you write a essay an economic open door in Eastern Europe, the United States was not prepared to go to war to achieve its goals there. Two weeks after the Long Telegram, on 5 March 1946, Winston Churchill, now former British prime minister, delivered his Iron Curtain address. The Soviet Union, he asserted, did not want war, only the #x0022;fruits of war and the indefinite expansion of [its] power and doctrines.#x0022; The implication was that the master thesis list Soviet Union was insatiably expansionist and would use subversion and aggression to take over reflective year of university Europe and Asia. Churchill#x0027;s clarion call to the West had the endorsement of President Harry S. Truman, who had read the speech in advance and presumably welcomed it as part of the administration#x0027;s strategy of reorienting the American public for master thesis, a #x0022;get-tough#x0022; policy toward the Soviet Union. That strategy included exploiting the essay on annual day celebration of school dispute in Iran, where the master thesis list of symbols Soviet Union had not yet withdrawn its troops from reflective on first, Azerbaijan, an oil-rich northwestern province once part of master list of symbols czarist Russia#x0027;s sphere of social on influence. In early 1946, the United States pushed this issue into master thesis the United Nations forum and insisted upon keeping the matter there even after the Soviet Union promised in late March to remove its troops in a few weeks.

American success in this venture established for day celebration, many policymakers that firmness could compel the Soviets to withdraw from recently occupied areas beyond Eastern Europe and to accede to American demands. In the summer of 1946, Truman requested an analysis of Soviet policy. Master List! Simplifying Kennan#x0027;s analysis in the Long Telegram, the resulting study (put together by matthew White House assistant George Elsey and endorsed by Truman#x0027;s counsel Clark Clifford) stressed the master thesis list influence of Marxist ideology on Soviet action. The Kremlin leaders, according to that report, #x0022;adhere to the Marxian theory of ultimate destruction [of capitalist states] by short essay on newgrange every means at thesis list of symbols, their disposal.#x0022; Efforts at short essay, accord or mutual understanding would be #x0022;highly dangerous#x0022; for the United States, because concessions would raise Soviet demands. Thesis List Of Symbols! Warning that the Soviet Union might start war to spread communism, the report called for #x0022;resisting [Soviet] efforts to expand into areas vital to American security.#x0022; Among the potential #x0022;trouble spots#x0022; requiring American attention were three in the Far East#x2014;China, which needed a #x0022;unified and economically stable#x0022; system; Japan, which had to be reconstructed and made democratic; and Korea, which should be #x0022;united and independent.#x0022; #x0022;The language of military power is the only language which [the Soviet Union] understands,#x0022; the short essay on newgrange Clifford-Elsey report asserted. Agreeing with the of symbols general tone and analysis of the psychology statements report, which was still in draft form, Kennan urged the addition of a key paragraph, which with minor cosmetic changes ended up in the final report: Whether it would actually be in this country#x0027;s interests to wage atomic and biological warfare against Russia in the event hostilities should develop is master thesis of symbols of course a question which would require careful consideration in the light of circumstances prevailing at the time. This decision might be influenced by a number of factors which can not now be estimated, but it is important that this country be prepared to use them if need be, for short, the mere fact of such preparedness may prove to be the only powerful deterrent to Russian aggressive action and in this sense the thesis list of symbols only sure guaranty of essay on annual peace. By late summer 1946, the Soviet Union#x0027;s refusal to endorse the American plan for international control of atomic energy confirmed to policymakers that the Soviets were deceitful, suspicious, and uncompromising.

How, Americans asked sincerely, could the Truman administration#x0027;s offer, which they incorrectly deemed magnanimous, be rejected? Concessions were impossible. Compromise would not work. Kennan privately suggested that the United States use implicit #x0022;atomic diplomacy#x0022; to force the Soviets to accept the U.S. plan. Master! He proposed, in the words of an associate, tactics #x0022;designed to convince the amazing psychology personal statements Russians of our serious intent and thesis of the consequences if they chose to continue their present course.#x0022; His proposal included the public announcement of #x0022;the construction of psychology a new bomb-proof General Staff headquarters in a remote region#x0022;#x2014;a possible preliminary to war. It is unclear whether or not Kennan in 1946 was mulling over the possibility of preventive war by the United States. He had given some thought to the prospects of actual war, and how it should be fought, if it occurred. Meeting during the summer with General Carl Spaatz, the master of symbols chief of staff of the air force, Kennan said that the war, in the summary words of a minutes-taker#x0027;s notes, should be #x0022;conducted by psychology personal statements the U.S. [as] an air war in the strictest sense of the term.#x0022; According to Kennan, there were only thesis, #x0022;about ten vital points#x0022; in the Soviet Union to be bombed in order to cripple the Soviet Union and force its speedy defeat. They were not primarily cities but production areas and railroads.

He saw no need to try to invade and occupy the USSR after such air attacks, and anticipated a revolution in which #x0022;the Bolshevik regime would crack.#x0022; In mid-1946, when Kennan met with Spaatz, the how do you write United States only possessed about five or eight A-bombs, though Kennan, like many American officials, was not allowed to know the top-secret number. Thus, his sketch of a bombing attack on the Soviet Union may have implied nuclear weapons or conventional weapons, or, most likely, a combination of both kinds of bombs. He may not have known that his thinking about virtually a push-button war was markedly at odds with the emerging secret American military planning at the time in which there was usually an assumption that war, if it came, would involve a long, costly conflict between armies on the European continent. According to those plans, the bomb could be helpful, but not decisive.

Amid the growing East-West tension, with his own expanding reputation as a prescient Soviet expert, Kennan found additional opportunities to master list refine and advance his views in Washington and in other influential quarters. In January 1947, Secretary Forrestal, Kennan#x0027;s benefactor, asked him to comment on a manuscript on amazing personal, Soviet policy, and Kennan went beyond the assignment to present on 31 January his own lengthy interpretation. His paper for Forrestal#x2014;based on an early January speech before the master list Council on Foreign Relations in New York#x2014;became the short #x0022;X#x0022; essay. It was speedily cleared by the State Department, because Kennan#x0027;s thoughts were compatible with emerging American policy. Upon publication of the essay, he became the recognized philosopher-diplomat of containment.

He had synthesized the thesis emerging wisdom and essay day celebration dignified it within an master acceptable intellectual framework.

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Activity diagrams: What they are and list of symbols how to use them. Published on reflective on first year, April 22, 2004. In its basic form, an activity diagram is thesis of symbols a simple and intuitive illustration of what happens in a workflow, what activities can be done in essay day celebration parallel, and whether there are alternative paths through the workflow. Activity diagrams as defined in thesis list the Unified Modeling Language 1 are derived from various techniques to visually illustrate workflows; see, for example, Johansson et al. 2 . And much of the basis for the definition of the activity diagram notation is found in Martin and Odell.

3 . In the Rational Unified Process 4 , we talk about how you can use activity diagrams to visualize the workflow of short on newgrange a business use case. Thesis List Of Symbols. A complete workflow description will have a basic flow, and one or several alternative flows. Essay On First. This workflow has a structure that we can define textually, using informal if, if-then-else, or do-until statements of various kinds. For a simple workflow with a simple structure, such textual definitions may be quite sufficient, but in the case of more complex structures, activity diagrams help to clarify and make more apparent what the workflow is. Historically, activity diagramming techniques have mostly been used in the business process modeling domain, but this article will also briefly discuss how you can use it in master thesis of symbols the system modeling domain. The purpose of this article is to how do a essay show how you can use activity diagrams within the Rational Unified Process for business modeling as well as system modeling. Activity diagrams are often mentioned almost as a synonym to business modeling. For a more complete introduction to what business modeling is master list of symbols we refer to Kruchten, 5 and for details to Jacobson et al. 6 . The reader of this article is assumed to be familiar with the basics of the Unified Modeling Language (UML). As is common for essay on annual, most notations, the master of symbols activity diagram notation has some elements that are necessary for you to understand if you want to be conversant about activity diagrams.

Those elements are presented in this section. Short Essay On Newgrange. The next section talks about additional goodies you may find useful. Figure 1 shows a basic activity diagram. Figure 1: An Activity Diagram for the Business Use Case Individual Check-In in list the Business Use-Case Model of Airport Check-in. Click to enlarge. Consistently deliver high-quality software faster using DevOps services on IBM Bluemix. Sign up for a free Bluemix cloud trial, and get started. Activity states , which represent the performance of a step within the workflow. Transitions that show what activity state follows after another. This type of transition can be referred to essay on first year of university as a completion transition. It differs from master thesis list of symbols, a transition in that it does not require an explicit trigger event; it is triggered by the completion of the issues on activity that the activity state represents.

Decisions for which a set of guard conditions are defined. These guard conditions control which transition of a set of thesis of symbols alternative transitions follows once the activity has been completed. You may also use the decision icon to show where the threads merge again. Decisions and guard conditions allow you to personal show alternative threads in the workflow of a business use case. Synchronization bars , which you can use to show parallel subflows. Synchronization bars allow you to master thesis list of symbols show concurrent threads in the workflow of a business use case. In more complex examples, you would often make use of the following constructs: Conditional threads Nested activity diagrams Partitions. Guard conditions can be used to show that one of a set of concurrent threads is to write on conditional. For example, in thesis the individual check-in example from Figure 2, the passenger checking in might be a frequent flyer member.

In that case, you need to award the passenger frequent flyer miles. Figure 2: Awarding Frequent Flyer Miles: a Conditional Thread in the Individual Check-In Workflow. On First Year. Click to thesis list enlarge. An activity state may reference another activity diagram, which shows the internal structure of the activity state. Essay On Annual. Another way to say this is that you can have nested activity graphs. You can either show the master of symbols sub-graph inside of the activity state (Figure 3), or let the activity state refer to another diagram (Figure 4). Figure 3: A Nested Activity Graph Shown Within an Activity State. Click to enlarge. Figure 4: Alternative: Put the Sub-Graph in a Separate Diagram and Let the Activity State Refer to issues It.

Click to enlarge. Showing the sub-graph inside the activity state is convenient if you want to list of symbols see all details of the workflow in amazing personal the same diagram. But if there is any level of complexity presented in thesis list of symbols the workflow, this can make the diagram hard to read. To simplify the workflow graph, you may instead choose to put the sub-graph in a separate diagram, and let the short on newgrange activity state sub-graph details refer to that diagram. The contents of an activity diagram may be organized into partitions (swimlanes) using solid vertical lines. A partition does not have a formal semantic interpretation, but is, in business modeling, often used to represent an organizational unit of some kind (Figure 5).

Figure 5: An Activity Diagram Illustrating the Workflow of of symbols a Business Use Case that Represents a (Generic) Sales Process. In this example, the partitions represent departments in the organization. Click to enlarge. Background: A business use-case model describes the social essays on processes of a business and their interactions with external parties like customers and partners. The processes of the business are represented as business use cases, and the external parties are represented as business actors. Describing a business use case includes, among other things, giving it a name, a brief description, defining its performance goals, and its workflow.

The most time-important and time-consuming aspect to describe is the workflow. Which comes first, the activity diagram or the textual description of the thesis list of symbols workflow? This is amazing psychology personal statements somewhat dependent on how you are used to working, and whether you think graphically or not. Master Thesis List Of Symbols. Some prefer to outline the structure visually in a diagram first, and then develop the details in the text. Short Essay. Others start with a bulleted list of the activity states first, and agree on those (like a step-by-step outline to the use case), then define the structure using a diagram. A valid question is also whether you really need both the textual document and of symbols the diagram.

The activity diagram technique allows you to write brief descriptions of each activity state, which should make the textual specification of the workflow obsolete. Here, you need to on annual day celebration of school be sensitive to list of symbols your audience and the format in which they expect the essay on annual specification. To understand what an activity diagram adds to the understanding of a workflow, we present a sample workflow description, and then an activity diagram for that workflow (Figure 6). This example is a proposal process, taken from an master list of symbols organization that sells telecom network solutions, individually configured to each customer. We have simplified the example by of university removing the detailed text in most of the subsections, but tried to keep enough so you can understand the structure of the workflow. The full text of this example can be found in The Rational Unified Process, version 5.1.1. Figure 6: An Activity Diagram for the Business Use Case Proposal Process. Click to enlarge. Sample Basic Workflow for the Business Use Case Proposal Process (Figure 6)* This process starts with an initial contact between the customer and the company.

This may happen in one of the following ways: 1.2. Initial Opportunity Work. 1.2.1 Gather Preliminary Customer Requirements. 1.2.2 Create Sales Plan (optional) 1.2.3 Perform Opportunity Analysis. 1.3. Create Proposal Project Plan. Thesis Of Symbols. 1.4. How Do You Write Introduction. Create Delivery Project Plan.

1.6. Compile Additional Information. 1.7. Analyze and Finalize the Proposal. 1.9. Obtain Customer Decision. 2.1 Business Opportunity Rejected. If, in 1.2., it turns out the business opportunity is rejected, the following actions may be taken: 2.2 Unable to Meet Customer Requirements. Thesis List. If, in Perform Opportunity Analysis or Prepare a Quote, the company is unable to suggest a solution to the customer requirements, then the following actions may happen: 2.3 Critical Information Not Known.

If at any point in you write the Proposal Process the company identifies some critical information not known or available then it does one of the following: 2.4. New/Incomplete or Incorrect General Customer Profile. If the company determines that the general customer profile is inaccurate for some reason, the master following actions may be taken. *(See the Rational Unified Process, v.5.1.1, for more detail.) An activity diagram for the workflow is shown in Figure 6. Social Issues To Write Essays On. We use basic notation only in this diagram. Activity states correspond to sections in the workflow description: The activity state Initial opportunity work consists of three sub-steps that can be done in parallel. Thesis Of Symbols. This is illustrated in a sub-graph to this activity state. See Figure 7. Figure 7: Sub-Diagram to the Activity State 'Initial Opportunity Work.' Creating a sales plan is optional, which is of school indicated by a guard condition on the incoming transition.

Click to enlarge. An activity state can represent a fairly large procedure (with substructure), as well as something relatively small. If you are using activity diagrams to define the master of symbols structure of a workflow, you should not attempt to explore several levels of activity graphs down to their most atomic level. This will most probably make the diagram (or set of diagrams, if you are using separate sub-graphs) very hard to interpret. You should aim at having one diagram that outlines the whole workflow, where a few of the psychology statements activity states have sub-graphs. Documenting Business Use-Case Realizations. Background: A business use-case realization describes how a particular business use case is realized within the business object model, in terms of collaborating business workers and business entities. A business worker represents a set of thesis of symbols responsibilities typically carried by one individual. A business entity represents a thing that is created, managed, or used. The realization of a business use case can be described textually, but is more commonly explained with diagrams -- collaboration diagrams, sequence diagrams, activity diagrams, or a combination.

Which diagram type you choose depends on the complexity of the workflow and where you are in the process. You are using the activity diagram to document business use-case realizations, rather than business use cases, if you are using partitions and essay on annual day celebration the partitions are coupled to classes (business workers mainly) in the business object model (Figure 8). Compared to a sequence diagram, which could be perceived to have a similar purpose, an activity diagram with partitions focuses on how you divide responsibilities onto classes, while the sequence diagram helps you understand how objects interact and in what sequence. Activity diagrams give focus to master thesis list the workflow, while sequence diagrams give focus to the handling of business entities. Activity diagrams and amazing psychology personal sequence diagrams could be used as complementary techniques, where a sequence diagram shows what happens in an activity state.

Figure 8: The Same Workflow Presented in Figure 6, But with Activities Organized in Partitions. Click to enlarge. Background: The use-case model is a model of a system's intended behaviors. A use case tells the story of how a user (represented as an actor in the model) can use the system to thesis of symbols achieve a particular purpose. Describing a use case includes giving it a name, a brief description, and defining the essay day celebration of school flow of events of the use case. Just as you would use an activity diagram to master list show the structure of a workflow, you could also use it to show the structure of a flow of events of a system use case (Figure 9). How Do. Figure 9: A Simplified Activity Diagram for the Use Case Withdraw Money in the Use-Case Model of an master of symbols Automated Teller Machine (ATM) Click to enlarge. Amazing Personal. In the first stages of identifying objects and classes based on the use cases (use-case analysis), activity diagrams can be useful when exploring responsibilities of analysis classes.

You might use the thesis of symbols activity diagram technique to draw a first sketch of class responsibilities, a sketch that you then throw away. This article has given you an social issues on overview of: Basic and advanced elements of the thesis list activity diagram notation. Basic elements of activity diagrams are activity states, transitions, decisions, and synchronization bars. How activity diagrams allow you to show concurrent threads, and matthew alternative threads, as well as conditional threads in a workflow. How you can use activity diagrams in business modeling. You can illustrate the workflow of a business use case. You can describe how a business use case is realized by business workers and business entities. List Of Symbols. How you can use activity diagrams in system modeling.

You can illustrate the flow of events of a use case. You can define how a use case is realized by analysis classes. Social Issues To Write On. 1. Thesis. OMG UML Specification. 2. H. Essay. Johansson, P. Thesis Of Symbols. McHugh, J. Pendlebury, and W. Wheeler, III, Business Process Reengineering. Breakpoint Strategies for Market Dominance . John Wiley and Sons, 1993. How Do. 3. J. Thesis. Martin and J. Odell, Object Oriented Methods: a Foundation, the you write introduction UML Edition . Prentice Hall, 1996. 4. Rational Unified Process , version 5.1.1. 5. Philippe Kruchten, The Rational Unified Process: An Introduction . Master Thesis Of Symbols. Addison-Wesley, 1998.

6. Ivar Jacobson, Maria Ericsson, and Agneta Jacobson, The Object Advantage: Business Process Reengineering with Object Technology . Addison-Wesley, 1994. *NOTE: This article was originally published on Rational Developer Network, the learning and essay day celebration support channel for the Rational customer community. Rational Developer Network is now available to all Rational customers. Sign in or register to of symbols add and subscribe to comments.

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Master s thesis guide - Oulun yliopisto

Ein Beitrag zur Optimierung der Informationslogistik im Ersatzteilwesen der Automobilindustrie. 1 DISSERTATION Ein Beitrag zur Optimierung der Informationslogistik im Ersatzteilwesen der Automobilindustrie Vom Fachbereich Maschinenbau und Verfahrenstechnik der Technischen Universität Kaiserslautern zur Verleihung des akademischen Grades Doktor-Ingenieur (Dr.-Ing.) genehmigte Dissertation vorgelegt von Diplom-Wirtschaftsingenieur Ingo Dittrich aus Karlsruhe Tag der mündlichen Prüfung: 15. Master Thesis List. August 2008 Dekan: Prof. Year Of University. Dr.-Ing. Siegfried Ripperger Promotionskommission: Vorsitzender: Prof. Dr.-Ing.

Christian Schindler 1. Berichterstatter: Prof. Dr.-Ing. Detlef Zühlke 2. Thesis List Of Symbols. Berichterstatter: Prof. How Do. Dr.-Ing. Of Symbols. Ludwig Leurs D386. 3 Vorwort Vorwort Die Informationslogistik als die richtige Information zur richtigen Zeit am richtigen Ort ist heutzutage im Ersatzteilwesen der Automobilindustrie nicht ideal ausgeführt. Redundante Informationen wie auch historisch gewachsene, heute nicht mehr benötigte Informationen stehen fehlenden Informationen gegenüber. Amazing Personal Statements. Medienbrüche führen zu Fehlern und hohem Aufwand. Master List. Auf der anderen Seite stellt das Ersatzteilwesen der Automobilindustrie aus Sicht der Information ein komplexes Umfeld dar. Essay On Annual Day Celebration Of School. Vor diesem Hintergrund wird in der vorliegenden Dissertation ein Vorgehensmodell entwickelt, mit dem strukturiert ein Grobkonzept für eine optimierte Informationslogistik erstellt werden kann. Die Arbeitsschritte sind an die Konstruktionsmethodik im Maschinenbau angelehnt.

Das Vorgehensmodell ist dabei nicht auf spezielle Informationstechnologien wie beispielsweise die aktuell vielfach diskutierte Radiofrequenzidentifikation (RFID) festgelegt. Das Ergebnis des Vorgehensmodells ist ein Grobkonzept, welches den Informationen in ihrem Lebenszyklus optimiert Technologie und Speicherort in master thesis of symbols Bezug zu den Prozessen zuweist. Matthew. Gleichzeitig werden wichtige Eigenschaften der Technologien wie z.b. Master Thesis List. die benötigte Speichergröße definiert. Essay Year. Das so erarbeitete Grobkonzept stellt eine fundierte Grundlage für die anschließende Feinplanung der Informationslogistik dar. Die vorliegende Arbeit entstand parallel zu meiner Tätigkeit bei der Robert Bosch GmbH in Karlsruhe als externe Dissertation am Lehrstuhl für Produktionsautomatisierung (pak) des Fachbereichs Maschinenbau und Verfahrenstechnik der Technischen Universität Kaiserslautern. Besonders danke ich Herrn Prof. Dr.-Ing. Master List. Detlef Zühlke für das mir entgegengebrachte Vertrauen, die sehr gute fachliche Betreuung und die vielen kritischen und konstruktiven Impulse.

Frau Isabel Rheinheimer gebührt ein ganz herzlicher Dank für die immer sehr nette und ausführliche Hilfe bei organisatorischen Fragen. Besonderer Dank gebührt auch Herrn Dr. Welf Schneider, der mir über die gesamte Zeit bei der Robert Bosch GmbH als Mentor immer und jederzeit für alle allgemeinen Sorgen, die bei einer Dissertation entstehen, äußerst kompetent zur Seite stand. Ebenfalls bedanke ich mich bei Herrn Prof. Dr.-Ing.

Ludwig Leurs für die Übernahme des Zweitgutachtens und bei Herrn Prof. Dr.-Ing. Christian Schindler für die Übernahme des Vorsitzes der Prüfungskommission sowie Beiden für das meiner Arbeit entgegen gebrachte Interesse. Reflective Essay On First Of University. Für die Unterstützung bezüglich Ermöglichung und Begleitung dieser Arbeit bei der Robert Bosch GmbH danke ich Frauke Kottsieper, Michael Kaufhold, Ralf Hirsch, Tobias Schmider sowie speziell den Herren Werner Schwentuchowski und Franz Schöffberger. Dem Unternehmen Inform, Aachen, danke ich für die Bereitstellung der Software FuzzyTech für Forschungszwecke im Rahmen dieser Arbeit. Master List Of Symbols. Dr. Social Issues To Write. Jochen Baier und Dr. Master List. Alexander Rausch habe ich vor allem einen guten Start in you write introduction die Spezifika des wissenschaftlichen Arbeitens zu verdanken. Ein Beitrag zur Optimierung der Informationslogistik im Ersatzteilwesen der Automobilindustrie.

4 Dr. Of Symbols. Ingo Nowitzky, André Lück, Wolfgang Harttmann und Harouna Mohamadou danke ich für die sehr gute und auch für diese Arbeit sehr hilfreiche Teamarbeit bei der Robert Bosch GmbH. Dr. Thomas Harms danke ich zusätzlich für die Durchsicht des Manuskripts. Dr. Alexander Böttcher, Dr. Matthew Arnold. Eric Pohlmann, Marion und Dr. Master. Sebastian Rissom, Simone Reinecker und Dr.

Roland Weber haben mich durch ihre Bereitschaft zu zahlreichen Diskussionen unterstützt. Christian Brunsch danke ich darüber hinaus für die unermüdliche und sehr hilfreiche Versorgung mit Artikeln über RFID, ohne die ich in der Fülle der Literatur so manche wichtige Randnotiz übersehen hätte, sowie Edith Morgner für ihre Unterstützung insbesondere in arnold essaya den letzten Zügen dieser Arbeit. Master Thesis List. Diese Arbeit widme ich meinen Eltern Waltraud und Horst Dittrich, die meine gesamte Ausbildung stets gefördert und durch gute Hinweise und Zuspruch auch diese Arbeit voll unterstützt haben. Karlsruhe, im August 2008 Ingo Dittrich ii Dissertation. 5 Abstract Abstract In discussions about problems and reflective on first of university, solutions of information logistics recently radio frequency identification (RFID) is more and master thesis, more often focused on. Psychology Personal Statements. Even for the European Commission RFID is list a topic. On Annual Day Celebration. Research and master list of symbols, Development on social to write essays, this technology are promoted worldwide which encourages a widespread discussion of master thesis of symbols RFID in the public. Reflective Essay. Frequently asked questions concerning information logistics are recently: Which advantages can be achieved by a company using RFID?

What are possible issues for the usage of RFID? May new business fields be gained by RFID? May urgent problems like product counterfeiting and tracking be solved by thesis list RFID? It is often not asked which technology to apply but only how to use RFID. The discussion lead to a so called hype which let other technologies fade away in the awareness of projects on information logistics. Many articles emphasized the impression that RFID is essaya a general solution of all problems. In recent publications the master list of symbols discussion changes and how do you write introduction, RFID is list of symbols levelled at the other technologies like 1D-/2D-code with special advantages and reflective on first year of university, disadvantages (e.g. Master. [Wöh06], [VDI06], [Wei07]). The project teams are again in reflective on first of university charge to find the of symbols best technology for a special case. Essaya. Efficiency is more and more important for a successful company. Thesis List. Therefore production is to be optimized as well as the material and information flow.

Especially correct information at the right place on time the so called information logistics is increasingly important to companies. When optimizing information logistics it is important not to how do you write a essay, reduce the view on master thesis, only one company. Only an personal statements, optimized structure between the companies regarding the whole information structure in the supply chain network leads to list, efficient overall processes. This is a very complex task and for a essay introduction, project members it is master thesis list hard to short on newgrange, keep an overview whether possible solutions meet all requirements and an efficient overall solution. Therefore a method is necessary to master thesis list, efficiently support users in this task. Information logistics nowadays is not ideally designed in reflective essay year of university the aftermarket sector of list of symbols automotive industry. On one hand information is social issues essays on redundant on master thesis list, different labels. Some information is supplied because of on annual day celebration of school historical reasons without any usage. List. On the on annual day celebration other hand information is missing. Of Symbols. Media disruption leads to mistakes and short on newgrange, high workload. Automotive aftermarket is of symbols a complex structure.

Examples are the very heterogeneous article structure, quick response to introduction, customer`s needs and also long-time storage after end of of symbols production. Essay On Newgrange. On this background a procedure model is developed in thesis list of symbols this doctoral thesis. Its aim is to how do you write a essay, support a structured approach to master of symbols, design a rough concept for an optimized information logistics in the automotive aftermarket. Arnold Essaya. Especially in list of symbols the early phases of the development here: information logistics costs and reflective year, efficiency of the solution are strongly affected. In later phases changes are more expensive and more difficult to master of symbols, handle. Moreover in essay on first year of university this phase the Ein Beitrag zur Optimierung der Informationslogistik im Ersatzteilwesen der Automobilindustrie i. 6 project team is the list least limited to special solutions. Therefore this thesis concentrates on issues on, this early phase of thesis list of symbols construction. It is important not to social to write essays on, reduce the thesis choice of reflective essay on first year of university possible solutions to only one or a few technologies. Of Symbols. This issue is necessary to overcome the essay disadvantage of of symbols former procedure models which often emphasize one technology.

Especially in a complex surrounding it is necessary to have a clear rule-based and efficient structure of how to find and to compare solutions. The process model is short essay based on thesis list, the methodology of Mechanical Engineering. First step is a structured collection of needs and requests for amazing statements, the project. List. It is necessary to distinguish for which part of the supply chain the information logistics is to matthew essaya, be designed. Restrictions and thesis of symbols, requests of the reflective of university parties should be listed, e.g. concerning characteristics of the information technologies, used information and further issues like cryptography. The next step is to elaborate a process and an information model. Master List. The process model describes all processes which need, change or supply information within the short system. Master Thesis List Of Symbols. It is described in process modules. With these modules process steps occurring several times in a process structure can be designed once which increases the on newgrange efficiency of the procedure model. The information model shows an master list of symbols, ideal information structure from the to write on parties` point of master thesis list view independent from the issues current situation. Source and point of thesis use are clearly shown in the information model.

A central aspect of the model is the essay on annual of school use of master thesis of symbols operating principles with which in Mechanical Engineering possible solutions of general tasks are shown as an short essay on newgrange, abstract description or picture. Thesis Of Symbols. They are compiled in to write essays on a catalogue. Master Thesis List. A solution once found can be compiled in an abstract manner and used in different further project. This helps to prevent users from double inventing solutions. Moreover the issues essays whole solution structure of a project can easily be described by thesis of symbols simply using the amazing psychology personal names of the single operating principles. Economical aspects of list of symbols a solution structure can also easily be calculated by of school the use of thesis of symbols operating principles. As a single operating principle is clearly defined by reflective essay of university the used technologies and thesis list, necessary manual steps costs of using the matthew arnold essaya principle can automatically be calculated.

To support the master user of the amazing personal model in master list choosing a suitable operating principle a decision tree was designed using criteria of matthew Technology Assessment according to [VDI3780] and thesis of symbols, important aspects of automotive aftermarket. Moreover the how do you write a essay guideline of Toyota Production System is master thesis of symbols considered as a philosophy currently very important for short, the automotive industry. List. The calculation of an overall appraisal of all aspects in done with Fuzzy Logic. Fuzzy Logic seems to be suitable for this task as it is designed to essay day celebration, combine qualitative and master of symbols, quantitative as well as contradictory issues. To work out amazing personal statements, a final solution for master thesis, the whole system a software tool is developed in this thesis. It is to write essays shown in a prototype version. It helps the user to master of symbols, design an optimized information logistics structure process step by process step while keeping an easy overview upon psychology statements, the whole system and the efficiency of the whole solution. Master. The result of the short model is thesis list a rough concept which combines the year of university idealized information structure with information technologies and thesis of symbols, storage level (e.g. packaging) within the process structure. Amazing Psychology. In addition to thesis list of symbols, this the on annual day celebration of school storage size of the technologies used and further characteristics like cryptography are defined. Master Of Symbols. ii Dissertation. 7 Abstract This rough concept is matthew arnold essaya a basis for the detailed concept of information logistics. List. The detailed concept contains specific decisions on short essay, the suppliers of the master list technology and essay on annual of school, its fitting.

It may be the master thesis of symbols task of further research. The thesis is divided into seven chapters. Chapter 2 describes general issues needed for statements, the procedure model: Information, information logistics and main characteristics of master list all information technologies mentioned in matthew the thesis are defined. Master Thesis List Of Symbols. Some former developed procedure models are shown and essay year of university, evaluated. Thesis List Of Symbols. Chapter 3 completes the description of basic knowledge used here by relevant issues of how do a essay introduction automotive aftermarket and Toyota Production System. Master Thesis. In chapter 4 the essay on annual day celebration task of this thesis and the detailed method to thesis list, achieve the matthew target are described. Thesis. Chapters 5 and matthew essaya, 6 represent the central part of the master list thesis. How Do Introduction. The procedure model for designing an optimized structure of thesis of symbols information logistics in how do you write a essay automotive aftermarket is developed and a software tool is established. Master Of Symbols. After the development of the how do you write a essay introduction procedure model in list theory it was tested in a real project.

This project is reflective year of university presented in chapter 7. Conclusions are drawn concerning the usage of the of symbols model developed. Finally a summary of the issues to write thesis and thesis list of symbols, an outlook on essay, possible further examination is done. List. Ein Beitrag zur Optimierung der Informationslogistik im Ersatzteilwesen der Automobilindustrie iii. 8 iv Dissertation. 9 Einleitung Inhalt 1 Einleitung Information und deren Gestaltung in reflective essay on first year der Wertschöpfungs- und Nutzungskette Definitionen von Daten, Information, Wissen sowie Informationslogistik Systematik und Grundlagen der betrachteten Informationstechnologien Systematik der Informationstechnologien allgemein; Eingrenzung auf hiesige Betrachtung Betrachtete Informationstechnologien Schnittstellen und Medienbruch Vorhandene Ansätze der Informationsflussgestaltung Begriffe und Eigenheiten des Ersatzteilwesens der Automobilindustrie Definition und Abgrenzung allgemeiner Begriffe Definition und Abgrenzung relevanter Begriffe im Ersatzteilwesen der Automobilindustrie Randbedingungen des Ersatzteilwesens der Automobilindustrie für die Informationslogistik Überblick zu aktuellem Stand der Informationstechnologie im Ersatzteilwesen der Automobilindustrie Toyota-Produktions-System als aktuelle Leitlinie der Automobilindustrie Problemstellung, Zielsetzung und Vorgehensweise Problemstellung Zielsetzung und Aufgabenstellung Vorgehensweise Vorgehensmodell zur Grobkonzeption einer optimierten Informationslogistik Definition Modellanforderungen Analogiebildung Konstruktionsmethodik Maschinenbau. 44 Ein Beitrag zur Optimierung der Informationslogistik im Ersatzteilwesen der Automobilindustrie I. 10 Einleitung 5.3 Transfer der Prinzipien aus Informationslogistik; Überblicksdarstellung Vorgehensmodell Allgemein: Lösungssammlung als Grundlage der Informationsflussgestaltung Schritt a: Grundlegende Aufgabenstellung Schritt b: Festlegung der zu betrachtenden Prozesse und deren Granularität Schritt c: Analyse der Anforderungen und Informationsbedarf Erstellung eines schlanken Informationsmodells Matrixbetrachtung, horizontale und vertikale Passung Schritt d: Kategorisierung der zu betrachtenden Produkte in master thesis list of symbols Produktgruppen Schritt e: Erstellung Wirkstruktur mit unterstützender Bewertung Grundlegendes Vorgehen bei der Bewertung Fuzzy-Logik Definition und Einordnung der Bewertungskriterien Schritt f: Erweiterungsmöglichkeit der wirtschaftlichen Bewertung mithilfe von Wirkprinzipien Hardware- und Softwarekosten Handhabungskosten Wegezeiten Schritt g: Zusammenfassung der Kategorisierung Softwarearchitektur zur Grobkonzeption einer optimalen Informationslogistik Überblicksdarstellung Softwarearchitektur Fuzzy-Werkzeug Instrument zur ganzheitlichen Konzeptplanung Grundeinstellungen Arbeitsebene Ergebnisaggregation/-darstellung Evaluierung des Vorgehensmodells anhand einer Beispielanwendung Schritt a: Definition der Aufgabenstellung Allgemein: Einschränkung betrachteter Wirkprinzipien aus II Dissertation. 11 Einleitung Lösungssammlung Schritt b: Festlegung der zu betrachtenden Prozesse und deren Granularität Die reale Wertschöpfungs- und Nutzungskette des betrachteten Produktes Modellierung der Wertschöpfungs- und Nutzungskette unter Festlegung der Granularität Schritt c: Analyse der Anforderungen und Informationsbedarf Schritt d: Kategorisierung betrachtete Produkte in social issues on Produktgruppen Schritt e: Erstellung Wirkstruktur mit unterstützender Bewertung Allgemeines zur Anwendung des Bewertungswerkzeuges im Ersatzteilwesen der Automobilindustrie Bewertungswerkzeug - Organisation Bewertungswerkzeug - Durchführung Ergebnisse und Erkenntnisse aus der Anwendung des Bewertungswerkzeuges im Anwendungsbeispiel Erstellung der Wirkstruktur - Organisation Erstellung der Wirkstruktur - Durchführung Ergebnisse und Erkenntnisse aus der Erstellung der Wirkstruktur im Anwendungsbeispiel Schritt f: Wirtschaftliche Bewertung mithilfe von Wirkprinzipien Schritt g: Zusammenfassung der Kategorien Erkenntnisse und Ergebnisse zum Vorgehensmodell; Handlungsempfehlungen Zusammenfassung und Ausblick Literaturverzeichnis Monografien und Artikel Webseiten Normen und Richtlinien Abkürzungsverzeichnis Ein Beitrag zur Optimierung der Informationslogistik im Ersatzteilwesen der Automobilindustrie III. 12 Einleitung Anhang A Lösungssammlung und Bewertungsbaum A.1 Lösungssammlung A.2 Bewertungsbaum mit projektspezifischer Gewichtung A.3 Linguistische Variable im Bewertungsbaum Lebenslauf IV Dissertation.

13 Einleitung 1 Einleitung Die Funkfrequenzkennzeichnung (RFID) ( ) verspricht in thesis Europa einen ganz beträchtlichen wirtschaftlichen und gesellschaftlichen Nutzen [Kom06] Bei Diskussionen und Überlegungen zu Lösungen und Problemen in der Informationslogistik steht in jüngster Zeit meistens die Radiofrequenzidentifikation (RFID) im Mittelpunkt. Wie das oben genannte Zitat zeigt, befasst sich auch die Europäische Kommission mit dem Thema. Essay On Annual. Forschung und Entwicklung dieser Technologie wird national und international gefördert, wodurch diese eine breit angelegte Diskussion in der Öffentlichkeit erfährt. RFID ist damit nicht mehr nur ein Thema unter Spezialisten. Of Symbols. Die Thematik befasst sich im Wesentlichen mit den Fragen: Welche Vorteile kann RFID einem Unternehmen in psychology statements den bestehenden Geschäftsfeldern bringen? Welche Einsatzmöglichkeiten bieten sich? Können sogar Potentiale durch neue Geschäftsfelder gehoben werden? Können dringende Probleme wie beispielsweise Produktfälschung und Rückverfolgbarkeit mit RFID gelöst werden? Durch die Diskussion entstand ein regelrechter Hype um RFID, der andere Technologien nahezu in master list of symbols ein Abseits drängt. Short Essay. Viele Darstellungen erwecken den Eindruck, RFID sei die Lösung für alles und würde die bestehenden Technologien verdrängen. Doch bleibt die Frage, ob durch diese Diskussionen RFID nicht eine gewisse Überbewertung erfährt und bestehende Technologien in der Psychologie des Planers der Informationslogistik ungerechtfertigt weniger Beachtung finden und damit das Stigma des Überholten bekommen.

Neueste Veröffentlichungen führen die Fachwelt diesbezüglich auf eine nüchterne Betrachtung zurück und erinnern daran, dass RFID eine von vielen Identifikationstechnologien mit Vor- und Nachteilen ist, die es anwendungsbezogen abzuwägen gilt (vgl. Of Symbols. beispielsweise [Wöh06], [VDI06], [Wei07]). On Annual Day Celebration. Deutlich wird dies besonders durch [Det05] formuliert, der die RFID-Begeisterung dann für fragwürdig hält, wenn gar nicht mehr darüber nachgedacht wird, ob die Technik in der konkreten Anwendung überhaupt sinnvoll ist, wenn sich das `Ob` auf ein `Wann` reduziert. Master Thesis List Of Symbols. Die zunehmende Bedeutung der Produktivität und der Wirtschaftlichkeit im Unternehmen erfordert möglichst optimale Produktions- und Fertigungsschritte und eine abgestimmte, leistungsfähige Logistik. Der Zielerreichungsgrad dafür steigt unter anderem mit der Verfügbarkeit und der Qualität der im Unternehmen benötigten Information [Kuh92]. Short Essay On Newgrange. Gründe hierfür sind unter anderem der steigende immaterielle Wertschöpfungsanteil im Bereich der industriellen Produktion [Kli03]. Damit ist der Informationslogistik eine gewichtige Bedeutung im Unternehmen zuzurechnen.

Bis in die 50er Jahre wurde die Organisation der Informationen noch vielfach autark in list of symbols Teilbereichen der Unternehmen durchgeführt. How Do Introduction. Die Ablage von Informationen in schriftlicher Form (Karteikästen, Aktenordner) und im Gedankengut war weit verbreitet. Dadurch war ein übergreifender Überblick über den Informationsbestand unmöglich und Redundanz eine täg- Ein Beitrag zur Optimierung der Informationslogistik im Ersatzteilwesen der Automobilindustrie 1. 14 Einleitung liche Herausforderung. Master List. Mit dem Einzug von Informationstechnologien sind oftmals die gewachsenen Strukturen bei höherer Informationskapazität beibehalten worden [Kuh92]. Reflective Essay. Folge dieses übermäßigen und in master thesis list of symbols Ort und Zeit der Bereitstellung nicht optimal den Anforderungen angepassten Informationsangebotes ist laut [Gud07] eine sinkende Effizienz von Prozessen und damit eine Dissonanz zwischen Ziel und Wirklichkeit eines Einsatzes von Informationstechnologie in amazing psychology den Prozessen. Of Symbols. Die unternehmensübergreifende Struktur der Informationslogistik ist daher von hoher Bedeutung, deren optimale Ausrichtung aber aufgrund der vielfältigen Anforderungen und Randbedingungen sehr komplex. How Do You Write A Essay. Dabei sind bestehende Strukturen absichtlich zu hinterfragen. Bei der Gestaltung der Informationslogistik ist durch diese Komplexität eine von vornherein klar erkennbare, im Gesamtkontext optimale Lösung oftmals nicht darstellbar. Of Symbols. Hier müssen Methoden ansetzen, die die Planer effektiv in psychology ihrer Arbeit unterstützen.

Im Zusammenhang mit dem eingangs geschilderten Hype um RFID erscheinen aktuell schwerpunktmäßig Bewertungsverfahren mit der Themenstellung, ob RFID gegenüber den bisherigen Technologien Zusatznutzen bringt oder nicht. Eine Betrachtung mit einer Schwerpunkttechnologie ist nicht dauerhaft zielführend. Sinnvoll ist wie oben begründet nicht das Herausheben einer Technologie und damit die psychologische Eingrenzung der Nutzer bei der Suche nach einer optimalen Lösung, sondern eine gleichberechtigte Betrachtung der verfügbaren Technologien mit einer neutralen Beurteilung ihrer Vor- und Nachteile. Master Thesis. Auch Kombinationen der Technologien können zielführend sein [Oeh07], [Sim06], [Dre07]. So ist eine ganzheitliche Betrachtung der Informationslogistik anzustreben. A Essay Introduction. Informationsverarbeitung ist abhängig vom Anwendungsfall, aus dem sich wiederum die jeweils notwendige Softund Hardwarekonfiguration ergibt [Ahl96]. [Gud07] formuliert: Identifikations-, Kommunikations- und Informationssysteme sind Mittel zum Zweck und kein Selbstzweck.

Dabei muss die Nutzbarkeit der Technologie für den Menschen immer im Vordergrund stehen [Züh05]. Thesis List. In dieser Arbeit wird ein Vorgehensmodell zur Gestaltung der Informationslogistik entwickelt, das diesem allgemeinen Ansatz folgt. Schwerpunkt der Betrachtung ist das Ersatzteilwesen in on newgrange der Automobilindustrie. Master Thesis List. Dabei werden auch die Prinzipien des sogenannten Toyota-Produktions-Systems berücksichtigt, die in matthew essaya der Automobilindustrie derzeit wieder eine starke Beachtung finden. Master Thesis. Um die notwendige ganzheitliche Betrachtung der Informationslogistik erreichen zu können, wird die gesamte Wertschöpfungs- und Nutzungskette betrachtet.

Um das Ziel der Arbeit zu erreichen, wird wie in how do Abb. List. 1-1 dargestellt vorgegangen. In Kapitel 2 wird zunächst die Information gegen Wissen und Daten abgegrenzt. Reflective Essay. Weiterhin werden die oben bereits genannte Informationslogistik näher definiert und die für diese Arbeit wesentlichen Eigenschaften der hier betrachteten Technologien der Informationslogistik vorgestellt. Zuletzt wird ein Überblick über bestehende Entwicklungsansätze der Informationslogistik gegeben und eine Abgrenzung vorgenommen. Kapitel 3 definiert ferner das hier relevante Grundwissen über das Ersatzteilwesen der Automobilindustrie und das Toyota-Produktions- System. Kapitel 4 definiert schließlich die Problemstellung, die Zielsetzung und die weitere Vorgehensweise. 2 Dissertation. 15 Einleitung Die Entwicklung des Vorgehensmodells zur Konzeption der Informationslogistik bildet den zentralen Teil der Arbeit.

Es wird in Kapitel 5 erarbeitet. Kapitel 6 beschreibt eine prototypische Umsetzung in eine Softwarearchitektur. Kapitel 7 erläutert exemplarisch die Anwendung der entstandenen Methodik in der Praxis. Die Arbeit mündet in thesis of symbols einer Zusammenfassung der Ergebnisse und einem Ausblick auf eine mögliche Folgeforschung. Year Of University. Kapitel 2+3: Erforderliche Grundlagen als Fundament des Vorgehensmodells Kapitel 4: Problemstellung, Zielsetzung, Vorgehensweise Kapitel 5: Entwicklung eines Vorgehensmodells zur Konzeption der Informationslogistik Kapitel 6: Entwicklung einer Softwarearchitektur zur Unterstützung des Vorgehensmodells Kapitel 7: Anwendung der entstandenen Methodik in der Praxis Zusammenfassung der Ergebnisse und Ausblick Abbildung 1-1: Grafische Darstellung des Gesamtablaufes der Arbeit Ein Beitrag zur Optimierung der Informationslogistik im Ersatzteilwesen der Automobilindustrie 3. 16 Information und deren Gestaltung in der Wertschöpfungs- und Nutzungskette 2 Information und deren Gestaltung in der Wertschöpfungsund Nutzungskette 2.1 Definitionen von Daten, Information, Wissen sowie Informationslogistik Obwohl in list of symbols der Umgangssprache häufig synonym verwendet, haben die Begriffe Daten, Informationen und Wissen unterschiedliche Bedeutung. Matthew Arnold. Sie hängen jedoch in master einer Beziehung miteinander zusammen (vgl. dazu Abb. 2-1): Grundlage aller drei Begriffe sind einzelne Zeichen (z.b. a, 5 ). Unter Anwendung einer Syntax als der Beschreibung der Beziehung und Kombination von Zeichen entstehen Daten. Daten können aus einem oder mehreren Zeichen bestehen (z.b. 5a ). Erhalten die Zeichen eine Bedeutung, was durch die sogenannte Semantik beschrieben wird, so werden Daten zu Information (z.b.

5a = Schulklasse) [Kli03]. Das Wort Information leitet sich aus dem Lateinischen ab und bedeutet `Bildung` oder `Belehrung`. Arnold. Informationen dienen der Beseitigung einer Unsicherheit [Bro06]. Master List Of Symbols. Information ist damit zweckorientiert [Wit59]. Unterlegt wird diese Definition von [Aug90], der Daten dann nicht als Informationen definiert, wenn sie nicht nutzbringend sind, beispielsweise weil nicht entscheidungsrelevant, unaktuell, ungenau, falsch oder unbrauchbar aufbereitet. Wird zusätzlich eine pragmatische Dimension erreicht, unter der man die Korrelation zwischen Zeichen und den Zeichennutzern versteht, so wird aus einer Information Wissen (z.b. Matthew Arnold. Klassenlehrer von 5a ist Hr. Master Thesis List Of Symbols. Meyer).

Wissen ist ziel- und zweckgebunden [Kli03]. Syntax Semantik Pragmatik Zeichen Daten Information Wissen Abbildung 2-1: Beziehungen zwischen Daten, Information und Wissen Der Begriff `Informationsbedarf` umschreibt alle notwendigen Informationen, um einen Informationsprozess zielgerichtet durchführen zu können [Aug90]. `Informationsmanagement` bedeutet die Sicherstellung eines zielgerichteten Einsatzes der Ressource Information [Sti01]. Prozesse führen zu einer Änderung des Zustandes von Arbeitsmitteln und Informationen. Dies betrifft die logistischen Dimensionen Zeit, Ort, Menge, Qualität und Zusammensetzung [Krä02]. Abb. 2-2 zeigt die Zusammenhänge zwischen Information und Prozess. Issues To Write. Für Informationen gilt ähnlich wie für Material das Ziel der Bereitstellung der richtigen Information in master thesis list der richtigen Menge und Qualität am richtigen Ort und zur richtigen Zeit [Aug90].

Die daraus entstehenden Informationsflüsse bestehen aus einigen Teilprozessen, z.b. 4 Dissertation. 17 Information und deren Gestaltung in der Wertschöpfungs- und Nutzungskette Transportieren, Speichern, Verteilen oder Kontrollieren [Arn07]. Die Maßnahmen zur Planung und Steuerung dieser Informationsflüsse wird auch als Informationslogistik bezeichnet [Krä02]. Issues Essays. Startzustand, Soll-Zielzustand außerhalb der Systemgrenze wahrnehmbarer tatsächlicher Ist-Zielzustand externe Rahmenbedingungen/Anforderungen* interne Rahmenbedingungen/Anforderungen* ergibt Information generiert wird benötigt Entscheidungsfindung Materialzustand ändert ggf. ändert/ löst generiert aus Handlung generiert, erzeugt Frage erfordert beeinflusst * finanziell/ökonomisch, technologisch, politisch-rechtlich, sozio-kulturell, ökologisch, Zeit und Raum, physiologisch, psychologisch Kosten beeinflusst Akteure: Menschliche Arbeitskraft, Maschinen/Anlagen, Hard/Software Abbildung 2-2: Zusammenhang zwischen Information und Prozess sowie Transformationsvorgänge Ein Beitrag zur Optimierung der Informationslogistik im Ersatzteilwesen der Automobilindustrie 5.

18 Information und deren Gestaltung in der Wertschöpfungs- und Nutzungskette 2.2 Systematik und Grundlagen der betrachteten Informationstechnologien Systematik der Informationstechnologien allgemein; Eingrenzung auf hiesige Betrachtung Informationstechnologie umfasst die Technologien und die Strategien, die für die Handhabung von Informationen notwendig sind. Sie besteht aus den Säulen Informationstransport, -verarbeitung und -speicherung [Ahl96]. List. Etwas weiter gefasst ist der zusammengesetzte Begriff Informations- und Kommunikationstechnik (IuK), den beispielsweise [Bro06a] als allgemeine interaktive Informationssysteme umschreibt, die eine beidseitige Kommunikation zw. Nutzer und System ermöglichen. Informationssysteme wiederum definiert beispielsweise [Gro71] als Subsysteme der Unternehmung, die zur Planung, Steuerung und Überwindung des Basissystems und der Umwelt benötigt werden. Reflective Year Of University. Sie sind zu diesem Zweck sowohl mit dem energie- und materietransformierenden Basissystem als auch mit der Umwelt durch Informationsaustauschprozesse gekoppelt. Thesis Of Symbols. [Sti01] verwendet die genannten Begriffe synonym, da in short essay der Literatur keine eindeutige Trennung erreicht wird. Dieser Ansicht wird hier gefolgt und im Folgenden von Informationstechnologie gesprochen. Die zu entwickelnde Methodik sollte möglichst für alle aufkommenden oder traditionellen Informationstechnologien anwendbar sein.

Zwangsläufig kann die Anwendung der Methodik jedoch nur an solchen Technologien sinnvoll gezeigt werden, die aus heutigem Stand grundlegend für einen Einsatz in der Wertschöpfungs- und Nutzungskette des Ersatzteilwesens der Automobilindustrie in master of symbols Frage kommen. Dazu gehören zunächst Rechnersysteme, aber auch die menschliche Denkleistung, die Schrift und ausgewählte Identifikationstechnologien. Identifikationstechnologien unterstützen als Hilfsmittel die Identifikation. Identifikation wiederum ist das eindeutige und unverwechselbare Erkennen eines Gegenstandes anhand von Merkmalen, mit der für den jeweiligen Zweck festgelegten Genauigkeit [DIN6763]. Identifikationstechnologien decken damit von den drei oben genannten Säulen der Informationstechnologie nur die Säulen Informationstransport und speicherung ab und können als Teilbereich der Informationstechnologie gesehen werden. Zu den Identifikationstechnologien werden allgemein in der Literatur gezählt [Fin06]: 1D-/2D-Codeverfahren Optical Character Recognition (OCR) Radio-Frequenz-Identifikation (RFID) Kontaktbehaftete Chipkarten Biometrische Verfahren. Kontaktbehaftete Chipkarten und biometrische Verfahren werden in a essay dieser Arbeit nicht weiter betrachtet, da sie für einen Einsatz im Ersatzteilwesen derzeit nicht interessant erscheinen. Master Thesis List. 6 Dissertation. 19 Information und deren Gestaltung in essay on newgrange der Wertschöpfungs- und Nutzungskette Die in den letzten Jahren entwickelte Technologie der Sensornetzwerke ist ebenfalls zu den Informationstechnologien zu zählen.

Informationstechnologien sind grundlegend als geschlossenes ( closed-loop ) oder offenes ( open-loop ) System einsetzbar. Master List Of Symbols. Beim geschlossenen System bleibt der Informationsträger in einem definierten Bereich, beispielsweise einem Unternehmen. Oftmals sind geschlossene Systeme als Mehrwegsysteme ausgelegt, bei der ein Informationsträger mehrfach verwendet wird. Bei offenen Systemen werden Informationsträger über die Grenzen eines Unternehmens hinweg betrieben. Im besten Falle wird dabei die gesamte Lieferkette (Supply Chain) abgedeckt. Arnold Essaya. Ein Mehrfachumlauf eines Informationsträgers ist in thesis list der Regel nicht möglich, weil häufig eine untrennbare Verbindung mit dem Objekt vorliegt. Geschlossene Systeme werden häufig von Unternehmen als Vorstufe zu offenen Systemen verwendet, um vor einer größer angelegten Einführung Erfahrungen mit einer Technik zu sammeln und diese zu stabilisieren [Fle05a]. Im Einzelnen werden menschliche Denkleistung Klarschrift Rechnersysteme 1D-/2D-Codeverfahren Radio-Frequenz-Identifikation (RFID) Sensornetzwerk dargestellt und für die Methodik betrachtet. Ein Beitrag zur Optimierung der Informationslogistik im Ersatzteilwesen der Automobilindustrie 7. 20 Information und deren Gestaltung in der Wertschöpfungs- und Nutzungskette Betrachtete Informationstechnologien Menschliche Denkleistung Der Begriff menschliche Tätigkeit wird hier für die Bezeichnung von menschlichen Aktivitäten rund um Informationen verwendet. Reflective Essay. Es kann sich um die Erfassung, Speicherung oder Weitergabe von Informationen handeln.

Weiterhin besitzt der Mensch die Fähigkeit zur Verknüpfung von Informationen mit dem Ziel einer Nutzung und Erweiterung im Sinne einer Entscheidungsfindung (vgl. [Gro88]). Die Erfassung wird in master of symbols der kognitiven Psychologie als Wahrnehmung bezeichnet. Diese umfasst die Aufnahme und Interpretation von Informationen bis hin zu den sie auslösenden Handlungen oder Empfindungen [Lin81]. Die Aufnahme von Informationen kann grundsätzlich über die Sinnessysteme des Menschen erfolgen [Züh04]. How Do You Write A Essay Introduction. Die wichtigsten Sinnessysteme sind: Visuelles System (Sehen) Auditives System (Hören) Haptisches System (Fühlen) Geruchs-/Geschmackssinn.

Der Mensch verfügt über eine begrenzte Informationsaufnahme- und Informationsverarbeitungskapazität [Züh96]. Für das Kurzzeitgedächtnis wird eine Maximalleistung von gleichzeitig sieben Informationen angegeben [Mil56]. Dabei muss berücksichtigt werden, dass auch die Wahrnehmung über das Kurzzeitgedächtnis verläuft [Kei86] und damit die für die reine Speicherung vorhandenen Ressourcen weiter reduziert. Eine Weitergabe von Informationen wird durch die Fähigkeit des Menschen zur Kommunikation ermöglicht. Für diese Arbeit relevante Varianten der menschlichen Weitergabe von Information sind gesprochene Sprache, Schrift und die Gestik. Master Of Symbols. Manuelle Tätigkeit ist die ursprünglichste Form der Informationstechnologie, da sie ohne alle im Laufe der Menschheit erfundenen Hilfsmittel auskommt. How Do A Essay Introduction. Sie ist daher überall dort in den Prozessen eines Unternehmens zu finden, wo der Einsatz von Hilfsmitteln für die Informationsverarbeitung nach dem aktuellen Stand der Technik nicht möglich, nicht zielführend, wirtschaftlich nicht effizient oder einfach noch nicht bedacht worden ist. Klarschrift Schrift ist ein festgelegter Zeichensatz aus grafischen Zeichen, die auf feste und dauerhafte Beschreibstoffe aufgebracht werden [Bro06d].

Die Schrift hat damit gegenüber menschlichen Informationsträgern die Eigenschaften einer unbegrenzten Speicherfähigkeit in quantitativer und zeitlicher Dimension und ist unabhängig von der Präsenz einzelner Personen. List. Damit hat die Schrift eine enzyklopädische Eigenschaft. Issues To Write On. Dies ermöglicht erst die Bildung 8 Dissertation. 21 Information und deren Gestaltung in thesis of symbols der Wertschöpfungs- und Nutzungskette größerer Organisationen außerhalb einer eng begrenzten Lokalität sowie wirtschaftliche Handlungsfelder wie Buchhaltung und Rechnungsführung [Ste06]. Reflective Year. Schrift hat nur die Eigenschaft eines Speichers und eignet sich zur Weitergabe von Informationen. Master Thesis. Eine eigenständige Erfassung der Information oder eine Entscheidungsfindung sind nicht möglich. Short On Newgrange. Unter Klarschrift werden speziell durch einen Menschen ohne Hilfsmittel lesbare und interpretierbare Zeichen verstanden [Bro06b]. Klarschrift wird in der Informationslogistik dort eingesetzt, wo Informationen schnell durch unterschiedliche Personen an master list of symbols, unterschiedlichen Orten und Zeiten gelesen und weiterverarbeitet werden müssen.

Einsatzbeispiele sind Frachtpapiere und Kommissionierbelege in der Logistik, aber auch Informationen für den Konsumenten auf einer Produktverpackung. Essay Of University. Darüber hinaus dient die Klarschrift häufig der redundanten Sicherung von Informationen, die für die schnelle automatische Erfassung in nicht durch Menschen lesbaren Technologien gespeichert sind. So können automatisierte Abläufe durch Menschen kontrolliert und im Fehlerfalle durch menschliches Lesen der Klarschrift eine Korrektur ermöglicht werden. Durch Klarschrift bleiben Informationen für den Menschen nachvollziehbar. Neben dieser manuell geprägten Verwendung von Klarschrift ist auch eine automatisierte Erfassung möglich. Of Symbols. Diese sogenannte Optical Character Recognition (OCR) beinhaltet das Scannen der Klarschrift mithilfe einer Kamera und die anschließende Interpretation der so entstandenen Grafik in eine für die übliche Textbearbeitung im Rechnersystem verwendbare Zeichenabfolge durch eine OCR-Software. Amazing Statements. Eine solche Umsetzung kann entweder auf Muster oder Eigenschaften basiert sein.

Bei der Erkennung durch Muster ( Pattern Matching ) erfolgt eine pixelbasierte Abtastung und Zuordnung von Zeilenmustern, die mit Vorlagen verglichen werden. Of Symbols. Dies erfordert eine hohe Anzahl an you write introduction, zur Verfügung stehenden Mustervorlagen. Thesis Of Symbols. Bei der Erkennung durch Eigenschaften ( Feature Recognition ) werden charakteristische Eigenschaften eines gelesenen Zeichens ermittelt und mit einer Datenbank abgeglichen, die Kombinationen von Eigenschaften einem Zeichen zuordnen. Diese Methode erfordert zwar eine höhere Rechenleistung, ist jedoch unabhängiger von der tatsächlichen Formatierung des Zeichens im gelesenen Text [Gre03]. Social Issues Essays On. Für eine schnellere und sicherere Erfassung von Klarschrift durch OCR wurden die Schrifttypen OCR-A und OCR-B entwickelt. Eine wesentliche Eigenschaft ist, besonders bei OCR-A, eine kantige Linienführung.

Für die Erkennung von handschriftlicher Blockschrift liegt unter dem Namen OCR-H eine Vergleichsgrundlage vor. Master Thesis Of Symbols. In dieser Arbeit wird die Klarschrift jedoch zunächst nur im Sinne der manuellen Verarbeitung betrachtet. Klarschrift kann auf beliebige Materialien mit Farbe aufgedruckt oder manuell geschrieben, in ein Produkt geformt oder mit mechanischen oder optischen Verfahren nachträglich direkt in ein Material eingebracht werden [VDI4472]. Essay On Annual. Ein Beitrag zur Optimierung der Informationslogistik im Ersatzteilwesen der Automobilindustrie 9. 22 Information und deren Gestaltung in thesis der Wertschöpfungs- und Nutzungskette Rechnersysteme Ein Rechner, auch Computer oder Datenverarbeitungsanlage, ist ein Gerät zur Ausführung von Rechenoperationen [Bro06c]. You Write A Essay Introduction. Kern eines Rechners ist ein Prozessor mit seinen Funktionseinheiten Rechenwerk und Steuerwerk. Master Thesis Of Symbols. Das Steuerwerk hat die Aufgabe der Versorgung des Rechenwerkes mit Daten und Steuersignalen sowie die Weiterleitung der verarbeiteten Daten. Das Rechenwerk ist für die Verarbeitung der Daten durch logische Operationen oder Rechenoperationen zuständig. Rechnersysteme funktionieren in Kombination von Hardware als den materiellen Komponenten und der Software als Verarbeitungsvorschrift von Daten [Bro06c]. Issues To Write On. Damit sind Rechnersysteme neben Erfassung, Speicherung und Weitergabe von Informationen auch für die Entscheidungsfindung einsetzbar. In den in dieser Arbeit betrachteten Anwendungen sind Rechnersysteme in Form von Netzwerkstrukturen mit einem zentralen Server und einzelnen Personal-Computern für die Informationsverarbeitung und speicherung sehr verbreitet.

Einsatzbeispiele sind Enterprise-Resource-Planning-Systeme (ERP) für eine unternehmensübergreifende Ressourcen- bzw. Ablaufplanung und steuerung sowie Lagerverwaltungssysteme für die Lagersteuerung. Master Thesis Of Symbols. 1D-/2D-Codeverfahren Bei den 1D-/2D-Codierverfahren handelt es sich um optische Verfahren, die auf Sichtkontakt zwischen Lesegerät und Informationsträger angewiesen sind. 1D-Codes, auch als Barcode oder Strichcode bezeichnet, sind aus Balken und Leerstellen aufgebaut, deren relative Breiten die Information tragen, siehe Beispiel Abb Mit Startund Stopzeichen wird der Code begrenzt, eine codierte Prüfsumme am Ende ermöglicht gegebenenfalls eine Erhöhung der Lesesicherheit [Wie90]. Essay On Annual Day Celebration Of School. 2D-Codes wurden ab Ende der Achtzigerjahre als Reaktion auf die Anforderung einer höheren Speicherfähigkeit entwickelt. Aktuelle Hauptvertreter sind Matrixcodes, Stapelcodes, Composite-Codes und Dotcodes, siehe Beispiel Abb Sie besitzen eine hohe Informationsdichte und können damit sehr kompakt gehalten werden. Die Anwendungsbereiche sind ebenso vielfältig wie beim 1D-Code. Eine hohe Verbreitung haben sie zwischenzeitlich in der Produktion, Produktidentifikation und Logistik erreicht [Len02].

1D- wie auch 2D-Codes können auf verschiedene Materialien mit Farbe aufgedruckt werden, Teil des Produktes bei der Herstellung sein oder mit mechanischen oder optischen Verfahren nachträglich direkt in ein Material eingebracht werden ([Len00], [Len02]). Weiterführende technische Details zu einzelnen Formen der Codierung sind in master list [Len00], [Len02] bzw. Arnold. [Len04] nachzulesen. 1D-/2D-Codierverfahren ermöglichen die Erfassung, Speicherung und Weitergabe von Informationen an einem Objekt. Thesis Of Symbols. Eine Entscheidungsfindung ist durch diese Technologie nicht möglich. You Write Introduction. 10 Dissertation.

23 Information und deren Gestaltung in der Wertschöpfungs- und Nutzungskette Die Möglichkeiten für den Einsatz von Codeverfahren sind sehr umfangreich. Grundlegend werden Codes neben anderen möglichen Technologien dort eingesetzt, wo entweder eine Datenbearbeitung durch hohe Datenmengen oder frequenzen arbeitsintensiv oder eine Vollautomatisierung sinnvoll ist. Beispiele in thesis der Logistik sind die Codierung von Postpaketen zur Identifikation und Steuerung in essay Verteilzentren sowie die schnelle Identifikation von Lagerplätzen bei der Ein- und Auslagerung. Master Thesis. Informationen können mit den 1D-/2D-Codierverfahren in zentraler wie auch in dezentraler Form gespeichert werden [Cra04]: Bei der zentralen Datenhaltung wird die Information auf einem zentralen Rechnersystem gespeichert. On First. Dies kann übergreifend mit einem zentralen Rechnersystem für eine ganze Wertschöpfungs- und Nutzungskette realisiert sein oder, heute überwiegend, als einzelne zentrale Systeme für jedes einzelne Unternehmen. Auf dem Informationsträger wird nur eine Referenznummer abgelegt, mit der die Information auf dem zentralen Rechnersystem abgerufen werden kann. Master Thesis List. Bei der dezentralen Datenhaltung wird die Information auf dem Informationsträger gespeichert. Die Information ist damit orts- und zeitunabhängig objektnah verfügbar. Ein Beispiel für die zentrale wie auch gleichzeitig die dezentrale Datenhaltung ist der VDA- Warenanhänger nach VDA-Empfehlung 4902, siehe Abb. 2-5, auf dem vom Lieferanten die wichtigsten Informationen neben Klarschrift zusätzlich als Barcode dargestellt werden [VDA4902].

Sachnummer, Lieferantennummer, Menge und andere Informationen sind dezentral direkt vom Warenanhänger lesbar. Social Essays On. Dagegen werden andere Informationen, die nicht auf dem Warenanhänger mitgegeben werden, parallel zum Materialfluss in master thesis of symbols einem Lieferavis an personal, den Empfänger gesendet und dort auf einem Rechnersystem zwischengespeichert (sog. Despatch Advice, DESADV). Master Thesis Of Symbols. So dient die Lieferscheinnummer auf dem Warenanhänger beim Empfänger als Referenznummer, mit der im Rechnersystem das Lieferavis mit den zentral gespeicherten Informationen abgerufen wird. Ein Beispiel für diese Form der Speicherung ist die Verteilung der Lieferpositionen auf die Packstücke (sog. How Do. Packstruktur). List Of Symbols. Tab. 2-1 zeigt eine Reihe von Vor- und Nachteilen, wie sie durch eine zentrale und dezentrale Datenhaltung entstehen können. Psychology. Ein Beitrag zur Optimierung der Informationslogistik im Ersatzteilwesen der Automobilindustrie 11.

24 Information und deren Gestaltung in der Wertschöpfungs- und Nutzungskette Zentrale Datenhaltung Vorteile: Einfache, kostengünstige Informationsträger mit geringer Speicherkapazität Informationen auch ohne Objekt verfügbar Verdichtung und Selektion von Informationen möglich Konsistente Datenhaltung Hohe Verlustsicherheit Nachteile: Einrichtung, Pflege und Betrieb einer zentralen Datenbank Informationen nicht abseits von zentraler Datenbank nutzbar Einrichtung zusätzlicher Schnittstellen für Zugriff auf zentrale Datenbank oder Austausch zwischen Datenbanken und Unternehmen Dezentrale Datenhaltung Vorteile: Keine Einrichtung, Pflege und Betrieb einer zentralen Datenbank Informationen auch abseits von zentraler Datenbank nutzbar Weniger Schnittstellen erforderlich Nachteile: Informationsträger mit großer Speicherkapazität erforderlich Informationen ohne Objekt nicht verfügbar Geringe Verlustsicherheit Tabelle 2-1: Vor- und Nachteile von dezentraler und zentraler Datenhaltung (in Anlehnung an master thesis of symbols, ([Cra04], [Jan05]) Abbildung 2-3: Beispiel 1D-Code [Sag07] 12 Dissertation. 25 Information und deren Gestaltung in amazing personal statements der Wertschöpfungs- und Nutzungskette Abbildung 2-4: Beispiel 2D-Code (Aztech-Code) Abbildung 2-5: Beispiel VDA-Warenanhänger nach [VDA4902] Ein Beitrag zur Optimierung der Informationslogistik im Ersatzteilwesen der Automobilindustrie 13. 26 Information und deren Gestaltung in der Wertschöpfungs- und Nutzungskette Radiofrequenzidentifikation (RFID) Die Radiofrequenzidentifikation (RFID) ist ebenso wie die 1D-/2D-Codierverfahren für Erfassung, Speicherung und Weitergabe von Informationen verwendbar. Durch eine Kombinierbarkeit mit Sensorik können auch physikalische Messungen durchgeführt werden. RFID ermöglicht eine berührungslose Kommunikation auch ohne Sichtkontakt mittels eines elektromagnetischen Feldes. Master Of Symbols. Informationen werden durch eine gezielte Beeinflussung des elektromagnetischen Feldes durch den Sender an den Empfänger übertragen [Fin06]. Für eine genaue Beschreibung der Informationsübertragung wird auf [Fin06] bzw. [Ker07] verwiesen. Personal Statements. Abb. 2-6 zeigt die Komponenten eines RFID-Systems. Information kabelgebunden Information Luftschnittstelle Applikation (ggf. Master Thesis List Of Symbols. mit Middleware) Lese-/Schreibgerät Objekt mit Transponder Abbildung 2-6: Komponenten eines RFID-Systems Die Begriffe Transponder, Lese-/Schreibgerät und Middleware werden im Folgenden näher beschrieben: Der Begriff Transponder setzt sich aus den Bestandteilen Transmitter (Sender) und Responder (Empfänger) zusammen. Eine gebräuchliche Abkürzung ist Tag.

Er wird an essay, einem zu identifizierenden Objekt angebracht. Dieser Vorgang wird auch als Tagging bezeichnet. Die Hauptbestandteile sind ein Mikrochip und eine Antenne. Die Aufgaben des Mikrochips sind die Speicherung von Informationen sowie die Steuerung von Schreib- und Lesevorgängen. Master. Die Antenne dient zum Abstrahlen und Empfangen von elektromagnetischen Wellen, d.h. dem Senden und Empfangen von Informationen. Essay On Annual. Je nach Einsatzbedingungen wird der Transponder durch ein Gehäuse geschützt [Fin06]. Master List Of Symbols. Hauptsächlich werden sogenannte passive und aktive Transponder verwendet. Essay On First Year Of University. Während der passive Transponder die für die Funktionen erforderliche Energie aus dem elektromagnetischen Feld des Lesegerätes nimmt, ist der aktive Transponder mit einer eigenen Stromversorgung ausgestattet. List Of Symbols. Der aktive Transponder erreicht eine höhere Reichweite, ist aber teurer und die Nutzbarkeit abhängig von der Lebensdauer der Batterie.

Die Speichergröße variiert zwischen einem Bit und aktuell etwa einem MByte [Sot03]. Short Essay. Der Speicher ist in der Regel wiederbeschreibbar konzipiert, kann aber auch ganz oder in einzelnen Segmenten einmal beschreibbar oder als in der Herstellung hardcodiert ausgelegt werden. List. 14 Dissertation. 27 Information und deren Gestaltung in der Wertschöpfungs- und Nutzungskette Das Lese-/Schreibgerät, in der Literatur oftmals auch kurz als Lesegerät bezeichnet, dient der Kommunikation der Applikation bzw. Short Essay On Newgrange. der Middleware mit dem Transponder. Die enthaltenen Komponenten zur Steuerung von Schreib- und Lesevorgängen sind vergleichbar mit denen auf dem Transponder.

Zusätzlich ist eine Schnittstelle zu der Applikation bzw. Master Thesis List. der Middleware vorhanden [Fin06]. In einem System mit passiven Transpondern hat das Lesegerät auch die Aufgaben der Aktivierung der Transponder und ihrer Versorgung mit der notwendigen Energie [Kum05]. Die Middleware hat hauptsächlich eine ordnende Funktion. Empfangene Informationen werden entsprechend den Bedürfnissen der Applikation, z.b. Essay On First Of University. einem Lagerverwaltungsrechner, aufbereitet [Mel06]. Für RFID-Systeme ist das verwendete Frequenzband eine entscheidende Eigenschaft.

Es können unterschiedliche Frequenzbänder, die für industrielle, wissenschaftliche und medizinische Anwendungen reserviert sind, verwendet werden. Master Of Symbols. Tab. 2-2 zeigt die in reflective essay on first of university RFID-Anwendungen verwendeten Frequenzbänder sowie deren hauptsächlichen Eigenschaften. Thesis List Of Symbols. Problematisch ist die fehlende Homogenität der Zulassung einzelner Frequenzbänder in reflective essay of university der Welt. Master Thesis List Of Symbols. Während die Frequenz 13,56MHz nahezu überall in amazing der Welt verwendet werden kann, ist das Frequenzband um 900MHz, welches aktuell besonders für logistische Anwendungen diskutiert wird, sehr heterogen zugelassen. Of Symbols. So ist in to write essays Europa weitgehend 868MHz erlaubt, während beispielsweise in master thesis list den USA 915MHz zugelassen ist.

Zwar können Transponder auch von einem nicht genau auf dessen Frequenz eingestellten Lesegerät in amazing personal statements diesem Frequenzband gelesen werden, jedoch unter Einschränkungen in Reichweite und Lesesicherheit. Master List Of Symbols. Bisher wurde in a essay der allgemeinen Diskussion die Frequenz 13,56MHz für Informationsträger von Einzelteilen und die Frequenz 868MHz für Behälter favorisiert. Master Of Symbols. Grund war hierfür eine Trennbarkeit zwischen den Packebenen bei Lese-/Schreibvorgängen. Essaya. So wird im Eingangsbereich eines Lagers beispielsweise ein auf 868MHz eingestelltes Lesetor aufgestellt, da hier zunächst nur lieferungsübergreifende Informationen auf Behälterebene interessant sind. Durch Trennung der Frequenzen bei Einzelteilen und Behältern wird ein unnötiges Auslesen der Einzelteilinformationen verhindert. In letzter Zeit wird dennoch aufgrund der besseren Erfahrungen auch für Einzelteile die Frequenz 868MHz favorisiert. Die aktuelle Diskussion um die Potentiale von RFID könnte den Eindruck erwecken, dass es sich um eine neue Technologie handelt. List. Vielmehr besteht die Neuerung ab den 90er-Jahren in der Verkleinerung der Bauteile, der Nutzbarkeit eines weiteren Frequenzbandes um 868MHz und Entwicklungen zu einer kostengünstigeren Massenherstellung. How Do You Write Introduction. Ein wesentliches Merkmal von RFID gegenüber anderen Technologien ist die grundlegende Befähigung zur Erfassung von mehreren Transpondern im Lesefeld durch spezielle Erkennungs- und Antikollisionsverfahren. Diese Eigenschaft wird auch als Pulklesung bezeichnet [Gil07].

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Modellfreie numerische Prognosemethoden zur Tragwerksanalyse. Modellfreie numerische Prognosemethoden zur Tragwerksanalyse Zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades Doktor-Ingenieur (Dr.-Ing.) an der Fakultat Bauingenieurwesen der Technischen Universitat Dresden eingereichte. STRATEGISCHES BETEILIGUNGSCONTROLLING BEI KOMMUNALEN UNTERNEHMEN DER FFENTLICHE ZWECK ALS RICHTSCHNUR FR EIN ZIELGERICHTETE. BETEILIGUNGSCONTROLLING BEI KOMMUNALEN UNTERNEHMEN DER FFENTLICHE ZWECK ALS RICHTSCHNUR FR EIN ZIELGERICHTETE PDF-SBBKUDFZARFEZ41-APOM3 123 Page File Size 5,348 KB 3 Feb, 2002 TABLE OF CONTENT Introduction. Patrick Dittmer, Bremer Institut fur Produktion und Logistik GmbH SIMKAB SIMPLIFIED CABIN RFID FOR VALUE CHAIN VISIBILITY IN CARGO. Patrick Dittmer, Bremer Institut fur Produktion und Logistik GmbH SIMKAB SIMPLIFIED CABIN RFID FOR VALUE CHAIN VISIBILITY IN CARGO Agenda BIBA Motivation Air cargo processes Air cargo and AutoID Research. MindestanforderungenanDokumentationvon Lieferanten. andokumentationvon Lieferanten X.0010 3.02de_en/2014-11-07 Erstellt:J.Wesseloh/EN-M6 Standardvorgabe TK SY Standort Bremen Standard requirements TK SY Location Bremen 07.11.14 DieInformationenindieserUnterlagewurdenmitgro?terSorgfalterarbeitet.DennochkonnenFehlernichtimmervollstandig. TMF projects on IT infrastructure for psychology statements, clinical research.

Welcome! TMF projects on IT infrastructure for master thesis list of symbols, clinical research R. Speer Telematikplattform fur Medizinische Forschungsnetze (TMF) e.v. Reflective Essay On First Of University. Berlin Telematikplattform fur Medizinische Forschungsnetze (TMF) Beschwerdemanagement / Complaint Management. Beschwerdemanagement / Complaint Management Structure: 1. Basics 2. Master Thesis List Of Symbols. Requirements for the implementation 3. Strategic possibilities 4. Direct Complaint Management processes 5. Social To Write. Indirect Complaint Management. Rough copy for thesis of symbols, the art project hardware/software hardware/software Rough copy for the art project hardware/software hardware/software core routing protocol BGP relies on reflective essay on first year of university, policy routing. Video Line Array Highest Resolution CCTV. Schille Informationssysteme GmbH Video Line Array Highest Resolution CCTV SiDOC20120817-001 Disadvantages of high resolution cameras High costs Low frame rates Failure results in large surveillance gaps. Einfuhrung in master die Linguistik, Teil 4. Einfuhrung in die Linguistik, Teil 4 Menschliche Sprachverarbeitung im Rahmen der Kognitionswissenschaft Markus Bader, Frans Plank, Henning Reetz, Bjorn Wiemer Einfuhrung in essay on annual of school die Linguistik, Teil 4 p. 1/19. arlanis Software AG SOA Architektonische und technische Grundlagen Andreas Holubek.

arlanis Software AG SOA Architektonische und technische Grundlagen Andreas Holubek Speaker Andreas Holubek VP Engineering andreas.holubek@arlanis.com arlanis Software AG, D-14467 Potsdam 2009, arlanis. : Kap 5 21. Thesis List. November 2011 Ubersicht Der Begriff des Vektors Ahnlichkeits Distanzfunktionen fur Vektoren Skalarprodukt Eukidische Distanz im R n What are vectors I Domininic: Maryl: Dollar Po Euro Yen 6. Aufbau eines IT-Servicekataloges am Fallbeispiel einer Schweizer Bank. SwissICT 2011 am Fallbeispiel einer Schweizer Bank Fritz Kleiner, fritz.kleiner@futureways.ch future ways Agenda Begriffsklarung Funktionen und Aspekte eines IT-Servicekataloges Fallbeispiel eines IT-Servicekataloges. Support Technologies based on social issues to write, Bi-Modal Network Analysis. Master Thesis. H. Ulrich Hoppe. Of School. Virtuelles Arbeiten und Lernen in projektartigen Netzwerken. Support Technologies based on master list, Bi-Modal Network Analysis H. Essays On. Agenda 1. Network analysis short introduction 2. Supporting the development of master thesis virtual organizations 3. Introduction. Supporting the development of compentences.

Ubersicht. Normung von Software in der Medizin. Thesis List. Vorstellung der DKE. Essay On Annual Day Celebration Of School. Vorstellung der Normungsgremien. Of Symbols. Normen im Bereich Software. Normung von Software in essay on first year der Medizin Ubersicht Vorstellung der DKE Vorstellung der Normungsgremien Normen im Bereich Software Zukunftstrends 20.09.2013/1 Vorstellung der DKE Gemeinnutziger Verband ohne. Theoretische Grundlagen der RFID-Technologie.

Theoretische Grundlagen der RFID-Technologie Agenda Allgemeine Einfuhrung Motivation fur den Einsatz Historie Woher kommt die Technologie Wesentliche Entwicklungen Das RFID System Allgemein Transponder. Datenschutzkonzept und Risikoanalyse verschiedener Einsatzszenarien. Datenschutzkonzept und Risikoanalyse verschiedener Einsatzszenarien Stefan Klumpp, Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin Informatik in thesis of symbols Bildung und Gesellschaft klumpp@hu-berlin.net A la carte Installation im. Sicherheit / Sicherung - unterschiedliche Begriffsbestimmung, gemeinsame Fachaspekte. Sicherheit / Sicherung - unterschiedliche Begriffsbestimmung, gemeinsame Fachaspekte F. A Essay Introduction. Seidel, BfS Salzgitter (Juli 2002) 1) Begriffsbestimmung (Vergleich unter Nutzung nationaler und internationaler.

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colorado essay Conservationist and master list of symbols NG Emerging Explorer. The Colorado River winds through the Grand Canyon. Photograph by Pete McBride. Colorado River water was diverted into these potash-mine settling ponds near Moab, Utah. Photograph by issues to write on, Pete McBride. This aerial view shows the master thesis of symbols, wetlands of the Cienega de Santa Clara, 40,000 acres of vegetation and wildlife habitat in Mexico's Sonoran Desert that have been revived with waste water from the Yuma Desalination Plant. Photograph by Pete McBride.

The Colorado River winds through several national parks and essay of school numerous canyons, including the Nankoweap Canyon in Arizona. Photograph by Pete McBride. Water is master thesis list of symbols, dyed blue to expedite evaporation at a potash facility. Photograph by Pete McBride. Eerie patterns can be seen in the Colorado River's parched delta. Photograph by Pete McBride. the Colorado River and its dozens of spectacular tributaries carved out the Grand Canyon and on annual day celebration scoured the Rockies, flushing mineral-rich sediment to master thesis list the sea. These rivers weren't always in flood, but they never ran dry. Today, however, the second largest tributary, the Gila, is mostly bone dry in its lower reaches through Arizona; the Salt River—supplying Phoenix—no longer makes it to a confluence with the Gila; the arnold, Santa Cruz is seen beneath Tucson bridges only during rare floods; and the Colorado River itself, almost unbelievably, stopped running to the sea in most years after the completion of Glen Canyon Dam in 1966. The river hasn't flowed to the Sea of Cortez in Mexico since 1998. What happened?

In a word: agriculture. A steady march of population growth and climate change has exacerbated conditions, but it all began with farming, much of it supported by master list of symbols, taxpayers in a feverish desire to settle the West. After irrigation ditches and canals were hewed into the arid ground, farmers planted wheat, then hay. Arnold Essaya! Those crops, along with cotton, citrus fruits, 90 percent of the nation's winter vegetables, and almost any other plant imaginable, now consume about 70 percent of the Colorado River Basin's water. Our green lawns, golf courses, swimming pools, and generally thirsty cities also take a share of the dwindling water, as do reservoirs, where 15 percent of the basin's water evaporates into thesis list thin air each year. Although people tend to think of the Colorado as a single channel that slices through the Grand Canyon, the issues, river system is really made up of scores of major tributaries that are collectively known as the Colorado River Basin. Running as red and warm as fish blood, or as emerald and master cold as a glacial lake, its 242,000-square-mile (626,777-square-kilometer) drainage area alternates between the primeval and on first the altered. Thesis List! The basin's drainage covers a percentage of the U.S. that's almost identical to the percentage of Africa drained by matthew arnold, the Nile. The Colorado River is both servant and scenic wonder to master thesis list the 36 million Americans it supplies with water. It is you write a essay introduction, also one of the siltiest, most litigated over, and frequently paddled rivers in the world. It is now widely accepted that population growth and climate change will cause ever more intense water shortages in the West, much like the travails of Egypt over the long-disputed Nile.

Despite all this change, the massive Colorado River Delta, bearded with salt grass, is still one of the most wild and beautiful places betwixt source and sea: lush with unexpected groundwater in its center and surprisingly alive with rattling kingfishers, circling mallards, probing cattle egrets, mischievous ravens, prowling ospreys, and snakelike cormorants diving for fish. If you're listening carefully, the mournful cry of loons can be heard mimicking the howl of thesis coyotes, as if to amazing statements say, Please give us back our river. From Source to master Sea. Calamity, arguing with its split personality, Beauty. I know this because I've slept on the delta's muddy yet cracked, salt-stained sand, which washed down from the Grand Canyon.

It took me five months to paddle there, 1,450 miles (2,330 kilometers) from the Continental Divide, plunging as much as 90 feet (27 meters) per vertical mile through bone-breaking rapids, then spilling out into you write reservoired calms that stretch for more than 300 miles (480 kilometers) of its path toward Mexico's Sea of Cortez. In the four years since that journey, I've continued my exploration of the Colorado River Basin's tributaries. My mission is to showcase the breadth and beauty of this river system, as well as investigate the changes of the last century. My primary tool is a camera, along with old landscape photographs that show these waterways in an earlier, PreDambrian state—the term ecologically astute boatmen use to longingly refer to an era before nearly 100 dams were built, dams that now stop sediment flow and unnaturally refrigerate river temperatures. The Grand Canyon's crux rapid, Lava, drops 37 feet (11 meters) in less than 100 yards and routinely flips the two-ton rafts of the master list of symbols, best boatmen. Essay On First Of University! Yet 195 miles (314 kilometers) upstream, unbeknownst to most of the two million annual visitors staring down at what they think of thesis list of symbols as the on annual, national park's violent central artery, the Colorado River is unnaturally controlled by the Glen Canyon Dam, standing 710 feet (216 meters) high. The Green River, the largest of the Colorado's tributaries, once flushed half of an ocean liner's worth of thesis sediment 730 miles (1,175 kilometers) every day through Wyoming and Utah, briefly draining western Colorado before reaching its Utah confluence with the year, Colorado River. Master Thesis List Of Symbols! The particulate-carrying force of the Colorado River and its sandy tributaries then doubled—to an estimated six trillion pounds of silt per day—as it raced another 1,000 miles (1,600 kilometers) to the sea, building backwaters and sustaining flora and fauna with life-giving minerals. But now, dams like Glen Canyon have trapped the silty life force of psychology statements these rivers beneath many reservoirs. To demonstrate these effects I scour archives, from the National Archives in Maryland to the Bancroft Library in California, and when I find a compelling black-and-white image of a pristine river within the master of symbols, region, I seek out the original photographer's bankside camera stations and take a new photo.

This work of issues to write essays repeat photography is akin to a treasure hunt: whole days of master thesis of symbols paddling, walking, or driving while trying to line up riverbanks with distant mountains just as they were aligned in the old photos—which were often captioned before modern towns and river place-names existed. Although I usually find my photographic quarry, in many instances the scenes are so overgrown with towering invasive plants that I can't see, let alone photograph, the personal statements, river. Still, more often than not, I strike gold. List Of Symbols! As if disembarking from a time machine, heart pounding, I stand in the footsteps of the amazing psychology personal statements, great, glass-and-gel-plate, pioneer lens men like Timothy O'Sullivan, who learned his craft while photographing carnage on Civil War battlefields and then arduously hauled his boat up the lower Colorado; William Henry Jackson, who opened a photography studio in Denver after accompanying government survey teams around Western rivers; and a latter-day disciple, Louis C. McClure, who photographed dams, railroads, and thesis list river-irrigated agricultural areas in short on newgrange the Colorado River Basin into the mid-19th century. Discovering their historic camera stations and unveiling radically changed riverscapes always makes me feel like I have unearthed buried anti-treasure, revealing the secret, hidden costs of Western reclamation. In this post-DamNation, one of list of symbols many restoration projects targets ancient fish that still swim in the basin's waters. Four of these warm-water, silt-adapted species—the pike minnow, the humpback chub, the bonytail chub, and the razorback sucker—are now endangered because the silt- and migration-blocking dams also refrigerate the water temperature by a essay, dropping cold, mid-level (instead of warm, surface) reservoir water into the rivers below. The beauty of these fish is in their uncanny adaptation to master list of symbols a bygone era—a trait not seen in their newly introduced trout and bass predators. In the PreDambrian, pike minnows ranged over 1,000 miles (1,600 kilometers) of river and grew to 5 feet (1.5 meters), but they are now as stunted in range as they are in to write growth.

The humpback chub has neuromast chemoreceptors on its head, allowing the species to smell (rather than see) faraway food in silty water. Master Of Symbols! The torpedo-shaped and camouflage-backed bonytail chub, rarest of on all the list, native fish, disappeared from the Lower Basin after the construction of Hoover Dam. And the tuba-lipped razorback sucker dwells in deep water, avoiding ultraviolet light; while mating, the male flashes its uniquely adapted eyes to reflective year of university reflect ambient UV light and scare off any male competitors. These four species have no commercial value. If caught by fishermen they have to be immediately released, and they're passed by in favor of the more palatable, non-native sport fish. Yet these four species are essential, endemic symbols of the river system's uniqueness and are found nowhere else in the world. Dams have flipped off their evolutionary light switch. Highways crisscross the desert in Phoenix, Arizona, where population growth has put a major strain on of symbols resources.

Photograph by amazing personal statements, Pete McBride. A dense subdivision borders undeveloped desert in Las Vegas, Nevada. Master Thesis List Of Symbols! Many homeowners there practice xeriscaping with natural plants that require little water, to arnold help reduce the toll on the dwindling Colorado River. Photograph by Pete McBride. Downtown Las Vegas struggles with the need to balance water consumption with tourism and master thesis list a growing population.

Photograph by Pete McBride. Phoenix uses twice as much Colorado River water as any other city, in essaya part for the area's famous golf courses. Photograph by Pete McBride. Like these fish hidden beneath the water, human-caused alterations on the surface are complex, and my image pairs don't always show the ill effects or root causes of the river basin's transformations. Population growth is one factor affecting the thesis of symbols, rivers. Over the on newgrange, last century, more people has meant more demand for water. Since first apportioning river water to seven states through the Colorado River Compact in 1922 and subsequent agreements, the basin states' population has increased ninefold. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, many of the cities dependent on basin water have grown even more: The greater Las Vegas area in 1920 had just over 2,000 people; now it has almost 2 million. In 1900 Phoenix had 5,554 citizens; today it has 1.48 million.

Although forecasting how changing climate will affect water within the basin is an imprecise science, scientists expect the master list, region to essay get hotter and drier. A study by the Department of the Interior's Bureau of Reclamation (the federal agency that manages the master thesis of symbols, Colorado River) in August 2013 projected that the water in Lake Mead will decline to 1,060 feet (323 meters) by July 2015, which would likely result in water shortages being declared for 2016. The Bureau of Reclamation also recently released a study predicting that by you write, 2060, the of symbols, Colorado River's flows will decline by 8.7 percent. Social Essays On! That's equal to the amount of water canaled to Los Angeles, which gets half of its water from thesis this river. Other models show even greater declines. As for the lingering drought that began in October 1999: Historically, droughts are a part of normal climatic variations, yet tree-ring records show only three longer droughts in the basin within the past 1,300 years. Studying my then-and-now image pairs for signs of psychology personal a changing climate, I find evidence of recent forest fires, loss of master thesis river flow, and natural and unnatural geomorphologic changes such as destruction of meanders and disappearance of short essay sandbanks.

I also see the growth of master invasive and water-consumptive plant species like tamarisk and Russian olive, along with an incredible greening of river valleys that were barren in the 19th century. And there are many signs of the arnold essaya, conceit of human engineering, from ditches to dams, transforming once pristine rivers throughout the southwest into sportsmen's paradises—in other words, reservoirs—frequented by loud motorboats, harboring the gasping Asian carp and master invasive quagga mussels, and heavily stocked with sport fishes; and on annual day celebration irrigation canals, contaminated with pesticides and agricultural runoff, that largely serve dairy cows (60 percent of the water used for irrigation, or about a third of the river, goes to master thesis of symbols grow hay and forage crops, according to reflective essay on first the Pacific Institute). Why Should We Care? and hundreds of other species that rely on the river, we should care because the master of symbols, Colorado flows through all of us. Many of us use it in our showers and pools, and in the fountains and green parks that our children play in. It is real estate (equity plummets with water levels). It is our wallets: a collective $26 billion per amazing psychology personal statements, year from the recreation economy, and 250,000 sustainable jobs. It is of symbols, our livelihoods: I have friends who depend on the river for their work as boatmen, fishing guides, defenders of water rights, teachers, photographers, hay growers, farmers, and realtors. We eat the river in cheese and issues to write on beef and master thesis vegetables, products that are made with water from the matthew arnold, Colorado and then shipped all over the world. Thesis List Of Symbols! We wear it (as cotton and flax) and condition the air with it, while creating energy with it and growing gardens with it and drinking it in cities far from its banks—such as Los Angeles, San Diego, Denver, and Phoenix. The river winds through the Rocky Mountain, Black Canyon of the Gunnison, Zion, Arches, Canyonlands, and Grand Canyon national parks.

We hike along it, swim in amazing psychology personal statements it, and skip stones in it. Let's face it, the river is the beating heart of life itself, and when it—the Colorado, the Green, the San Juan, the Gunnison—no longer runs, the Southwest will become as dried out as old toast. Jonathan Waterman treks across the dry Colorado River Delta, which was once thriving with life and master thesis an indigenous culture. Photograph by Pete McBride. The Colorado River Delta once teemed with fish, but now their skeletons can often be found in the dry, cracked mud. Photograph by Pete McBride. Many animals, like this Rocky Mountain toad swimming in the Little Colorado tributary in Arizona, are threatened by receding water levels. A Essay Introduction! Photograph by master list, Pete McBride. There are many solutions for the Colorado.

Conservation—large-scale xeriscaping (switching to landscaping plants that don't need much water), irrigation reform, a more watchful eye on how do you write a essay the consumptive water-energy nexus, and discretionary crop planting—can send a lot of water back to the rivers where it belongs. According to master a recent report from the Pacific Institute, replacing about 10 percent of the basin's irrigated alfalfa acreage with cotton and wheat could save about 250,000 acre-feet of consumptive water use each year. And water use by the Colorado River's outlying farmlands, such as those in the Imperial Valley near the Mexican border, could be halved if farmers irrigated their crops with pipes underneath the soil—as in Egypt, which is experimenting with saving Nile water through the reflective essay on first year of university, use of drip irrigation near the Sudanese border. For all the good ideas yet to be initiated, there are as many energy-intensive proposals—such as canaling Green River water over 500 miles (800 kilometers) from Wyoming to Colorado, building desalination plants, or laying pipelines from the Missouri River—that would only accelerate the effects of the original reclamation engineering and increase the thesis of symbols, greenhouse gases that helped create today's dilemmas. To reverse the ominous trend of southwestern water wastefulness and river destruction, we need more good news like this: In November 2012, the essay, so-called Minute 319 was added to master thesis of symbols the 1944 International Treaty on introduction the river. The agreement says that over a five-year trial period, a total of master thesis one percent of the historic flows will be sent south to the Colorado River Delta to rejuvenate native flora and social to write on fauna and, hopefully, to reach the sea. Although one percent is not a lot of list of symbols water, it will simulate the seasonal floods of old and essay on annual of school keep the thesis of symbols, riverbed wet. Essay! Minute 319 is a unique collaboration between the Mexican and U.S. governments and master thesis list of symbols a coalition of conservation organizations, each of which is responsible for to write, delivering a third of the thesis list of symbols, water committed to the delta under the essays on, agreement. In addition to helping set restoration goals, conservation groups are raising funds to master list of symbols buy water rights from amazing psychology personal current users.

In time, if we follow this example of list budding restoration, we'll have the opportunity to revive dozens of other western rivers. Amazing Personal Statements! Or we can begin bidding them goodbye. While I was paddling from source to sea, a week's journey below the Continental Divide, in of symbols a terrific wind near Kremmling, Colorado, I had an encounter that encapsulated the work we need to do for the river. A rancher on the shore angrily shouted that I was trespassing. But I hadn't touched his land, so I pulled over to talk. users live outside the basin. The river is going to hell in a handbasket, he said, referring to changes on the river, including a recent catastrophe caused by introduction, a neighboring rancher who had opened up a ditch headgate in low water and master thesis list drained the Colorado headwaters for a day. It was an uncommon event, but with distant water users seeking more diversions, ranchers—along with fishermen, boaters, and myriad other downstream users—watch the on annual of school, river go bony each fall.

Eventually, the rancher agreed with me that river landowners and recreationalists are all in the same boat. More than 36 million of us depend on this ancient river, although it's used and list undoubtedly adored by millions more. We can read more than a billion years of time on essay the walls it has carved. The river itself—a Pliocene relic—is older than our most precious monuments, older than the Parthenon, Stonehenge, or the Pyramids. It predates us all. The least we can do is save it for our children. Jonathan Waterman is a writer and photographer based in Colorado. In 2010 National Geographic published his book Running Dry: A Journey From Source to Sea Down the master list, Colorado River.

He is also the psychology personal statements, coauthor, with Pete McBride, of The Colorado River: Flowing Through Conflict.