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Are Essay Mills committing fraud? An analysis of their behaviours vs the 2006 Fraud Act (UK) © The Author(s) 2017. Published: 25 January 2017. Many strategies have been proposed to address the use of Essay Mills and other ‘contract cheating’ services by students. These services generally offer bespoke custom-written essays or other assignments to students in exchange for van helsing assignment a fee. There have been calls for the use of legal approaches to tackle the problem. Argumentative Essay On The. Here we determine whether the UK Fraud Act (2006) might be used to van helsing assignment, tackle some of the activities of child paper companies providing these services in the UK, by comparing their common practises, and their Terms and Conditions, with the Act. We found that all the sites examined have disclaimers regarding the london assignment use of their products but there are some obvious contradictions in the activities of the on narcissism essay sites which undermine these disclaimers, for van helsing example all sites offer plagiarism-free guarantees for the work and at college application essay least eight have advertising which appears to contradict their terms and conditions. We identify possible areas in which the Act could be used to pursue a legal case but overall conclude that such an approach is assignment unlikely to surgical case studies, be effective. We call for a new offence to be created in UK law which specifically targets the undesirable behaviours of these companies in the UK, although the principles could be applied elsewhere. We also highlight other UK legal approaches that may be more successful.
The use of so-called ‘contract cheating’ services by students has been a source of controversy and debate within Higher Education, particularly in the last decade. London. ‘Contract cheating’ refers, basically, to the outsourcing of assessments by students, to third parties who complete work on their behalf in argumentative essay on the things carried, return for a fee or some other benefit (Lancaster and Clarke 2016 ). These services offer ‘custom assignments’ of almost any form, although custom written essays appear to be the most common. Students are often able to specify the grade they want (although there is no guarantee this will be delivered), request drafts, referencing styles and almost any other custom feature (Newton and Lang 2016 ). London. Services available are quick and cheap (Wallace and Newton 2014 ) and students underestimate the severity with which universities penalise the use of contract cheating services (Newton 2015 ). Perhaps the simplest arrangements are directly between students and ‘custom essay writing companies’, many of whom are ‘listed’ companies with sophisticated advertising campaigns. However there are many ways in which students can use third parties to complete work for them, with the contract spread across continents; writers may act as freelancers, working in a different country to the student and their institution. These freelance writers may make use of online auction services to advertise and organise their work and these may be in university college application, yet another country, and there may be another intermediary; an assignment, individual who receives the order from the student and then posts the identity work on an auction site (Newton and Lang 2016 ; Sivasubramaniam et al. Van Helsing. 2016 ). Thus there are multiple actors in surgical studies, contract cheating, one or more of whom may be liable if their actions violate the law; students, their universities, the persons paying tuition fees, writers, those who employ writers, the websites which host the writers, advertising companies, those who host the advertising, and so on. Here we focus primarily on van helsing UK-registered essay-writing companies. Across education, a student who completes an assessment to earn credit towards an university college essay, award is normally required to do so on the explicit basis that the submission is their own independent work.
Ideally, both students and staff are given guidance about what constitutes academic misconduct and the consequences of such misconduct (Morris 2015 ), in a manner that promotes a positive, constructive approach to fostering ‘academic integrity’ (Thomas and Scott 2016 ). Van Helsing Assignment. If a student submits work that is shown to comprise, in whole or in child adoption research, part, material that is london not their own independent work then that student will normally face a range of penalties, administered by their university, for academic misconduct. In the UK these usually include cancellation of marks for the relevant module or the belonging identity thesis statements relevant component of the module subject to any mitigating circumstances (Tennant and van helsing london assignment Duggan 2008 ). Historically, these behaviours have not been dealt with through legal mechanisms in the UK (QAA 2016 ) and this applies to plagiarism outside academic circumstances which, in medical surgical case studies answer, the words of Saunders,”. is not in van helsing london, itself illegal; it is only illegal if it breaches an established legal right, such as copyright, or offends against the law of misrepresentation or other legal rules” (Saunders 2010 ). Argumentative On The They. However, a commonly used test in making legal decisions is to determine how a ‘reasonable person’ might view a particular behaviour. Van Helsing London Assignment. If asked to describe the on the they purchasing of essays for submission for the purposes of gaining academic credit it seems logical to london assignment, conclude that a reasonable person would conclude that such behaviour is ‘fraudulent’, particularly given the language associated with it (e.g. Adoption Research. ‘cheating’). If another individual has knowingly assisted in that activity then they might reasonably be said to have assisted, conspired or colluded in such academic fraud, cheating or dishonesty. Van Helsing London. If a student has purchased written work from another individual or a company for the purpose of identity passing it off as his or her own work then it is clear that the student commits academic misconduct, but what of the individual or company that supplied the work in return for payment? To what extent is assignment that individual or company (an ‘assistor’) complicit in such misconduct? What is the potential liability of the assistor and can action be taken against them? Are the assistors by their action inciting academic fraud? Unless the assistor is a student in the same institution an educational institution cannot normally take action against art essay pop, the assistor under internal disciplinary procedures. In addition, and perhaps more importantly, is there the possibility of fraudulent behaviour in van helsing assignment, the relationship between the student and application essay the company?
Broadly, legal wrongs committed in England and Wales may be addressed through the civil or criminal law (UK Government 2016a ). An action in london assignment, civil law is taken by a wronged individual at their initial cost. Identity Thesis Statements. This cost is often prohibitive and also normally requires the assignment formulation of a claim recognised by the law that evidences loss or damage to the individual claimant caused by the defendant and for which a remedy is sought. Thus the ability of educational institutions (or a student for that matter) to child, take civil action against assistors is limited. Action in relation to UK criminal law is normally undertaken by and at the cost of the state through the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) but requires a criminal offence to have been committed (private prosecutions at private cost are possible but relatively rare). The Code for Crown Prosecutors sets out the basic principles to be followed by Crown Prosecutors when they make case decisions. Crown Prosecutors must be satisfied that there is van helsing london enough evidence to provide a “realistic prospect of conviction” and that it is the public interest to pursue a prosecution (UK Government 2013 ). A purpose of this paper is to assess the extent that a business organisation who supplies an essay or written work upon instructions from a student in return for art essay pop money might be liable under the criminal law of England and Wales for an offence under the Fraud Act 2006 (The Act) (UK Government 2006 ). The Act commenced operation on 15 January 2007 by the Fraud Act 2006 (Commencement) Order 2006 SI 2006/3200. The Act applies to offences committed wholly on or after 15 January 2007 and extends to England, Wales and Northern Ireland.
In August 2016 the UK regulator of london assignment Higher Education, the Quality Assurance agency, considered all approaches to studies, deal with contract cheating, a problem which they stated “poses a serious risk to the academic standards and the integrity of van helsing UK higher education” (QAA 2016 ). Their consideration of medical surgical case studies answer possible legal approaches under existing law concluded that the Fraud Act was the “nearest applicable legislation”, but they did not reach a firm conclusion on its use, stating that “Case law appears to indicate a reluctance on the part of the courts to be involved in cases involving plagiarism, deeming this to be a matter for academic judgement that falls outside the competence of the court (Hines v Birkbeck College  3 All ER 15)” (QAA 2016 ). In their conclusion, the QAA state that the UK 2006 Fraud Act is “untested in this context”. Here we explore the detail of the van helsing Fraud Act further, and compare it to the established business practises of on narcissism essay UK-registered essay-writing companies, with a particular focus on van helsing london assignment their Terms and Conditions. We first compare the commonly observed practises of essay-writing companies (Newton and Lang 2016 ) to the UK Fraud Act 2006 (UK Government 2006 ). On Narcissism. We then specifically compared the Terms and Conditions of some UK-based companies and their advertising to Sections 1-7 of the Act to van helsing london assignment, determine whether or not these companies are committing an offence under these sections of the Act. Child Paper. As part of london assignment a separate project we identified approximately 1000 distinct websites offering essay-writing or related services to students in Higher Education. Medical Surgical. We analysed the sites to van helsing london, identify those which indicated that they are owned by identity thesis statements companies listed at assignment Companies House in the UK, meaning that they are able to run as ‘legitimate’ businesses and that they are subject to argumentative on the things, regulation by UK law, having been ‘incorporated’ under the Companies Act 2006 (UK Government 2016b ). We analysed 26 sites operated by a total of 21 apparently distinct companies; each had separate listings at van helsing assignment Companies House. We also analysed a handful of additional sites from Australia and the USA, making a total of 31 sites.
We have not included the identity of the specific companies in this publication for the following reasons: 1. We do not wish to further advertise the services of these companies, either through this publication or through any publicity associated with it. 2. We have no guarantee that the company number given on on narcissism essay these websites is actually that of the company which runs the site. In some cases the names are the same but in van helsing, others this is not the case. 3. The content of this article is academic opinion and not the basis for legal proceedings. We have shared, confidentially, the identities of the companies with the reviewers of this manuscript and of maryland application also with the UK Quality Assurance Agency who also identified a number of UK-based companies in their recent report on essay mills (QAA 2016 ). Questions asked of the van helsing assignment different websites and paper the number/percentage of sites for which the van helsing london answered was considered to be ‘yes’ Is there a disclaimer of liability in respect of use?
Are there contractual terms and conditions relating to use? Are customers able to specify the university of maryland application essay quality (grade) of the work)? Is the van helsing assignment Intellectual Property in the work retained by the company? Does the work come with a ‘plagiarism-free’ guarantee? Does the site state that the products are to be used for ‘research’ only? Does the site offer ‘qualified’ or ‘expert’ writers?
Is the advertising potentially misleading (compared to disclaimer/terms + conditions)? Shown below are questions that we asked of the websites. We then considered the Fraud Act in detail, informed by belonging identity statements answers to the questions below. The Act (UK Government 2006 ) provides for assignment a general offence of on the carried fraud, defined through the three ways of van helsing assignment committing it, which are (1) by false representation, (2) by failing to disclose information and essay (3) by van helsing abuse of position. Each is dealt with in a separate Section of the Act. It is also an offence, under the Act, to obtain services dishonestly and/or to possess, make or supply articles for use in fraud(s). Section 3 Fraud by failing to disclose information. We will consider Section 2 of the act (‘fraud by on narcissism false representation’) later in this paper but at this point it is appropriate to briefly address Section 3 of the Act which makes it an offence to fail to disclose, to another, information for which there is van helsing london a legal duty to thesis statements, disclose. For instance failing to disclose information in relation to a contract of van helsing insurance or a doctor failing to disclose to a hospital that certain patients referred by him or her for treatment are private patients, thereby avoiding a charge for the services provided. A legal duty to disclose information can arise as a result of university a contract between two parties or because of the existence of a particular type of professional relationship between them; for example, a solicitor/client relationship. In its report on Fraud (Report on london assignment a reference under section 3(1)(e) of the Law Commissions Act 1965 No.
276 Cm 5560 2002) the Law Commission made the following comments about the circumstances in which a legal duty might arise: “7.28 … Such a duty may derive from statute (such as the argumentative essay things carried provisions governing company prospectuses), from the fact that the transaction in question is one of the utmost good faith (such as a contract of insurance), from the express or implied terms of a contract, from the london custom of a particular trade or market, or from the existence of on narcissism essay a fiduciary relationship between the parties (such as that of agent and principal). London Assignment. 7.29 For this purpose there is a legal duty to disclose information not only if the defendant’s failure to disclose it gives the victim a cause of action for damages, but also if the law gives the victim a right to set aside any change in his or her legal position to which he or she may consent as a result of the non- disclosure. Argumentative On The They Carried. For example, a person in van helsing london assignment, a fiduciary position has a duty to disclose material information when entering into of maryland application, a contract with his or her beneficiary, in the sense that a failure to make such disclosure will entitle the beneficiary to rescind the contract and to reclaim any property transferred under it.” Thus a key question is whether essay mills owe a legal duty to van helsing assignment, their customers to disclose information? For example, whether they are under a legal duty to disclose to customers that if they submit the belonging thesis purchased essay without proper attribution that they are committing academic fraud. There is van helsing assignment no obvious legal fiduciary relationship between the assistor and the customer (a fiduciary is someone who has undertaken to act for or on behalf of another in a particular matter in circumstances which give rise to a relationship of trust and child research confidence). Thus the london assignment relationship between student customer and essay mills appears to be entirely contractual. In the first instance therefore the child paper legal duty on the part of the company is van helsing london assignment simply to art essay pop, comply with the london assignment terms and conditions of the contract which for the most part are set in the terms and conditions of business drafted by on narcissism them. Van Helsing. These do not routinely place a legal duty on the company to disclose information about the possible consequences of use by a student and in any event as discussed below they routinely warn against child adoption, the submitting of the essay without proper attribution.
Section 3b (i) and (ii) of the Act go on to provide that an offence is only committed if by failing to disclose information the defendant “ intended to make a gain for van helsing london assignment him or to cause loss to another or expose another to a risk of loss” . By failing to give information that use of the medical studies essay through submission at an educational institution may lead to an academic misconduct claim a company intends to make a financial gain, i.e. continue in business and there is potential for risk of loss by the student customer. However essay mills are not usually under a legal duty in the first place to provide this information and in fact as discussed below the terms and conditions of business usually specifically address this point through disclaimers in relation to use of the essay (Similarly an offence under section 4 of the assignment Act – abuse of art essay pop position - is effectively negated). We consider the position in relation to advertising used by essay mills later in this paper – there is a legal duty not to mislead established other than through the Fraud Act 2006. Van Helsing. Making a false representation – section 2. This section of the Act states the following. dishonestly makes a false representation, and. to make a gain for himself or another, or. to art essay pop, cause loss to another or to expose another to a risk of van helsing assignment loss. it is university of maryland college application essay untrue or misleading, and. the person making it knows that it is, or might be, untrue or misleading. the van helsing london assignment person making the representation, or. On Narcissism. any other person. A representation may be express or implied. For the purposes of this section a representation may be regarded as made if it (or anything implying it) is submitted in any form to van helsing, any system or device designed to receive, convey or respond to communications (with or without human intervention)” (UK Government 2006 ). Thus Section 2 of the Act makes it an offence to commit fraud by false representation. Subsection (1)(a) states that the representation must be made dishonestly. Medical Case Studies Answer. The current definition of van helsing dishonesty was established in R v Ghosh 1982. On Narcissism. (Campbell 1984 ) That judgment sets a two-stage test. The first question is whether a defendant’s behaviour would be regarded as dishonest by london the ordinary standards of reasonable and honest people.
If answered positively, the belonging identity statements second question is whether the defendant was aware that his or her conduct was dishonest and would be regarded as dishonest by reasonable and honest people. It seems reasonable to assume that the activities of van helsing assignment essay writing companies would be considered ‘dishonest’ by ordinary standards, particularly when considering the media coverage given to their activities (Henry et al. 2014 ; Andrew Bomford BBC Radio 4’s PM programme ). However it is by no means certain that the second limb of the test would be satisfied given the rationale and justification for essay writing services usually deployed by essay mills (for example, that they offer similar services to those offered by legitimate providers, such as librarians, or they supplement study skills support that may be lacking in educational institutions (Newton and Lang 2016 )) and argumentative on the things they the terms and conditions of business (Table 1 ). However, given the aforementioned publicity around their activity, a claim that they were not aware that their conduct was dishonest and van helsing assignment would be regarded as dishonest by reasonable and honest people is art essay pop subject to legitimate challenge. In any event dishonesty is only a relevant consideration if there is, first of all, a false representation. In simple terms this would mean, for example, advertising that the purchased essays were legitimate to use as a student’s own work. Furthermore subsection (1)(b) of the van helsing Act requires for medical case the offence to be made out that a person must make the representation with the intention of making a gain or causing loss or risk of loss to van helsing london, another.
The gain or loss however does not actually have to essay they, take place. Subsection (2) defines the meaning of “false” in this context and subsection (3) gives the meaning of “representation”. A representation is false if it is untrue or misleading and the person making it knows that it is, or might be, untrue or misleading. Subsection (3) goes on to provide that a representation means any representation as to fact or law, including a representation as to a person’s state of mind. Subsection (4) provides that a representation may be expressed or implied. Van Helsing. It can be stated in argumentative carried, words or communicated by conduct. There is london assignment no limitation on paper the way in which the representation be expressed and therefore it could be written or spoken or posted on a website advertising essay writing services. Van Helsing London Assignment. Section 5 of the Act defines the medical case answer meaning of “gain” and “loss” for the purposes of sections 2 to van helsing london, 4. Under these definitions, “gain” and “loss” are limited to on the things, gain and loss in money or other property. The definitions are essentially the same as those in section 34(2)(a) of the Theft Act 1968 and van helsing london assignment section 32(2)(b) of the Theft Act (Northern Ireland) 1969.
The definition of “property” which applies in this context is thesis statements based on section 4(1) of the london assignment Theft Act 1968 1 which includes money and all forms of property including intellectual property. Therefore in art essay pop, each case of a potential offence under sections 2-4 of the Act, the defendant’s conduct must be dishonest and their intention must be to make a gain or cause a loss, or the risk of a loss, to another. Unlike the deception-based offences in the Theft Acts, no gain or loss need actually have been made. An individual or company providing an essay or coursework to a student for money clearly intends to make a gain for the purposes of the Act even if a student fails to assignment, pay. Here now we consider the specific questions addressed in Table 1 to determine whether or not false representations that were dishonest (in the in the R v Ghosh sense) were being made with the intention of making a gain. All of the companies analysed made some sort of statement, in their terms and conditions, that essays supplied are to be used solely for belonging identity thesis statements ‘research purposes and for assistance only’ or use a variant of van helsing london assignment this form of disclaimer. Some go further and medical answer state that no permission is given to copy the work in relation for van helsing london use with third parties without reference to the company. With reference to the terms and conditions alone it cannot reasonably be argued that an individual or company is making a false representation for the purposes of the essay carried Act as they clearly present, in the terms and conditions, the services being supplied to student customers and the use to which essays may be put, although it has been demonstrated that every few consumers actually read online terms and van helsing london conditions (Bakos et al. 2014 ). Art Essay Pop. However ignorance of the terms is van helsing assignment not a ground in the civil law that they should be ignored. 2 A degree of protection is given to art essay pop, consumers under the Consumer Rights Act (UK Government 2015 ) which applies a ‘fairness’ test to all ‘non-individually negotiated’ contracts.
These give limited protection when agreeing to unfair terms by checking a box on a website relating to terms and conditions. Some websites also carry advertising and exhortations designed to persuade and legitimise activity, for example statements to the effect that students need not ‘waste time’ doing the work themselves; the recent QAA report contained numerous examples of these (QAA 2016 ). The test for potential liability under section 2 of the van helsing Act is medical studies whether or not the representation is untrue or misleading and the person making it knows that it is, or might be, untrue or misleading (italics are authors emphasis) . It is arguable that there is nothing false about such statements – the essay mills are being quite open about the rationale for their services. As such the representations made by assignment essay mills are not necessarily untrue but may be misleading in that they create an impression that essays may be used legitimately, albeit contradicted by the terms and medical surgical studies conditions accepted by the student. There has been significant publicity over the use of purchased essays by students and it is london assignment legitimate to suggest that those offering such services are aware or ought reasonably to be aware of this use. This is evidenced in part by the terms and conditions of some of the essay mills which acknowledge that the essays supplied may be submitted in belonging identity statements, some form by students as their own work subject to a disclaimer that proper referencing as to the source is made by the student. Therefore a reasonable and honest person might well take the view that such advertising is misleading as it might cause a student to reasonably conclude that purchasing an essay and submitting it as their own independent work is a legitimate option, but when purchasing essays students are required to acknowledge by checking a box that they have read the terms and conditions of supply which usually contradict and clarify statements made by way of london assignment advertising. Essay Mills may also point out that students would know or ought to know what actions on their part constitute academic misconduct. The Consumer Protection from Unfair Trading Regulations 2008 are designed to protect customers from false or deceptive advertising or advertisements that leave out important information. Essay. Local Authority Trading Standards Services and the Office of Fair Trading have a duty to enforce the regulations using the “most appropriate means”.
These range from informal regulatory (or self-regulatory) procedures to a civil action for an enforcement order, and, in the worst cases, criminal proceedings (UK Government 2016c ). A reasonable person might also consider that some of the statements used by Essay Mills in their advertising constitute an incitement to commit academic fraud. However, as we explained previously, courts are reluctant to engage with plagiarism cases in Universities and academic fraud is not normally a criminal offence; the student falsely represents the work as his or her own but the immediate gain made by the student is academic credit and not money or property directly. However there is nothing in the section that requires the gain to be immediate and gain in terms of higher remuneration or salary may be made later but there is a question of whether this gain is too ‘remote’ – this ‘remoteness’ is a perceived weakness of the Fraud Act as currently drafted (e.g. see http://www.criminallawandjustice.co.uk/features/Fraudulent-Education ). In addition, although the objective test of dishonesty in R v Ghosh may be made out, the van helsing second aspect of the test (whether the student subjectively views the act of adoption research paper submission as dishonest) may be difficult to establish beyond all reasonable doubt particularly given the advertising adopted by essay writing companies. The advice given by van helsing assignment the educational institution concerning academic misconduct will be important in this context.
Making or supplying articles for identity statements use in frauds (Section 7) Section 7 of the Act makes it an offence to assignment, make, adapt, supply or offer to supply any article knowing that it is designed or adapted for use in the course of or in connection with fraud, or intending it to be used to university of maryland essay, commit or facilitate fraud. Section 8 extends the meaning of assignment “article” for the purposes of sections 6 and 7 and certain other connected provisions so as to include any program or data held in electronic form. University College Application Essay. This should include an essay stored or supplied electronically. Van Helsing. 3. makes, adapts, supplies or offers to university of maryland application essay, supply any article; for use in london assignment, the course of or in connection with fraud; knowing that it is designed or adapted for child research paper use in the course of or in connection with fraud (Section 7 (1) (a)) or. intending it to be used to commit or assist in the commission of fraud (Section 7 (1) (b). “Knowledge” in Section 7 (1) (a) is a strict requirement 4 although in practice, the van helsing use to which the article can be put is likely to medical surgical case, provide sufficient evidence of the defendant’s state of mind. Furthermore as noted above the publicity over student use of supplied essays would lead to a reasonable conclusion that a supplier of an essay has relevant knowledge for the purposes of the offence. However the manufacture of van helsing london assignment articles that are capable of being used in or in connection with fraud but have other innocent uses will not fall foul of this section unless the manufacturer intends that it should be used in a dishonest way (Section 7 (1) (b)).
The terms and conditions of business will mitigate against the commission of an offence as essays are usually required to be used in a legitimate manner. had possession or control of; for identity thesis use in the course of or in connection with any fraud. This section is based on Section 25 of the Theft Act 1968. It must be shown that the Defendant had the article (essay) for the purpose or with the van helsing london assignment intention that it be used in the course of or in connection with an belonging identity, offence. Therefore a general intention that he or another will commit fraud under Sections 1-4 of the Act will satisfy this requirement. “In our view, to london assignment, establish an offence under Section 25 (1) the art essay pop prosecution must prove that the Defendant was in possession of the article, and intended the article to be used in london assignment, the course of or in connection with some future burglary, theft or cheat.
But it is belonging identity thesis not necessary to prove that he intended it to be used in the course of or in connection with any specific burglary, theft or cheat; it is enough to prove a general intention to use it for some burglary, theft or cheat; we think that this view is supported by the use of the word “any” in Section 25 (1). Nor, in our view, is it necessary to provide that the defendant intended to use it himself; it will be enough to prove that he had it with him with the intention that it should be used by someone else.” Section 7(2) of the van helsing assignment Companies Act 2006 also is a further contraindication of the commission of an offence under the Fraud Act 2006 by a company providing essay writing services. This provides that a company must not be formed for an unlawful purpose. 5 The decision by the Registrar of companies to incorporate a company suggests in the first instance that the business of the company is lawful. That decision is subject to judicial review 6 and a certificate of incorporation is not conclusive evidence that all the company’s business is legal. If a company is registered with an illegal or immoral purpose then the Crown (but not an individual citizen) might apply through the Attorney –General to cancel the registration made by the Registrar. 7. Although companies that offer essay writing services may have been established prior to the coming into of maryland application essay, force of the Companies Act 2006 the requirement of incorporation for lawful purposes only is an established principle applying in respect of the incorporation of companies prior to van helsing london assignment, this date.
Thus at the time of incorporation the Registrar must have been satisfied that the argumentative essay things essay writing companies were formed for a lawful purpose. London. The conclusion drawn by the authors therefore is that the terms and conditions of business accepted by students (notwithstanding the argumentative protections given by london the civil law) effectively negate or make it difficult to establish the elements of a criminal offence under the Fraud Act 2006. In their recent report “Plagiarism in Higher Education”, the QAA recommend investigating legislative approaches to tackle contract cheating in the UK and child adoption paper identified the UK 2006 Fraud Act as the most obvious means to london assignment, pursue action (QAA 2016 ). Belonging Identity Thesis Statements. Here we conclude that the Act, as it currently stands, is unlikely to provide a successful platform for addressing contract cheating through legal means – particularly if the london assignment aim is to prosecute the companies who offer these services. This is despite there being some obvious contradictions within the websites – all of the sites contain some form of statement that their products are ‘to be used for adoption paper research purposes only’ yet all also offer some form of van helsing ‘plagiarism-free guarantee’. It is difficult to conceive of college application essay a situation where a plagiarism-free guarantee would be needed for a custom-written essay, unless it was to assignment, be used for submitting as the customer (student’s) own work. The companies may need to protect themselves from copyright violation, but this is distinct from plagiarism and research would be a matter for assignment the companies rather than something advertised to their customers. It might be considered that the university essay behaviours of students using these services could fit UK legal definitions of fraud although, as explained earlier, the courts have traditionally been reluctant to intervene in london assignment, academic issues. There are also a number of potentially damaging consequences to the criminalisation of student behaviour in this way, such as the undermining of trust between students and their universities and the role of university staff in such a situation; which would turn academic misconduct into a legal situation. Argumentative On The. At the very least, this would seem likely to deter action. There is a general presumption that some form of intention or knowledge (mens rea) is london assignment necessary for the commission of a criminal offence because of the impact of criminal penalties (including loss of liberty).
However, some offences are specifically enacted as offences of ‘strict liability’, meaning, basically, that there is no requirement to demonstrate ‘intent’, fault’ or ‘negligence’, although these may then be considered when determining a penalty. Strict liability normally applies in circumstances where protection of the public is paramount (eg a breach of health and essay safety regulations). The authors propose that a new strict liability criminal offence is enacted specifically addressing the supply of academic essays to avoid the van helsing assignment need for a prosecutor to establish intention or knowledge as a prerequisite to criminal liability. The integrity of assessment in Higher Education is at stake and most students progress to roles or employment that will have a significant impact on members of the public, some very directly (e.g. nurses, doctors, lawyers) “No person shall, for financial consideration, or the promise of child adoption paper financial consideration, prepare, offer to prepare, cause to be prepared, sell or offer or advertise for sale to van helsing london, any person any written material which may be submitted as a coursework, dissertation, essay, project report or any other form of answer assignment (written or otherwise) by a student in a university, college, academy, school or other educational institution to such institution or to a course, seminar or degree program held by such institution” Offences of strict liability promote high standards of care, provide a strong deterrent, make enforcement easier and van helsing london usually operate in relation to businesses in which the penalty is a fine so that individual liberty is not at stake. However the art essay pop penalty should be substantial to avoid companies simply viewing a fine as an expense of the business or a nominal tax on illegal enterprise. A strict liability offence may be coupled with a defence of all due care to mitigate against the potential harshness of a strict liability offence.
The defendant can avoid conviction by proving that he or she took all due care to avoid committing the offence. “No person shall, for financial consideration, or the promise of financial consideration, prepare, offer to van helsing london, prepare, cause to be prepared, sell or offer or advertise for university college sale to assignment, any person any written material which the seller knows, is informed or has reason to believe is intended for submission as a coursework, dissertation, essay, project report or any other form of assignment (written or otherwise) by a student in a University, college, academy, school or other educational institution to such institution or to a course, seminar or degree program held by essay such institution” Internationally there have been efforts to london, pursue contract cheating through legal means and these were described in detail in a recent chapter of the Handbook of Academic Integrity (Newton and Lang 2016 ). To summarise here, there are specific laws preventing contract cheating in 17 states of the USA, but these laws date back to the 1970s and have rarely been used successfully. More recently New Zealand developed a law which made it illegal to advertise or to provide ‘third party assistance to cheat’ and this includes circumstances beyond essay writing, such as sitting an exam on behalf of another. Again, this law does not appear to have been commonly used. Partly this may be due to essay on the things, the jurisdictional issues posed by contract cheating. Van Helsing Assignment. As described in the introduction, there are multiple actors involved and each may be in a different country. Perhaps the greatest value in establishing a law preventing contract cheating would be to de-legitimise these services in the eyes of students; having a deterrent, rather than a curative, effect.
Despite our conclusion that the current activities of UK-based essay writing companies do not appear to violate the terms of the 2006 Fraud Act, we have identified other possible legal approaches to on narcissism, addressing contract cheating via a legal means. The first is in the apparent discrepancy between the terms and conditions used by the companies, which frequently urges caution in the use of van helsing london purchased assignments for child adoption research paper misconduct, and their advertising which can actively encourage it. In the UK this is, potentially, a violation of the “Consumer Protection from Unfair Trading Regulations 2008” which are designed to protect customers from van helsing assignment false or deceptive advertising or advertisements that leave out on narcissism essay, important information. Local Authority Trading Standards Services and the Office of van helsing london assignment Fair Trading have a duty to enforce the regulations using the “most appropriate means”. These range from art essay pop informal regulatory (or self-regulatory) procedures to a civil action for an enforcement order, and, in the worst cases, criminal proceedings (UK Government 2016c ). Legal approaches should be viewed as just one means by van helsing london assignment which contract cheating could be tackled, particularly given the limitations of a legal approach outlined above.
Other strategies could include the increased use of assessment modalities which are not so easily purchased, such as face-to-face presentations and argumentative on the things practical skills assessments (reviewed in van helsing assignment, (Newton and Lang 2016 )). Additional approaches would also benefit from support through regulation, such as a requirement from accrediting organisations to include a minimum proportion of face-to-face assessment. In summary then, the current status of the UK Fraud Act ( 2006 ) does not lend itself to successful legal pursuit of essay writing companies in the UK. However this could be addressed with a modification to the Act. The principles identified could be adopted in other countries. Read with section 34(1) of that Act and section 4(1) of the Theft Act (Northern Ireland) 1969 (read with section 32(1) of that Act). L’Estrange v F. Groucob Ltd  2 KB 394. R v Akpom  EWCA Crim 2662 The defendant worked in a registry office.
It was alleged that he had deliberately issued false birth certificates for non-existent children, knowing that they would be used for fraud. Child Research. Five birth certificates were found in the possession of professional fraudsters for their use in making fraudulent claims for benefits. A certificate was held to be an ‘article’ R v Montila  UKHL 50. R v Registrar of Joint Stick Companies, ex parte More  2 KB 197. R v Registrar of companies, ex parte A-G  BCLC 476 – attempted registration of a company to van helsing london assignment, carry on the business of case answer prostitution. Bowman v Secular Society  AC 406. London Assignment. The authors would like to thank Dr Patrick Bishop of the College of university college application essay Law and Criminology for reviewing the manuscript prior to submission. London. MD is Associate Professor in child research, the College of Law and Criminology and Director of the Swansea Academy for assignment Inclusivity and on narcissism essay Learner Success. He is a solicitor of the senior courts of England and Wales (non practising).
He analysed the content of the websites against the UK 2006 Fraud Act and wrote the van helsing london assignment manuscript with PN. VI Is a student author who undertook a research role as part of the Swansea University student internship scheme. PN is the Director of Learning and Teaching at the Swansea University Medical School and has a research interest in academic integrity. He identified the sites and on narcissism their common practises. He also wrote the assignment manuscript with MD. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Argumentative Essay Things They. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and van helsing london reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to belonging identity statements, the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Andrew Bomford BBC Radio 4’s PM programme The man who helps students to cheat. In: BBC News. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-36276324 . London. Accessed 1 June 2016 Bakos Y, Marotta-Wurgler F, Trossen DR (2014) Does anyone read the fine print? Consumer attention to standard form contracts.
Social Science Research Network, Rochester, NY Google Scholar Campbell K (1984) The Test of Dishonesty in R. v. Ghosh. Camb Law J 43:349–360. doi: 10.1017/S0008197300112632View ArticleGoogle Scholar Henry R, Flyn C, Glass K (2014) ?630 and I’ll put you on the way to a first’ Google Scholar Lancaster T, Clarke R (2016) Contract cheating: the outsourcing of assessed student work. In: Bretag T (ed) Handbook of academic integrity. Springer, Singapore, pp 639–654 Google Scholar Morris EJ (2015) Academic integrity: a teaching and learning approach. Child. In: Bretag TA (ed) Handbook of academic integrity. Springer, Singapore, pp 1–14 View ArticleGoogle Scholar Newton P (2015) Academic integrity: a quantitative study of confidence and understanding in students at van helsing london the start of child research paper their higher education.
Assess Eval High Educ 0:1–16. doi: 10.1080/02602938.2015.1024199Google Scholar Newton PM, Lang C (2016) Custom essay writers, freelancers, and other paid third parties. Van Helsing London Assignment. In: Bretag T (ed) Handbook of academic integrity. Springer, Singapore, pp 249–271 Google Scholar QAA (2016) Plagiarism in Higher Education - Custom essay writing services: an exploration and next steps for the UK higher education sector Google Scholar Saunders J (2010) Plagiarism and the law. Learn Publ 23:279–292. Art Essay Pop. doi: 10.1087/20100402View ArticleGoogle Scholar Sivasubramaniam S, Kostelidou K, Ramachandran S (2016) A close encounter with ghost-writers: an initial exploration study on background, strategies and attitudes of independent essay providers. Int J Educ Integr. doi: 10.1007/s40979-016-0007-9Google Scholar Tennant P, Duggan F (2008) Academic Misconduct Benchmarking Research (AMBeR) Project Part II Executive Summary Google Scholar Thomas J, Scott J (2016) UK perspectives of academic integrity. In: Bretag T (ed) Handbook of academic integrity. Springer, Singapore, pp 39–53 Google Scholar UK Government E (2006) Fraud Act 2006. http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2006/35/contents . Accessed 10 Sept 2016 UK Government (2013) The CPS : The Code for Crown Prosecutors Google Scholar UK Government (2015) Consumer Rights Act 2015 Google Scholar UK Government (2016a) Your rights and the law - GOV.UK. Google Scholar UK Government (2016b) Incorporation and names - Publications - GOV.UK. Google Scholar UK Government (2016c) Marketing and advertising: the law - GOV.UK Google Scholar Wallace MJ, Newton PM (2014) Turnaround time and london market capacity in contract cheating.
Educ Stud 40:233–236. doi: 10.1080/03055698.2014.889597View ArticleGoogle Scholar. Share on Twitter Share on Facebook Share on LinkedIn Share on identity statements Weibo Share on van helsing london Google Plus Share on Reddit. By continuing to belonging thesis statements, use this website, you agree to our Terms and Conditions, Privacy statement and Cookies policy. © 2017 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. Part of Springer Nature.
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Van Helsing: The London Assignment (2004) - Rotten Tomatoes
resume repository January 30, 2017 firm: open to jobs w/in 100mi of assignment 53207. Support java builds/Software Development Life Cycle and Software Configuration management under Subversion (svn), Linux RHEL, and Atlassian: Bamboo, Confluence (and Jira: at jr level). Provide best practice advice on SCM and UNIX server administration. Write and belonging thesis statements maintain support scripts in van helsing bash shell, perl, ant and python.
strong in shell scripting, perl scripting. strong UNIX and research paper Windows OS system administration skills. skilled w/several hundred UNIX and GNU tools. support and administration for Subversion (svn), TFS, Telelogic Change, and Telelogic Synergy (SCM) experience configuring/deploying: DNS (bind/named), NFS, NIS, ssh/sshd, apache, jira, SMTP, sendmail, confluence, bamboo, NTP, procmail, spamassassin, exim. TCP/IP networking administration and debugging. awk, sed, make, m4, cron, tcl/tclsh, expect, rsync, find, egrep, mercurial (hg), rcs, SCCS, xargs, diff, dd, vi, vim, HTML, Centos/RHEL, L A T E X, Cygwin.
Atlassian tools: Confluence, Jira, Bamboo. Intel server hardware troubleshooting and builds; DAT, LTO tapedrives. some experience with Electric Commander, C, Informix, PL/SQL queries, SAN, LDAP, RAID, CGI, autom4te, CIFS, Samba, curses, CSS, Tivolii backup, wiki markup, YAML, XML, Virtualbox, VMware, Pascal and london assignment Fortran. Consulting with Ringlead.com, as a perl software developer supporting 3 legacy Salesforce related web applications; bug fixing; enhancements; implementing perl best practices; used git; developed 'git, bash, and essay on the things make' based deployment process; did all upgrades and releases; level 3 application support, was backup and van helsing london consultant for medical studies answer, RHEL 5 and 7 infrastructure/Linux system administration for several cloud VMs - both production and developement. Bash and perl scripting for van helsing assignment, java build and on the they carried deploy automation under Linux RHEL 6, on van helsing london, an Agile Scrum team.
Responsible for: production, stage, and answer test java ant builds: manual and CI builds w/cruisecontrol; scm support (merges/branching), and van helsing assignment builds for 16 applications, including one enterprise web app w/over 2100 java source files and 50 components. On Narcissism Essay. Responsible for/maintained ant build scripts; routinely troubleshot java build problems, wrote various perl and london bash scripts: to start and log builds; analyze failed builds; to automate in of maryland application depth missing class searches; ear compares. DataCenter Migration: I was a co-member of 2 person team supporting, and migrating Jira, Confluence, Bamboo, and Crowd from Walgreens datacenter to van helsing london CatalystRX datacenter. Essay. Recommended specs for VM Xeon hardware for van helsing assignment, jira, confluence, bamboo, crowd Linux servers. Experienced in initial setup and migration of Atlassian tools under RHEL Linux - Jira, Confluence, Bamboo, Collabnet Subversion, Fisheye and Crowd. svn repository admin: monitor commits for application essay, standards compliance; scripted and london assignment scheduled daily svnadmin repo-verify checks; automated project structure checks; wrote svn client shell functions to simplify administration; coded python script for art essay pop, controlled svn branching and tagging.
Owner of wiki-published java-project filesystem layout standard. Van Helsing Assignment. Goto person for svn client commands and configuration, and UNIX scripting; posted svn help articles to surgical case Confluence wiki. Coded GNU make framework for deployment packages, continuous integration, and test installs of UNIX PL/SQL applications with sub-modules having C++, Oracle SQT targets, a variety of scripts, and van helsing config files. Used standard and custom GNU make: functions, and pattern rules; also: rule chaining, limited scope pattern rules, and make conditionals. Medical Studies Answer. Targets: continuous integration, package (archive products), install, clean, and distclean.
Implemented automatic C++ make dependency checking. Perl macro filter written to build variety of custom config files from assignment templates. Legacy support for 4000 line production perl DBI queue manager daemon: analyzed and documented code w/text outline and activity diagram; troubleshot several bugs, and coded fixes that went into medical surgical production. Responsible for production and QC java ant builds using Atlassian Bamboo build plans, and for van helsing london, supporting production AIX Websphere deploys. Assist with Postgresql backup scripts re-design.
Study RHEL ISCSI, GFS, and CLVM - began ISCSI setup running Centos under SUN Virtualbox. In the IT for electronic manufactured devices group, deployed and identity supported Software Configuration Management server applications (code revision control and london assignment project baselining), including problem tracking; setup and maintained build servers for international software engineering of Building Efficiency products. Responsible for: Software Configuration Management (code change management and belonging thesis statements project baselines), software problem tracking, and ECAD electrical engineering services ( 1989-98) for assignment, entire division; system administration for HPUX servers, various UNIX servers, and Windows servers in world wide locations, w/several hundred engineers as end users. Writing shell scripts since 1989, perl scripting and regular expressions since 1995, lead for GNU Cygwin deployment (UNIX on carried, Windows) since 1997. Software Configuration Management. Became project lead for legacy in-house developed SCCS/C based UNIX SCM and build farm, updating to Y2K compliant OS. Sole responsibility for this SCM and it's build servers for van helsing, duration of things position. Van Helsing Assignment. Responsible for released code, maintaining archives 7 years beyond last sales. Assisted in migration from argumentative on the they legacy SCM and build platform to Rational Synergy. Van Helsing. From 2005, sole owner/maintainer of production- compiler build engine servers, and SCM Informix database server configuration. Lead maintainer of a suite of build scripts, and research another suite of build-manager and van helsing assignment developer SCM scripts.
Designed, wrote and deployed dozens of production scripts for SCM and system administration. For early production and many legacy servers, was responsible for both software and hardware. By year 2000 production servers moved into controlled data center environment. On The Things They Carried. Skilled at monitoring dozens of server and application logs, with goal of base-lining normal conditions and resolving problems early. Responsible for van helsing london, new user policy, and the resolution of essay end user SCM issues raised by developers and build managers. SCM Informix database integrity checks were run and validated daily; server application and van helsing OS logs filtered and they checked regularly. High uptime achieved. Thorough postmortems for any unplanned downtime. Always a key contributer, and in london assignment 2005 promoted to primary role: planning work-steps, and executing upgrades/cut-overs for SCM and art essay pop problem tracking software and assignment hardware.
Since 2005 primary role opening and on narcissism managing upstream trouble cases. Van Helsing Assignment. Since 2004 took major role reviewing application upgrade release notes. Was lead on university, application patches. London Assignment. Implemented software engineering's periodic problem tracking server life-cycle updates. Created project plan for child adoption paper, major successful SCM software deployment done by van helsing assignment contractors in medical India. Served numerous remotes sites for van helsing london, the entire Building Efficiency Division of Johnson Controls with SCM services. Created and maintained hundreds of art essay pop production shell or perl scripts for system administration. Administered servers responsible for services and achieved high availability, security, and uptime. Van Helsing. Tools used: LDAP, Active Directory/various DACLs, Mail servers (sendmail), file servers (NTFS/CIFS on child adoption research paper, SAN, NFS). Scripted large 40+GB database conversions for Synergy SCM upgrades.
Global server coordination in multiple continents serving geographically distributed clients. Wrote and deployed trip wire style script to london monitor OS directories, logging changes, to maintain server security and stability. Did local-disk vs SAN time-bottleneck file system performance-benchmarking analysis writing shell and perl scripts to belonging thesis run tests, graphically plotting data, resulting in SAN configuration changes cutting database backup time by up to 20%. Lead support Engineer for van helsing, Computer Aided Electrical Engineering (ECAD) applications - schematic capture, simulation, and board layout in the Johnson Controls production environment. Identity Statements. ProE MCAD application support.
Tested updates on assignment, development server, made stepwise changes, with back-out plans. Argumentative Things Carried. Used and london supported Open Source tools. Art Essay Pop. Wrote code that is assignment, well commented, tested, self logging, and configurable. Administrator for HPUX 10.20, 90s era SUN OS, Windows NT server, Windows 2000 server, and essay Windows 2003 server. Take pride in ownership of servers - get to know them, their logs, their specs, their performance. Experienced in van helsing london disaster recovery planning and college drills. Built automatic system monitoring scheme, that emails pass/fail scheduled-job status reports and alerts for london, problems. Skilled in: collaborative troubleshooting, creating bug reports/minimal test cases for developers, solving problems via IM, email to vendors; intelligent posts to essay mailing lists or Usenet. For years supported fortune 100 engineer end users, local, and van helsing london worldwide; supported and of maryland set up remote production servers in van helsing london Europe, India, Italy, and in identity the US.
Remote support done mainly via ssh; otherwise through RDP, HP ILO, and X windows. Estimated literal elapsed hours/focused-work hour totals: Units below are wall clock hours of focused work, or study where noted. None are credit hours. Van Helsing. Small numbers mean beginner level. shell (bash, sh, ksh): 11000+, bash since 1995. GNU/Linux, misc GNU tools: 10000+ Linux/UNIX System Administration: 2720 (since 1988; Linux since 1996) Software Configuration Management (SCM): 4000+ yum, rpm: 320+ (as end user) svn (Subversion [CollabNet/Linux;cygwin]): 1900+ ElectricCommander: 30 m4: 400+ jira: 210+ confluence: 200+ rsync: 110. cygwin: 350+ apache: 45 PL/SQL queries: 40 MYSQL, SQL self study: 28 tomcat: 10 XML: 30 bamboo: 70 cruise control: 20 crowd: 20 fisheye: 10 vim: 7000+ emacs: 100 AIX system admin: 60+ HPUX system admin: 200 posting questions to argumentative on the things carried Usenet: 300+ HTML: 35 jetty: 20 NFS: 220. iptables: 40 xen: 3 git: 2.25 vmware: 5 LDAP queries: 25 PostgreSQL: 20 openmake meister: 25 UNIX System Internals, posix: 45 (book-study) Data Structures Algorithms: 4 (book-study) msys: 25 exim: 25 Java Ant Build Deploy: 1900 websphere: minimal.
Release Coordination/Management: none perl XML modules: 0.5 perl CGI: 5 perl creating Object Oriented code: 3 maven study: 6 markdown: 12 pandoc: 7 gnome (as end user): 15. Following the GNU Cygwin project since 1996. London Assignment. Periodically ran pre and post release tests, identifying problems that were fixed by the Cygwin developers in argumentative carried response to my test cases. date rendered: January 30, 2017. This page intensionally blank; resume precedes this page. London Assignment. Supplemental Skills section next. Tom Rodman - Ideal Job.
GNU/Linux infrastructure; GNU and art essay pop Open Source application stack possible roles: bash shell, korn shell, or perl scripting Linux System Administration/Automation/DevOps Jira/Atlassian administration Software Configuration Management (Subversion) java/ant build and london deploy; Continuous Delivery support Linux, and: ECAD or MCAD engineering apps on Linux engineering workstations QA/Testing: write shell or perl test scripts industries I will work for: ``bricks and mortar.. Identity Statements. Civilization supporting''; as in assignment engineering, government, education, healthcare, retail, or other non-financial/non-defense services. top aspects of on narcissism essay next job. GNU/Linux infrastructure; GNU and van helsing london Open Source application stack 15-50% of essay things carried work involving bash and/or perl scripting relationships/engineering culture: collaborative: `put it on van helsing london, the wiki', cross training, in-house tools minimal tradeoffs: less than 20% of job on any combination of Microsoft, AIX, HPUX, or Solaris minimal Microsoft Windows, AIX, Solaris, or HPUX responsibilities/dependencies - my passion is GNU/Linux budget/leadership: strong business sponsor for the workgroup; strong technical vision day to college application essay day: root access to Linux server(s), or personal workstation able to write shell and perl scripts to improve and automate on going work and processes engineering work culture, customers should include software or hardware engineers should involve: bash and van helsing london perl or python scripting new job will `grow my career'; position me for on narcissism essay, better job minimal Microsoft Windows responsibilities/dependencies - my passion and investment is in van helsing london GNU/Linux. Estimated literal elapsed hours/focused-work hour totals: Units below are wall clock hours of art essay pop focused work, or study where noted. Van Helsing London Assignment. None are credit hours. Small numbers mean beginner level. shell (bash, sh, ksh): 11000+, bash since 1995. GNU/Linux, misc GNU tools: 10000+ Linux/UNIX System Administration: 2720 (since 1988; Linux since 1996) Software Configuration Management (SCM): 4000+ yum, rpm: 320+ (as end user) svn (Subversion [CollabNet/Linux;cygwin]): 1900+ ElectricCommander: 30 m4: 400+ jira: 210+ confluence: 200+ rsync: 110.
cygwin: 350+ apache: 45 PL/SQL queries: 40 MYSQL, SQL self study: 28 tomcat: 10 XML: 30 bamboo: 70 cruise control: 20 crowd: 20 fisheye: 10 vim: 7000+ emacs: 100 AIX system admin: 60+ HPUX system admin: 200 posting questions to belonging thesis Usenet: 300+ HTML: 35 jetty: 20 NFS: 220. iptables: 40 xen: 3 git: 2.25 vmware: 5 LDAP queries: 25 PostgreSQL: 20 openmake meister: 25 UNIX System Internals, posix: 45 (book-study) Data Structures Algorithms: 4 (book-study) msys: 25 exim: 25 Java Ant Build Deploy: 1900 websphere: minimal. Release Coordination/Management: none perl XML modules: 0.5 perl CGI: 5 perl creating Object Oriented code: 3 maven study: 6 markdown: 12 pandoc: 7 gnome (as end user): 15. Hour by hour, I work in GNU screen, w/several interactive bash shell commandline sessions; and in london a tabbed-terminal-vim session w/many open files. Essay On The They Carried. At commandline often use: ssh, scp, egrep, perl, tar, make, bash functions or aliases, rsync, awk, find, sort, diff, rcs, shell history; shell one liners w/pipes, subshells, background jobs, special shell options, while, for, and process substitution. Tom S Rodman Key Skills. Scripting: bash, Korn, and van helsing assignment Bourne shell scripting; perl, awk, sed, make, m4, python, expect, tcl, msdos batch (cmd.exe), cgi, strong w/regular expressions. Web: Atlassian Confluence wiki markup, HTML, basic Selenium. Languages: bash shell, korn shell ( tested: high end of 'advanced'), perl ( tested: just below 'advanced'), m4, python, pascal, fortran, basic; some involvement: C, curses, SQL, PL/SQL, CSS, XML, YAML. Configuration Management; SDLC Tools: Mecurial hg, Subversion svn, cvs, RCS, SCCS, Jira, make, bamboo, cruise control, ant, diff, patch, sdiff, some work w/autoconf, Telelogic Synergy (SCM http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telelogic_Synergy ), Telelogic Change (problem tracking)
Databases: Exposure to: PL/SQL w/perl DBI and things carried toad, MySQL, postgresql, and Informix; GNU Linux, HPUX, AIX, GNU tools under AIX, RHEL, Fedora, Centos, 90s era SUNOS, Windows Server: NT 3.51 and van helsing london all versions through Windows 2003, (7 various UNIXes) Services: sendmail, NFS, iptables, DNS (bind, named), apache, NIS, ntp, cups, crond, dhcpd, sshd, spamassassin. general skills: svn third party code drops, 3 file code merges, merge conflict analysis, ant java build troubleshooting. Tom Rodman: Tools, Shells, Languages. expert: [ ali at atq atrm awk basename bash bc cancel cat chkconfig chgrp chmod chown ci co colrm comm comp cp crontab d2u date df diff dirname dist dmesg dos2unix du echo egrep env exportfs false fgrep file find fmt fold ftp gawk getopt grep gunzip gzip halt head hostid hostname id kill less ln locate ls make man md5sum mkdir mktemp more mv next nmh passwd ping ps pwd rcp rcs rcsdiff rdate reboot rlog rlogin rm rmdir rsh scan scp 'GNU screen' script send sh shutdown sleep sort split ssh stat strings su tac tail tar tee telnet test time top touch tr true tty u2d umount uname uncompress uniq unix2dos unzip uptime vi vim wall wc wget xargs xterm yes zcat zip. experienced: a2p adduser ash aspell batch bunzip2 bzip2 chfn chroot chsh cksum cmp col conv convert cpan cpio crond dd ddrescue dig dir dnsdomainname domainname dump dumpe2fs e2fsck ed editrights eject ethereal ex expand expect expr fdformat fetchmail find2perl finger formail fsck getfacl ghostscript gimp gnuplot groupadd groupdel groupmod groups gs HTML iconv info ispell join keychain last L A T E X ldapsearch look lp lpq lpr lpstat lsof lynx m4 mail mailx mhbuild mhlist mhshow mhstore minicom mount mutt named netstat nfs nfsstat nice nisdomainname nl nmap nntp nohup nslookup ntfs-3g ntpd ntpdate ntpq od packf par perl pg pgrep Pnews pppd pr printf procmail pwck rcvstore rpcinfo rdist red resize restore rev rexec rmail rpcinfo rpc.mountd rpc.nfsd rpm rsync rxvt rz SCCS sdiff sed sendmail seq setfacl setsid sftp showmount sha1sum spamassassin ssh-add ssh-agent sshd ssh-host-config ssh-keygen startx stty svn mkdir/import/add/ci/co/export/rm svn stat svn diff svn log svnlook svn ls svn cp svn mv sync sz talk tclsh telinit traceroute trn tune2fs tzselect units unlink updatedb useradd userdel usermod uucp uudecode uuencode vigr vipw vimdiff vmstat watch wdiff who whois wiki wireshark xauth ypcat ypdomainname yppasswd ypset ypwhich yum. occasional: alternatives apt automake autom4te blkid cc diff3 free fuser gcc gpg hexdump httpd install ip iptables irssi killall logrotate losetup lsusb lpc lsdev lsof lvcreate lvs markdown merge mkfifo mknod mountpoint mysql naim namei nc newer pandoc patch pvcreate realpath s2p shar since smartd strace svnadmin svn cleanup svn switch tcpdump tic tidy tput vgchange vgcreate wish write yaml.
Tom Rodman Key Strengths. I'm a process oriented, IT engineering generalist, problem solver/troubleshooter w/wide experience knowledge; used to the unexpected. Strong in bash shell scripting. 25 years of shell scripting; 18 years of bash; 22 years of basic perl. Open Source project: http://trodman.com/blog/#uqjau. Strong skills at art essay pop, the command line w/hundreds of GNU/UNIX utilities.
For example: adept w/regular expressions, ad hoc pipeline commands, text string manipulation; at complex timestamp/regex based multi GB filesystem searches. Strengthfinder 2.0 results: http://letstalkpersonality.com/strengthsfinder/reflecting-themes/strengthsfinder-ideation/Ideation, http://letstalkpersonality.com/strengthsfinder/reflecting-themes/strengthsfinder-strategic/Strategic, http://letstalkpersonality.com/strengthsfinder/reflecting-themes/strengthsfinder-intellection/Intellection, http://letstalkpersonality.com/strengthsfinder/reflecting-themes/strengthsfinder-input/Input, http://letstalkpersonality.com/energizing-themes/strengthsfinder-adaptability/Adaptability. See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Now Have years of tagged, organized, and regex searchable personal technical notes, under revision control. Conservative, risk aware, my best practices: careful/workstep level planning; logging system changes and van helsing london assignment daily work; all application and system config files under revision control. Adoption Paper. Believe in van helsing assignment cross training, in sharing skills (thru wiki or 1:1); a backup person and a backout plan. Actively automate admin tasks w/scripts and cron, avoiding hardcoding, providing script commandline options and config files, reusing code w/in script function libraries. Strong troubleshooting, problem solving, and analytical skills. I dig in/focus, define the problem, study, simplify, write on the fly scripts and university college run complex commnand line checks to divide and van helsing conquer mysteries. Many years experience getting answers by posting intelligent questions to art essay pop forums.
Strong vim (editor), 'Gnu Screen', ssh, and london shell commandline skills at thesis statements, the UNIX terminal. Tom Rodman Accomplishments. Created and london maintained production shell or perl scripts for: system administration, software configuration management, account management, mail, time/date scheduling, text parsing, log file analysis, file-system permissions and DACLs, log rotation and on narcissism essay purging, backup, recovery, T E X, ssh, application monitoring, network file syncing or xfer (rsync, scp, ftp, wget, telnet, expect), HTML, disk diagnostics/file-system checking, LDAP queries, code metrics, scheduled jobs, software builds, SCM database sessions and queries, OS-process management, file-system management/monitoring, and search. Created wrapper script to van helsing london standardize logging and metrics for art essay pop, cron jobs across multiple servers, collecting STDOUT and STDERR below a single directory with subdirs named after the job; reports and logs job exit stat in a standard format; self purging or rotating logs; creates flag file to detect unfinished, killed or hung jobs; supports env var assignments and second-level meta-quoting at van helsing london assignment, command-line for of maryland application essay, long 1 liner/no file cron jobs. Did an extensive local disk vs SAN time-bottleneck multi-month analysis using custom benchmark bash and perl scripts, resulting in SAN configuration changes that reduced over night database backup times by up to london assignment 20%. Wrote script, using join, comm, sort, and diff, comparing accounts in Windows trustee groups, LDAP, AD, and essay our application database - discrepancies explained and london assignment emailed. College Application Essay. It saved hours of work monthly, dealing w/(help-desk) related issues w/user adds, deletes, or disabled accounts. Wrote robust/critical shell scripts, using my own library of 33 database related functions, to automate our SCM database upgrades, they were customized for van helsing assignment, the upgrade and ran for over 17 hours on child research, the upgrade weekend processing our 40+GB databases. Created system to manage application config files on multiple hosts at multiple sites using GNU m4 macro language - this simplified global and site specific config file changes; and the update/merge steps for upgrades. Received quick thanks award for london assignment, timely completion of request to snapshot-copy a UNIX multi GB software development environment, to child adoption paper a SAN used by Windows 2003; used Cygwin managed mounts to van helsing assignment handle UNIX/Windows naming conflicts.
Lead project to convert NTFS discretionary access control lists (DACL) on over 100GB of belonging identity statements file-systems on SANs and london local disks for several servers, from one Active Directory Domain to another. Wrote archive, conversion and essay comparison scripts in perl, using 'setacl' to read or change the DACls; wrote specs for an Infosys developer in london India to they carried complete and execute the conversion, which went smoothly. Major successful effort at preparing for and completing an April 2008 remote site, bare metal, offsite Disaster Recovery exercise for london assignment, our SCM and adoption software problem tracking server. Assignment. Worked together w/co-worker on 1500 lines of belonging statements text in about 8 documents w/in the plan. Took a prototype perl code metrics script, rewrote some of the logic, enhanced it to van helsing london handle errors gracefully, added verbose logging, tested, and put in production. This is a SCM code check-in triggered (commit hook) script that annotates code object meta-data w/lines of of maryland essay code metrics based on van helsing, a comparison to the prior version. Following the GNU Cygwin project since 1996, and belonging periodically did a small number pre and post release tests for van helsing london assignment, the project; as a result have identified problems that have almost all been fixed by essay the Cygwin developers after they responded to my carefully documented test cases. Wrote trip wire style script to van helsing london assignment watch perms, ownership, file attribute, size, time-stamp, or file checksum changes in child adoption windows install tree; another script to monitor registry list of installed applications. Have many years of notes, project plans and logs, in one place, in van helsing plain text, under version control, tagged and case answer easily searched. Coordinated successful recovery of a HP Proliant server in van helsing london India, remotely (they were ready to give up on paper, the drive data) - the motherboard was replaced, then we had to troubleshoot an issue w/the RAID controller configuration - no data lost.
Installed, and configured HPUX, in house created, SCCS based SCM repo/build- management server on new hardware, updating scripts as needed. Cut over london assignment, compile build servers to use this new server. University Of Maryland Essay. Was required for y2k compliance under HPUX. Uptime for this server: typically several years.
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The three different types of IELTS essay question. The first rule of IELTS essays is to answer the question. London Assignment. One problem in doing that is there are different types of IELTS essay questions each of essay which poses its own problems. In this post, I talk you through the three main types of essay questions and show you how to identify them and what problems they pose. I strongly suggest that you practise writing essays on each type of question before you get to the exam. You will find a selection of essay questions organised by question type on my sample essay question page. Here you are given a social issue or problem and asked directly to van helsing london, discuss it and very often asked to suggest a solution for case studies, it. In this type of question you are given the assignment, problem (here in red) and then told how to belonging identity thesis, discuss it/your task (in blue).
In many countries schools have severe problems with student behaviour . What do you think are the causes of this? What solutions can you suggest? Many universities charge higher fees for foreign students. Why do they do this? Do you believe that it is fair? “Why do they think that?” “What solutions can you suggest?” There are 2 typical problems with understanding this type of essay question. You are being asked for your personal opinion: it is london, not enough to talk generally about the topic. You must give your personal view . Very often you given two tasks: for example, to discuss the child adoption, causes and the solution. Van Helsing Assignment. If you discuss only one of these, you will be penalised on Task Achievement. The question does not give you much help with ideas: you may need to spend more time planning and thinking of ideas.
Here you are given an university of maryland, opinion about some social issue to discuss. Typically, you are asked whether or to what extent you agree with it. In this type of van helsing london assignment question you are given an opinion (in red) and medical case then told how to discuss it/your task (in blue). Sometimes the question is longer and van helsing assignment you are given some background information (in green), then the adoption research paper, opinion and then the task. Fatherhood ought to be emphasized as much as motherhood. Van Helsing London Assignment. The idea that women are solely responsible for deciding whether or not to have babies leads on to the idea that they are also responsible for bringing the children up . To what extent do you agree or disagree? Currently there is a trend towards the use of alternative forms of medicine.
However, at best these methods are ineffective, and at worst they may be dangerous. To what extent do you agree or disagree? “What is you opinion?” “Do you agree that…” “To what extent do you agree?” Discuss. There are three typical problems with understanding this type of essay question: The questions are simply longer to read and sometimes harder to understand. Spend plenty of research paper time reading the van helsing assignment, question and underlining the key words and of maryland college application essay making sure you understand what words like “this” and “these” refer to.
It can be easy to confuse the background information from the opinion. You must discuss the opinion (the bit in red). Van Helsing. If you only discuss the art essay pop, topic (the bit in van helsing, green), you will be penalised on Task Achievement. Child Adoption Research Paper. You need to discuss the opinion in the question. Van Helsing Assignment. You cannot only give your opinion. Here you are given a problem or issue and two different solutions or opinions about it. Typically, you are then asked to decide which solution/opinion is the better. The argument type essay question has two main types. Identity Thesis Statements. In the london assignment, first type, you get two different situations or opinions (red) and then your task (in blue) is to decide between them.
In some countries people pay different rates of tax depending on their salary , in other countries everyone pays the same rate . Which do you believe is the best system? In the second type, you get a solution (in red) to a situation (in green) and you then your task (in blue) is to discuss the adoption research, advantages and london disadvantages of that solution. Unemployment is case, one of the most serious problems facing developed nations today . What are the advantages and/or disadvantages of reducing the working week to thirty five hours ? “What are the advantages and disadvantages of this” There are two typical problems here: The essay discusses the problem generally and doesn’t talk about advantages or disadvantages or make a choice between the assignment, two options. Again this will be penalised under Task Achievement. The essay only looks at the advantages or the disadvantages.
It needs to look at essay both sides of the question. I would like to emphasise that you may well find questions that could fall into two different categories. That is not so important. London. What really matters is learning to look at each question and essay deciding what precisely it is asking you to van helsing london, do and college application what possible problems it poses. This is my very simple checklist to help you decide which type of van helsing london assignment question you are looking at: 1. Does it ask me what my own opinion is university of maryland essay, about a topic? > Discussion question > Use my own opinions. 2. Does it ask me to discuss a particular proposal? > Proposal question > Discuss that proposal. 3. Does it ask me to decide between two different opinions or look at the advantages and disadvantages of van helsing london assignment a topic > Argument question> Discuss both sides and come to a decision.
Look at these reported recent IELTS questions and decide which type of essay you need to write: Many people have an unhealthy diet and do not take enough exercise. Adoption Research. What do you think are the reasons for this and what can be done to encourage people to lead a more healthy lifestyle? Although countries with long average working hours are economically successful, this often has some negative social consequences. To what extent do you agree or disagree? Some people think that paying taxes is enough to contribute to van helsing london, society. Others argue that being a citizen involves more responsibilities. Discuss. Many people argue that children should stay in of maryland college, school until the van helsing london, age of eighteen. What are the advantages and studies answer disadvantages of making school compulsory until the age of 18?
Many people nowadays leave their county to work abroad and take their family with them. What are the van helsing assignment, advantages and disadvantages in terms of family development? Get more essay advice in belonging thesis statements, your inbox. How to like it, share it and van helsing london share it. Get more help with IELTS preparation on the main pages of my site. Keep up with me on Facebook - all the updates and even more advice there. Or just get all my free lessons by belonging, email. 46 Responses to The three different types of IELTS essay question. I have a question about the checklist above.
1. Does it ask me to van helsing london assignment, give my own opinion about argumentative they a topic? > Discussion question > Use my own opinions. — It seems to london assignment, me this is a proposal question. 2. Does it ask me to discuss a particular opinion about child adoption paper a topic? > Proposal question > Discuss that opinion. Thanks for london assignment, your highly intelligent comment. I have rewritten that section slightly now in the hope that it is clearer. There is of maryland essay, perhaps a slight difficulty with terminology here. I’m tying to avoid the word “opinion essay” as much as possible. London. This post is not so much about the type of essay you write, as about understanding the problems of the essay question. For me, this is child research, a necessary first step. Van Helsing. I will in due course be looking at different types of essay. My point in distinguishing between proposal and discussion questions is this: in the “Proposal Question”, you are “discussing” someone else’s point of view whereas in the “Discussion Question” you need to belonging identity statements, find your own solutions to a problem.
For some candidates, the van helsing london, “Discussion Question” is nasty as it gives them less help with ideas. When you come to write the essay, you will of course need to give your own opinions. Art Essay Pop. From that point of view it doesn’t matter what type of essay question you get. Thank you for further explanations and rewriting. Now I understood that you are telling about understanding the problems of the essay question and key points when I answer to london, different type of argumentative on the things they questions.
I have a slightly irrelevant question. Is it okay to van helsing london, involve some ‘invented’ statistical data to case studies answer, an essay, when writing an example. For instance: It has been proved scientifically that over 40 % of people hate their jobs. thank you in advance. No problem whatsoever. There is van helsing, no lie detector test in IELTS – it is after all only a test of on the carried your English.
I would advise you, however, to be slightly careful not to be carried away when you do it. It certainly helps to keep your “data” plausible and you need to make sure that it fits in with the essay question. In some ways it could even be seen as a “good thing” as it makes your writing more academic. Although in truth the IELTS essay is not a particularly academic piece of writing and I would generally advise you to keep your writing fairly plain and simple, as opposed to trying to london, show off academically. IELTS examiners are not academics! Here are some sample phrases for you to consider: It has been demonstrated that. Research has shown that. A recent opinion poll showed that. thanks, this clarifies a lot.
hello again, Mr.Cole. There’s one thing that’s unclear to me about the proposal essay. Here’s the example. “Education should be free. To what extent do you agree or disagree? ” Should I take a firm position about only one side ( agree or disagree) and then devote the surgical case answer, whole essay to van helsing london, proving this particular side, or should I describe both plus and minus of the statement and then say what i think in the conclusion ?? My overall band score is 7.5! Partly, this is your merit as well, since I was using plenty of information from your website when trying to figure out the essay question type or developing my reading strategy. Medical Surgical Case Answer. Thaks alot! I wish you further sucess.
Need your help in ielts . My test is on 24 sep 2016. 4 weeks back i suddenly got the idea of attempting ielts, so i booked a slot and had a descent 2 weeks of time to prepare . But due to various reasons ( and london assignment most importantly laziness) the amount of university essay time left to me for van helsing london, preparation got reduced to 2 days.. jus 2 days to research paper, go for IELTS and i din had any idea about it..i was going through the sample tests provided my British council but it hardly gave me any confidence… it was during that time when i accidentally came across your website.(Serendipity. )) and i was amazed.. All the information provided here were so organized and the instructions you provided were so simple but yet very effective.. i concentrated the last 2 days before my exam on your website..following all your guidelines.. ( especially the way you described the working of brain under pressure was cool..) and did my best at the exam.. And today i got my result..an overall band of 7.5.. thanks a lot sir. ):) Thank you very much! I’ve struggled to van helsing, picture the 3 types, and they are clear to argumentative on the carried, me now. This is Ajay from India.
I have taken IELTS 5 times till now any everytime I am getting 6.5 ..I disparately need 7 score but I am not able to understand where I am loosing that much needed 0.5. Can you help me to london, understand this. Also is university application, there anyway you can review my essays. I’m simply too busy yo help sorry. It’s partly for this reason I’ve added online tutors to van helsing, the site.
They all look at essays. So I suggest you contact one of them. Good luck with the 7. how could u got 6.5band in yur ielts. In advantages and disadvantages essay, can be take one side either of advantages or disadvantages in conclusion paragraph.
please reply soon because my ielts test is coming soon. This will depend slightly on how the college essay, question is worded. Always always read the question very carefully. If the question is “Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of van helsing this proposal”. I would suggest you need to mention both sides of the argument in your conclusion.
This is because your conclusion should reflect your whole essay. You can of argumentative essay on the things they carried course also say that in your opinion the van helsing assignment, advantages are greater than the disavantages and so write more about them. Another common form of advantage/disadvantage essay question is “To what extent do you agree or disagree with this proposal?” Here you have 3 basic options: 1. You can agree. 2. You can disagree.
3. You can agree and disagree. In this case, you must make your position clear in the conclusion. hello Mr cole i realy want to thank you for sending me this amazing email But i have one question ihave taken ielts exam thrice and on every exam 5 without any develope idont know why the same mark. i have only art essay pop, 1 day for van helsing london, my exam still iam confused about writing can plzzzzzzzzzzz help so dat i can get a band 7 in writing. infact while searching on net i came to know about ur site and i really found it very helpul but still give me tips for d last minute preparation plzzzzzzzz. One day before is too late to do anything serious. the best thing you can do is relax and clear your head.
It helps to have a clear strategy for child adoption paper, each paper – particularly for timing. If you feel in control, you feel better and should perform better. I have recently written IELTS and assignment was given a problem to discuss in writing. The topic was :now-a-days the natural beauty like rivers, mountains and lakes are getting damaged by garbage and waste by people. Why do people do that? What do you think should be done to prevent this? I have explained it well(I guess) with an introduction paragraph followed by two paragraphs emphasizing two reasons why people doing this with one reason in each paragraph. These two paragraphs are followed by two paragraphs explaining what should be done to prevent this with one solution in each paragraphs.
I forgot to write a conclusion paragraph. Adoption Research. Do we really need to assignment, give conclusion for a problem task in the end? Thank you and awaiting for your reply. Yes, i’m afraid you do. An essay without a conclusion is not an essay and you will have been penalised for task response. Adoption Paper. It is not perfect but the london, advice is to write a sentence conclusion if you are running out of time so that at least you have something there for the examiner to look at. For me, a good conclusion does make an child adoption research, essay better. It is a skill worth practising. It need not be a long/complex conclusion, but if you can briefly summarise the essay and return to london, the introduction, it does help your task response.
I have recently written IELTS and adoption research paper was given a problem to discuss in van helsing london, writing. The topic was :now-a-days the natural beauty like rivers, mountains and lakes are getting damaged by belonging thesis statements, garbage and van helsing waste by people. Why do people do that? What do you think should be done to prevent this? I have explained it well(I guess) with an of maryland college essay, introduction paragraph followed by two paragraphs emphasizing two reasons why people doing this with one reason in each paragraph. These two paragraphs are followed by two paragraphs explaining what should be done to prevent this with one solution in van helsing assignment, each paragraphs. I forgot to write a conclusion paragraph. Do we really need to give conclusion for a problem task in the end? Thank you and awaiting for your reply. Yes, sadly for you the conclusion is needed.
It is an essential part of an essay. I would like to Thank you and argumentative essay on the things all the Blog participants for clearing out many confusions for IELTS candidates. However, I have few questions where I feel myself weak. 1. How can I use a strong vocabulary in Writing Exam? Is there any list of good words which can be used instead of assignment general words? 2. Reading Exams are lengthy, the identity thesis statements, pressure built’s more when you are on london assignment, the last passage with tough vocabulary to understand and have a general idea. What do you suggest?
Please, do pray as I am appearing for IELTS tomorrow. Good luck tomorrow. Get a good night’s sleep and try to relax is art essay pop, my best advice. On writing the best vocab is very often simple vocab. many candidates get this wrong and try and use over-complex words. Van Helsing London Assignment. You may not believe this, but all my essays are at least band score 8.0 and mostly 9.0. Don’t be fooled that they use simple language. Child Adoption Paper. They are well written and clearly written. A key to writing is van helsing assignment, understanding that 50% of the score is for coherence and task response. Take a look at adoption paper IELTS Simon’s blog – you will find he says the same thing. On reading, yes time can be a problem. Remember some questions are just plain hard and would trick intelligent native speakers.
Don’t get stuck, move on. Thank you for shedding some light on the types of essay that might be posed on IELTS exams and strategies on how to tackle it. However, I have been led to believe that in proposal questions, especially when the van helsing, questions goes ” To what extent….” I have to give caveats to the proposal rather than fully agree or disagree. And believe me there are some topics that I have very strong views about and yet my marker penalised me on TR for not stating to what extent I agree or disagree with the stated proposals even though in my essays I have written I strongly believe!! As a result I am one confused bunny and of maryland college application essay find proposal questions a nightmare!! Please help!
your blog is wonderful and does wonders in helping for the. exam. however, your essay question types is van helsing london, confusing, especiall proposal and argumentitive coz all of art essay pop them are answerd using the same approach, i.e argumentitive type. I have got IELTS exam after 2 weeks and i need to get 7 each in any case. Van Helsing London Assignment. last time i just got 5.5 in writing could you please help me how to improve my writing in couples of week. I am preparing for belonging identity thesis statements, my IELTS exam scheduled on van helsing london assignment, 26th of May and your website has helped me in understanding the expectations of this test. It has been a while since I have written any letters and essays and this worries me a lot whether I would be able to write material of Band score 7+. Thanks a lot for the detailed information. I am confused about the types of writing. You mentioned the different types but not the ways to on narcissism essay, answer each of them. Could you illustrate how to answer the different types please? I will give the exam about 45 days later.
Do you have any recommendation about writing and van helsing london assignment other things? In August the plan to produce an essay a day – each essay illustrating a different writing skill – this should include looking at different types of essay questions. I didn’t get it. Have you answered my question. Thesis. Could you mention a comprehensive resource to find out london, these types and the way to child adoption research, answer them please? Hi – the resource I was thinking of appears not to be available on van helsing london assignment, the internet and child adoption research so I will need to london, put something together myself to surgical case, help you out. For the time being I suggest you check out london assignment, writefix – this is an excellent writing site where you can find different types of essays illustrated. I aim to post something on this in the next few days – possibly Monday. In the meantime, can I suggest that there is no one way to identity thesis statements, answer each question type ie an opinion essay is ABBA , a discursive essay ABCA and so on. It is perfectly possible for instance to look at both sides of the argument in a “do you agree/disagree” type question much as you would in a discuss essay. It all depends on what you as a an individual think about that question.
One person may choose to answer the question in one way and another in another way. The examiner does not sit down and say “This is an opinion essay and van helsing assignment it must be structured like this”- rather they look at whether you have answered the question as it is asked. i’m really confused Rayn’s website mention some steps which looked too easy to follow but when i read some para from the ielts book the follow another steps ( totally different ) …. i’m nt that good in English to join both of them or choose which one is the best …… SO PLEASE CAN YOU HELP ME . i’m dying to get only band 5 because my university asked for that. please reply soon #128577; i have an exam after 15 days. Thanks a lot for these very informative lessons you have done.
I would like to ask further information in writing proposals or “to what extent questions”. Of Maryland College. How many paragraphs should one write? Is it a 5 paragraph essay? No one answer to this question. It depends in van helsing assignment, what is in your head! You should be prepared to on narcissism essay, write both 4 and 5 para essays. If you have more points, it will be 5. Assignment. If you have only 2 points, then a 4 para essay is child adoption research paper, fine.
There are numerous essay writing directive words that a student needs to be across (e.g. discuss, describe, explain, compare, contrast, etc). If you don’t clearly understand what is being asked of van helsing london assignment you, then you have next to no chance of on narcissism writing an excellent essay. Agreed. I would add as a personal opinion that I believe it is assignment, dangerous to focus on “types of essay”. My strong preference is to focus on on narcissism, the question and london answer that question in on narcissism, a logical way. Van Helsing Assignment. The danger of following a format for an opinion essay, for art essay pop, example, is van helsing assignment, that you can fail to address the art essay pop, question by concentrating too much on assignment, a particular format. 1)Many people have an unhealthy diet and do not take enough exercise. What do you think are the reasons for this and what can be done to encourage people to lead a more healthy lifestyle? —- My answer: Discussion type. 2) Although countries with long average working hours are economically successful, this often has some negative social consequences.
To what extent do you agree or disagree? —- My answer: Proposal type. 3) Some people think that paying taxes is enough to contribute to society. Others argue that being a citizen involves more responsibilities. Discuss. —- My answer: Discussion type. 4)Many people argue that children should stay in school until the university application, age of assignment eighteen.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of making school compulsory until the age of 18? —- My answer: Argument type. 5) Many people nowadays leave their country to work abroad and take their family with them. On Narcissism. What are the advantages and disadvantages in terms of family development? —- My answer: Argument type. This is van helsing london, one of those lesson I’m in the process of reviewing and updating. I hope to produce a much clearer version soonish.
Hi there, I enjoy rdading t?rough yo?r post. ² wanted to write a little cokmment tto support ?ou. In your description on art essay pop, essay types you have mentioned “you will be penalised under Task Achivement” but Task Achievement criterion is van helsing, used in marking Task 1 , I guess. Okay – nice observational skills. TY for comment. I need to update my resources on this generally. But in truth task achievement and identity thesis task response are close to interchangeable as names.
It is important to see though that task 1 does have its own criteria. it would be really helpful if you wrote other articles about van helsing london different types of essays and general structures for each type. I hope you would consider doing it, thank you so much for your advice on this site! […] Question type Read the IELTS question carefully and ensure that you know what you are being asked to write. It’s no use putting pen to paper until you are sure you know what type of essay you are being asked to produce.
Dominic Cole expalins things very well on this page. […] […] is a proposal type question where we are asked to give our opinion about whether improving health education would have a […]
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AllBright secures ?1.85M Series A, as women-led ventures ramp up in the UK. Unfortunately, most funding networks are often old boys’ clubs. But more women-led investor firms like BB Ventures, Kapor Capital and Backstage Capital in the U.S. and Allbright in van helsing assignment the U.K. are demonstrating to the VC world that you can bring real business AND be intentional about funding diverse ventures, at art essay pop the same time. Who knew? AllBright – the collective for van helsing london, working women launched in November 2016 to provide tailored training, space and funding for female founders and executives – is gradually getting to that exact point. It’s now closed its series A round, which, although not a fund, will be an of maryland investment into AllBright’s operations itself. This will see it move into the provision of physical space for female founders and working women. Founded by london assignment Debbie Wosskow OBE (founder and university of maryland college essay, former CEO of Love Home Swap) and london assignment, Anna Jones (former CEO of Hearst UK), Allbright’s ?1.85m series A round has been led by a Cain International consortium including leading property developer Galliard Homes, alongside individuals including Robert Swannell (MS), Mervyn Davies (Corsair), Paul White (Frogmore), Ben Samuels (WeWork) and belonging, Jan Hall (Heidrick Struggles/JCA). Van Helsing Assignment? The idea here is to become known as the “premier destination for female business leaders and executives keen to take their companies and careers to the next level.” Allbright is already investing, having backed six female-led businesses since launch (including Chiaro, the smart consumer devices company, and essay on the they carried, Piccolo, an organic baby food brand).
It’s also launched the van helsing london AllBright Academy, a digital and in-person educational platform for women wishing to start or scale their own business. It’s also created the inaugural ‘FoundHER’ Festival of Female Founders, bringing together a line-up of over 80 speakers and art essay pop, 1,000 attendees over the course of assignment, six days in on narcissism London and Manchester. Speakers included Cath Kidston, Liz Earle, Martha Lane Fox and Sarah Wood. Plus, it’s appointed Erica Allen as Chief Operating Officer, previously of van helsing london assignment, HomeAway (acquired by Expedia) and Farfetch. Debbie Wosskow said: “We are delighted to be working with Cain International, Galliard and our group of angel investors.
In the ten months since AllBright launched, we have begun to art essay pop, build a network for working women that we hope can make the UK a great place for female founders and van helsing assignment, executives. We’re excited for the next stage of scaling up our platform, events and funding over the coming months.” However, Allbright does not have a monopoly on backing women in art essay pop tech in the UK. Blooming Founders, started by entrepreneur Lu Li, is also aiming to create “London’s First Business Club for Female Founders” and will open its Blooms space on October 9th in Old Street, London. Blooms is designed to “create an inspirational environment for female founders to work from and do business in.” It will offer a curated membership: a supportive network of london, founders, freelancers, advisors and investors and will be open 7 days a week with a Creche on site. Li says Blooms has been created for women, but is university college application essay open to van helsing assignment, all genders.
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How to Improve Your Essay Writing Quickly: A Step-by-Step Guide. Stephanie Allen read Classics and English at van helsing assignment, St Hugh’s College, Oxford, and is currently researching a PhD in Early Modern Academic Drama at the University of belonging identity thesis, Fribourg. Whatever your brand of brilliance – whether you’re a physics genius, a sporting hero or (like me) a blinky, bookish type – there comes a point in most students’ academic careers when being good at life means being good at essays. As the subjects you study get more advanced and complex, you’re increasingly asked to think, evaluate, and have opinions where you once might have simply made calculations or learned definitions. In general, the further you progress through your education, the more rote learning will be replaced by the kind of analysis usually best demonstrated by van helsing london essays. If by some miraculous feat you manage to avoid writing anything substantial at high school, it’s something you’ll almost certainly have to child adoption face at assignment, university – yes, even if you’re studying a science subject (although the on narcissism essays won’t usually be quite as long). One way or another, essay writing comes to us all. In essays, like running, practice makes perfect; but with running the correlation is van helsing more obvious. The likelihood is that at some point in the not-too-distant future (unless you are both incredibly reluctant and startlingly resourceful) you will have to write an essay, either in exam conditions or in your own time, that will count towards a final grade in some way. Adoption Research Paper. If this is a scary prospect for assignment, you, there’s good news and essay things, bad news.
The bad thing about london essay writing is studies answer that it’s not something – like French verbs, or the ability to run long distances – that miraculously gets better on its own if you just keep having a go. To improve at van helsing london, essay writing, students often need a paradigm shift: to figure out exactly what isn’t working, and why, and to learn and medical surgical case answer, apply a new way of doing things. The good news, on the other hand, is that the individual skills required to write a strong essay are things you can learn, practise and improve in. This article is all about pinpointing what those skills might be, and giving you some suggestions as to how you might develop them. Not all these tips will work for all of van helsing london assignment, you, but being good at essay writing, like being good at any other school-related discipline, is identity thesis all about trying different things, and devising your own way of doing things. Libraries are purpose-designed for studying. Bedrooms aren’t. Before you even start planning an essay, I’d recommend you sit down and have a quick think about how you want to van helsing london do it. First, what resources will you need?
The internet, or library books? This might affect where and how you decide to on the things they carried work: I have wasted a huge amount of time trying to find versions of articles on the internet that I knew were in assignment books at the library, or procrastinating because I wanted to university of maryland work at home rather than leaving the house. I would recommend taking yourself to a library ninety-nine times out of a hundred. Secondly, if you’re working from books or downloadable articles, can you afford to london work somewhere without the internet? The absence of Facebook and Instagram will guarantee your concentration will be about a hundred times better, which will show in the quality of your work. Next, make a little timeline for your essay. Make a list of everything you want to read and art essay pop, try to van helsing get hold of all your material before you start.
Think about how long you’re going to spend reading and researching, planning, and writing – leaving a day or two before the deadline to make any significant changes, or just in case things don’t go to thesis statements plan. I’d recommend allotting 3 hours to read a 20-page article, and about a day to write 2000 words. This might sound like a silly amount of planning, but the van helsing assignment point of it is this: hundreds of all-nighters have taught me that essay-writing becomes incredibly stressful and painful when you’re up against the clock, and a reader can tell immediately if something is rushed or dashed off at statements, 2am on the day of the deadline. What’s more, you simply won’t have your best creative ideas under pressure. If you’ve got time, have a look at london, this – comically eighties and argumentative they carried, slightly cringey – video about creativity. Van Helsing London Assignment. A lot of what the speaker says about thinking and playfulness is, in my opinion, directly applicable to essay-writing.
Looking at essay on the carried, things other than the set reading list means you won’t be reading all the same things as your classmates, leading to a more original and interesting essay. Some teachers set reading lists for essays, or make suggestions about where students should look for information; others ask you to van helsing london assignment find sources yourself. Even if your teacher does prescribe reading, it’s always worth seeing whether you can find something extra that will add breadth, depth or a fresh perspective to your argument. However, it’s important to think carefully about child adoption whether a source is london assignment reliable and valuable. What sort of identity thesis statements, sources should I use? The most appropriate sources will vary from subject to subject. Here are some common ones: – Academic articles: These are essays by scholars at universities, and usually published in journals or as books. They are always useful, and can be found by van helsing london looking in the library (ask your teacher for recommendations!), having a poke around Google Scholar, or, if your school has a subscription, on the website JSTOR.org. Search for key words and phrases and art essay pop, see what comes up. – Newspaper articles: might be useful evidence for an essay in History, but may not be detailed or scholarly enough for Biology.
If you use a newspaper article or opinion piece, think about the factors that might bias it and include your thinking in your essay! – Wikipedia: a very useful starting-point, and an increasingly reliable resource. However, avoid referencing it: a teacher or examiner might not like it and may take against your essay. Instead, look at the reference section at the bottom of the van helsing assignment article and see where the writer has gathered their information from. – Online blogs: in general, stay away from these, as you don’t know who’s written them and how valuable their opinion is, or how reliable their facts. The exceptions are blogs by university essay well-known experts. Make notes of things that seem interesting as well as the things that are strictly relevant. Assignment. You want to be sure you answer the university essay question but that interesting comment will often work its way into van helsing, your essay and child adoption paper, you don’t want to waste ages searching for it. It might feel like the world’s greatest faff, but taking good notes from your sources will save you a huge amount of time when you come to assignment plan and write your essay: – Type out notes as you read, rather than simply underlining or highlighting – thus you’ll have a summary of the most important chunks of essays ready to child research paper use when you plan, rather than having to trawl through whole documents again looking for quotations. – For this reason, if you think you might want to london assignment quote something, copy it out in the exact wording of the writer.
– Type notes in a different colour for each new source you read. Art Essay Pop. In order to engage intelligently with what you’ve read, you’ve got to remember who said what, what they meant by it, who they were fighting against and whether you agreed with them or not. London Assignment. Colours are a really helpful visual aid to doing this. – At the end of art essay pop, each new essay or article, write a few lines summarising the author’s main points, and whether or not you agree with them. N.B. Your critical engagement with the scholars and authors whose work you’ve read will count for a huge chunk of marks.
This does not mean listing a load of assignment, names and rehearsing their arguments; nor does it mean disagreeing with everyone for the sake of art essay pop, it. Instead, think about london whether or not what they’re arguing holds true in your experience – or compare them to each other. Decent planning at sea will help you avoid sea monsters. Decent planning in medical surgical case answer essays will help you avoid irrelevant waffle. Planning is the single most important step in van helsing london writing a good essay, and, frustratingly, also the step that’s most often rushed or neglected by art essay pop students. If your essays often get criticised for having poor structure or unclear lines of argument, chances are you need to london practise your planning. I use the following step-by-step process to medical studies answer turn my notes into van helsing assignment, a good plan; you can try it too, and see if it works for you.
1) Re-read your notes a couple of times, and surgical studies answer, underline anything you think is particularly important, interesting, or relevant to the area of the topic you want to discuss. As far as possible, try and london assignment, organise your thoughts into child adoption research paper, sections, and see if you can link ideas together. Tip: It might be that you’ve got two or three different ideas for van helsing assignment, a topic, and you’re not sure which to go with: in this case, you can use a couple of university of maryland college application, different spider diagrams to see which works best. Where do the ideas link together most easily, or fall together into london, neat sections? Which question would you be able to answer most fully?
2) Sit back and look at on narcissism, your diagram(s), perhaps alongside your notes, and work out the main ‘point’ or conclusion you want to make in your essay. The best essays are characterised by a clear line of argument throughout – I don’t really buy the london idea that essays should present both sides of art essay pop, a question. I always decide what I’m trying to london say ; the point I want to argumentative on the things carried conclude with, before I start. Now, the job you’ve got in writing the essay is to set this conclusion up. 3) Work backwards, using the links you’ve made on assignment, your spider diagram: what do you need to argue or show to medical case make your point? Jot these ‘points’ down in a couple of words each. This forms the beginnings of a skeleton for your essay. 4) Start to fill out your skeleton with information from your notes, and any extra ideas you might have. If you’re writing a literature essay, it’s CRUCIAL that you include some close analysis of passages to support your argument. Jot down the sentences that link these in to the greater structure.
5) Fill out your skeleton more and more, until it’s essentially a rough draft in van helsing bullet points. Every twist or nuance of your argument should be in there; every introductory and concluding sentence for every paragraph, making it explicit how this paragraph answers your question. Non-experts can be just as useful as experts for university of maryland college essay, looking over your work; if your essay makes sense to someone who doesn’t know much about the topic at hand, that’s a good sign. 6) At this point, it’s very helpful if you can get someone (a friend or a parent will do) to read over your plan and see if it makes sense. Does everything follow?
Is it all relevant? Your plan should be so complete that the person who reads it will immediately be able to van helsing assignment spot any flaws. Move things around, add or delete to incorporate their criticism: it’s much easier to change something in bullet-point format than when it’s all written out properly. Don’t expect this process to be quick or easy. For a 1500-word essay, I usually write a plan of adoption, about three sides, and van helsing london, spend at least three hours making sure that before I put pen to paper, every kink in essay things carried my argument is ironed out.
The pay-off of doing it this way is that the writing process is short and easy – a case of joining up the dots, polishing bullet-points into sentences – much better than coming up with ideas and organising thoughts at van helsing assignment, the same time as finding the medical case words to van helsing london assignment express them. Get better and of maryland application, better: If you struggle with structure or clarity, practise your planning! Give yourself a limited amount of time (say, two hours), pick three previous essay questions from an van helsing assignment, exam or coursework paper, and art essay pop, plan your answers as thoroughly as possible. Get your teacher to look over your plans when you’re done. The ‘actual writing’-bit can be the london most daunting and stressful part of the medical case studies essay process, and is where most students get stuck. Van Helsing London Assignment. Here are some tried-and-tested solutions to common writing problems: Blank pages become much less frightening when they aren’t blank any more. You can polish your style later; now is the time just to get something written. It’s quite common to want your first sentence to identity be arresting, paradigm-shifting, to propel your reader headlong into your essay.
However, this desire can be paralysing: one of the most stressful feelings in the world is that of staring at a blank page, thinking about the number of words you’ll need to van helsing assignment fill it all up. The key to getting started is to just write something . Don’t worry about research paper how good it is – get it down, and move on, and van helsing london, come back and change it when you’re well into your flow. Go back to your plan and make sure you know what you’re arguing. If you still can’t get the words out, try and on narcissism essay, write down what you want to say as simply as possible. Then move on to an easier section of the essay. Alternatively, you can try going for van helsing london assignment, a walk, making a cup of tea or having a break.
Sometimes, in the process of writing, you’ll realise that you entirely disagree with two-days-ago you, and you don’t really believe in the argument you’re trying to make. If it is the case, go back to on narcissism essay the drawing board. Don’t plough on regardless – a lack of conviction will show in your essay. Return to your plan, and london, see if you can use similar material but change the emphasis, and perhaps the adoption odd bit of evidence, to produce a different argument. Everyone has their own individual writing style: your might be as purple and flowery, or scientific and direct as you like (within reason). However you write, to get top marks, it’s crucial that you learn to be precise . The proverb, “Eggs and oaths are soon broken”, is an van helsing london, example of zeugma. Style-wise, there are two poles of wrongness: vagueness, and thesis statements, over-complication. Of course, every subject has its particular vocabulary, and learning this will be crucial, and sharpen your analysis; but remember that little words are your friends too! Make sure that you know the van helsing london assignment exact meaning of on narcissism, each word you use. Crucially, make sure you know exactly what each word you’re using means, and london assignment, think carefully about whether you’re applying it in essay the right context – remember that whoever is reading your essay will know better than you the meanings of van helsing london, zeugma, stagflation or symbiosis.
Finally, don’t hide behind subject-specific vocabulary: make sure that you’re using terms to contribute to and develop your essay, and nothing of the flow is lost. – Get good at conventions like footnoting, and writing bibliographies. Examiners really do check these! – When you’ve finished, leave the essay for a day or two, and then re-read it. If possible, get someone to proofread for you. This way, you’ll avoid making lots of thesis, silly mistakes that threaten the clarity and flow of assignment, your essay. 25 Responses to “How to Improve Your Essay Writing Quickly: A Step-by-Step Guide” April 11, 2015 at 5:52 pm, l seales said: This article is extremely helpful in assisting me in identifying the pit falls of my essay writing. July 01, 2015 at art essay pop, 9:47 pm, Reels said: Very helpful article which aims for a solid high standard.
September 01, 2015 at van helsing, 3:31 pm, Seng manith said: I’m really poor in writing,so I need some advice from you. Essay. How can I improve it? September 03, 2015 at 9:40 am, ORA Admin said: We hope this helps. November 23, 2015 at van helsing london, 8:06 am, Elham almoula said: Thanks a lot for these important point.. But could you help me how to write a good ambitions essay. November 23, 2015 at 10:22 am, ORA Admin said:
Thank you for your comment. Unfortunately it is difficult for us to advise you on your particular essay, but we have a large collection of essay-writing and study skills articles on the ORA website that may be of use to you. Hopefully you can find something that can help you in the following articles: January 28, 2016 at university application, 7:32 pm, Frederick Armoh said: the tips given to us has help us to know how to write good essays. London Assignment. GOD BLESS YOU ALL. February 26, 2016 at 5:41 am, notabookworm said: I want be a good speaker and amazing writer. I want everyone impressed with me. Application Essay. But, when I’m writing …. blank, lost ideas. When I’m writing a story, I want it turn out van helsing london assignment as a nice story that makes anyone who reads my story impressed. I don’t want to make a cliched one . But, as noted, I’m lacking ideas.
My teacher tells me that you need to read, to enrich your idea, vocab, grammar and so on. I admit that I’m not a bookworm . Belonging Identity Thesis. I’ve been through all the assignment tips on how to improve essays and medical answer, I’ve found your article. It is amazing and van helsing, extremely helpful for essay, me. Assignment. Thank you. May 01, 2016 at 9:36 am, Romona said: Notabookworm, I have a few tips for adoption research, you. If you’re writing a fantasy story, then just take an assignment, everyday object and imagine it into whatever you want it to be. Then you’ll be developing your very own sense of beautiful imagination. March 17, 2016 at 6:11 pm, veer said: Very helpful article could you please advice me how to improve communication skills I want to be come a public speaker please help on that. May 01, 2016 at 9:33 am, Romona said:
What do you do when you’re in a timed test? May 17, 2016 at 12:20 pm, Matt said: I found this extremely helpful when writing. I want to be able to write college level work, and it did work. I have gotten really high grades on art essay pop, my essays when I read this. July 05, 2016 at 9:29 am, Mouhcine said: I have improved my grades drastically when I started reading books that speak most to my authentic self. I do not just read on any topics. Assignment. I select the ones of particular interest to me. I find this very helpful in learning how to write better.
January 08, 2017 at adoption research paper, 1:41 pm, jawed said: hi dear sir/madam. hope you are fine and london, doing well. How can I improve my test essy I am realy intresting to improve my test essy beacause some time I faced to this problem please I need to your helpful. February 18, 2017 at 7:06 pm, Temmie said: I think it is too long. February 18, 2017 at 7:09 pm, HAM said: THANK YOU I GOT BETTER.
February 18, 2017 at 7:09 pm, You said: February 27, 2017 at 9:51 pm, omega said: May 18, 2017 at 5:40 am, kimsong said: I want to be good at write essay and best speaker too. February 27, 2017 at things carried, 9:49 pm, omega said: This article helped me more into how I should lay out everything. There’s just one thing that bothers me, where can I find a good way to van helsing apply my evidence and follow it up with a warrant?
Reply as soon as possible Thanks. June 17, 2017 at university, 4:36 pm, Sammi said: This article is extreemly helpful, and i have started improving my essay writing skills. London Assignment. However in timed essays these skills seem to go out of the window. Do you have any advice for timed essays? August 11, 2017 at 10:00 am, David said: The article is really useful.
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Guide to the Classics: Michel de Montaigne’s Essay. Montaigne: his free-ranging essays were almost scandalous in their day. Etienne Dumonstier/Wikimedia Commons. When Michel de Montaigne retired to his family estate in london, 1572, aged 38, he tells us that he wanted to write his famous Essays as a distraction for his idle mind. Child Research Paper! He neither wanted nor expected people beyond his circle of friends to be too interested. His Essays’ preface almost warns us off: Reader, you have here an honest book; … in writing it, I have proposed to myself no other than a domestic and private end. I have had no consideration at all either to your service or to my glory … Thus, reader, I myself am the matter of my book: there’s no reason that you should employ your leisure upon van helsing, so frivolous and vain a subject. On Narcissism! Therefore farewell.
The ensuing, free-ranging essays, although steeped in classical poetry, history and van helsing, philosophy, are unquestionably something new in the history of art essay pop Western thought. They were almost scandalous for their day. No one before Montaigne in van helsing london, the Western canon had thought to devote pages to subjects as diverse and on narcissism essay, seemingly insignificant as “Of Smells”, “Of the Custom of van helsing assignment Wearing Clothes”, “Of Posting” (letters, that is), “Of Thumbs” or “Of Sleep” — let alone reflections on the unruliness of the male appendage, a subject which repeatedly concerned him. French philosopher Jacques Ranciere has recently argued that modernism began with the opening up of the mundane, private and ordinary to artistic treatment. Modern art no longer restricts its subject matters to classical myths, biblical tales, the battles and dealings of Princes and prelates. French philosopher, Jacques Ranciere. Annette Bozorgan/Wikimedia Commons. If Ranciere is right, it could be said that Montaigne’s 107 Essays, each between several hundred words and (in one case) several hundred pages, came close to inventing modernism in the late 16th century. Montaigne frequently apologizes for writing so much about himself.
He is only a second rate politician and one-time Mayor of Bourdeaux, after all. With an belonging identity thesis almost Socratic irony, he tells us most about london, his own habits of writing in the essays titled “Of Presumption”, “Of Giving the Lie”, “Of Vanity”, and “Of Repentance”. But the message of this latter essay is, quite simply, that non, je ne regrette rien , as a more recent French icon sang: Were I to live my life over again, I should live it just as I have lived it; I neither complain of the past, nor do I fear the future; and if I am not much deceived, I am the art essay pop same within that I am without…I have seen the assignment grass, the case blossom, and van helsing, the fruit, and now see the withering; happily, however, because naturally. Montaigne’s persistence in assembling his extraordinary dossier of statements stories, arguments, asides and observations on nearly everything under the sun (from how to assignment parley with an enemy to whether women should be so demure in matters of sex, has been celebrated by admirers in nearly every generation. Within a decade of his death, his Essays had left their mark on Bacon and art essay pop, Shakespeare.
He was a hero to the enlighteners Montesquieu and Diderot. Voltaire celebrated Montaigne – a man educated only by his own reading, his father and london assignment, his childhood tutors – as “the least methodical of all philosophers, but the wisest and most amiable”. Belonging! Nietzsche claimed that the very existence of Montaigne’s Essays added to the joy of living in this world. More recently, Sarah Bakewell’s charming engagement with Montaigne, How to assignment Live or a Life of college application essay Montaigne in One Question and Twenty Attempts at an Answer (2010) made the best-sellers’ lists. Even today’s initiatives in teaching philosophy in van helsing, schools can look back to Montaigne (and his “On the Education of Children”) as a patron saint or sage . So what are these Essays, which Montaigne protested were indistinguishable from their author? (“My book and I go hand in hand together”). It’s a good question.
Anyone who tries to read the Essays systematically soon finds themselves overwhelmed by the sheer wealth of on narcissism examples, anecdotes, digressions and london, curios Montaigne assembles for our delectation, often without more than the hint of a reason why. To open the book is to art essay pop venture into a world in which fortune consistently defies expectations; our senses are as uncertain as our understanding is prone to london assignment error; opposites turn out very often to art essay pop be conjoined (“the most universal quality is diversity”); even vice can lead to virtue. Many titles seem to have no direct relation to their contents. Nearly everything our author says in one place is qualified, if not overturned, elsewhere. Without pretending to assignment untangle all of the knots of this “book with a wild and desultory plan”, let me tug here on a couple of Montaigne’s threads to invite and art essay pop, assist new readers to find their own way. Philosophy (and writing) as a way of life. Some scholars argued that Montaigne began writing his essays as a want-to-be Stoic, hardening himself against the horrors of the van helsing london assignment French civil and religious wars, and his grief at the loss of his best friend Etienne de La Boetie through dysentery. Did Montaigne turn to the Stoic school of philosophy to deal with the horrors of war? Edouard Debat-Ponsan/Wikimedia Commons.
Certainly, for Montaigne, as for ancient thinkers led by his favorites, Plutarch and on narcissism, the Roman Stoic Seneca, philosophy was not solely about constructing theoretical systems, writing books and articles. It was what one more recent admirer of Montaigne has called “a way of life”. Montaigne has little time for forms of pedantry that value learning as a means to insulate scholars from the world, rather than opening out onto it. London! He writes: Either our reason mocks us or it ought to have no other aim but our contentment.
We are great fools. University Of Maryland College Application Essay! ‘He has passed over his life in idleness,’ we say: ‘I have done nothing today.’ What? have you not lived? that is not only the fundamental, but the most illustrious of all your occupations. One feature of the assignment Essays is, accordingly, Montaigne’s fascination with the on narcissism essay daily doings of van helsing men like Socrates and Cato the Younger; two of those figures revered amongst the ancients as wise men or “sages”. Their wisdom, he suggests, was chiefly evident in the lives they led (neither wrote a thing). In particular, it was proven by the nobility each showed in facing their deaths. Socrates consented serenely to on narcissism essay taking hemlock, having been sentenced unjustly to death by the Athenians. Cato stabbed himself to death after having meditated upon Socrates’ example, in order not to cede to Julius Caesar’s coup d’etat . To achieve such “philosophic” constancy, Montaigne saw, requires a good deal more than book learning. Indeed, everything about assignment, our passions and, above all, our imagination, speaks against argumentative they carried achieving that perfect tranquillity the classical thinkers saw as the highest philosophical goal. We discharge our hopes and fears, very often, on the wrong objects, Montaigne notes, in an observation that anticipates the thinking of Freud and van helsing london assignment, modern psychology. Always, these emotions dwell on medical things we cannot presently change. Sometimes, they inhibit our ability to see and deal in a supple way with the changing demands of life. Philosophy, in this classical view, involves a retraining of our ways of thinking, seeing and being in the world.
Montaigne’s earlier essay “To philosophise is to learn how to die” is van helsing london perhaps the clearest exemplar of art essay pop his indebtedness to this ancient idea of philosophy. Yet there is a strong sense in which all of the Essays are a form of what one 20th century author has dubbed “self-writing”: an ethical exercise to “strengthen and enlighten” Montaigne’s own judgement, as much as that of we readers: And though nobody should read me, have I wasted time in entertaining myself so many idle hours in so pleasing and useful thoughts? … I have no more made my book than my book has made me: it is a book consubstantial with the author, of a peculiar design, a parcel of my life… As for the seeming disorder of the van helsing product, and Montaigne’s frequent claims that he is playing the fool, this is arguably one more feature of the Essays that reflects his Socratic irony. Montaigne wants to leave us with some work to do and scope to find our own paths through the university of maryland application essay labyrinth of his thoughts, or alternatively, to bobble about on assignment their diverting surfaces. Yet Montaigne’s Essays, for medical surgical studies, all of their classicism and their idiosyncrasies, are rightly numbered as one of the founding texts of modern thought. Their author keeps his own prerogatives, even as he bows deferentially before the altars of ancient heroes like Socrates, Cato, Alexander the Great or the Theban general Epaminondas. There is a good deal of the van helsing london assignment Christian, Augustinian legacy in Montaigne’s makeup.
And of all the philosophers, he most frequently echoes ancient sceptics like Pyrrho or Carneades who argued that we can know almost nothing with certainty. Art Essay Pop! This is especially true concerning the “ultimate questions” the Catholics and Huguenots of van helsing Montaigne’s day were bloodily contesting. Michel de Montaigne. Wikimedia Commons. Writing in a time of cruel sectarian violence, Montaigne is unconvinced by the ageless claim that having a dogmatic faith is necessary or especially effective in assisting people to love their neighbors:
Between ourselves, I have ever observed supercelestial opinions and on narcissism, subterranean manners to be of singular accord… This scepticism applies as much to the pagan ideal of a perfected philosophical sage as it does to london assignment theological speculations. Socrates’ constancy before death, Montaigne concludes, was simply too demanding for most people, almost superhuman. Child Adoption Research Paper! As for london assignment, Cato’s proud suicide, Montaigne takes liberty to doubt whether it was as much the product of Stoic tranquility, as of a singular turn of mind that could take pleasure in such extreme virtue. Indeed when it comes to his essays “Of Moderation” or “Of Virtue”, Montaigne quietly breaks the essay ancient mold. Instead of celebrating the van helsing feats of the world’s Catos or Alexanders, here he lists example after example of people moved by their sense of transcendent self-righteousness to acts of murderous or suicidal excess.
Even virtue can become vicious, these essays imply, unless we know how to moderate our own presumptions. If there is one form of essay argument Montaigne uses most often, it is the sceptical argument drawing on the disagreement amongst even the van helsing london wisest authorities. If human beings could know if, say, the soul was immortal, with or without the body, or dissolved when we die…then the wisest people would all have come to the same conclusions by now, the argument goes. Yet even the research paper “most knowing” authorities disagree about such things, Montaigne delights in showing us. The existence of van helsing assignment such “an infinite confusion” of opinions and customs ceases to be the on narcissism problem, for london, Montaigne. It points the way to a new kind of solution, and could in fact enlighten us. Documenting such manifold differences between customs and opinions is, for him, an education in humility: Manners and opinions contrary to mine do not so much displease as instruct me; nor so much make me proud as they humble me.
His essay “Of Cannibals” for medical case studies answer, instance, presents all of the different aspects of van helsing london American Indian culture, as known to Montaigne through travellers’ reports then filtering back into Europe. For the most part, he finds these “savages’” society ethically equal, if not far superior, to that of war-torn France’s — a perspective that Voltaire and Rousseau would echo nearly 200 years later. We are horrified at the prospect of on the things carried eating our ancestors. London! Yet Montaigne imagines that from the belonging statements Indians’ perspective, Western practices of cremating our deceased, or burying their bodies to be devoured by the worms must seem every bit as callous. And while we are at it, Montaigne adds that consuming people after they are dead seems a good deal less cruel and inhumane than torturing folk we don’t even know are guilty of any crime whilst they are still alive… Voltaire celebrated Montaigne as one of the van helsing london assignment wisest and medical surgical, most amiable philosophers. Nicolas de Largillierre/Wikimedia Commons. “So what is left then?”, the reader might ask, as Montaigne undermines one presumption after another, and london assignment, piles up exceptions like they had become the only rule. A very great deal , is the answer. With metaphysics, theology, and the feats of essay godlike sages all under a “suspension of judgment”, we become witnesses as we read the Essays to a key document in the modern revaluation and valorization of van helsing london everyday life. There is, for instance, Montaigne’s scandalously demotic habit of interlacing words, stories and actions from argumentative essay things they carried, his neighbors, the local peasants (and peasant women) with examples from the greats of london assignment Christian and pagan history.
As he writes: I have known in my time a hundred artisans, a hundred laborers, wiser and more happy than the rectors of the belonging statements university, and whom I had much rather have resembled. By the end of the Essays, Montaigne has begun openly to suggest that, if tranquillity, constancy, bravery, and london assignment, honor are the goals the wise hold up for us, they can all be seen in much greater abundance amongst the salt of the argumentative on the carried earth than amongst the rich and famous: I propose a life ordinary and without lustre: ‘tis all one…To enter a breach, conduct an embassy, govern a people, are actions of london assignment renown; to…laugh, sell, pay, love, hate, and gently and justly converse with our own families and with ourselves…not to give our selves the essay lie, that is rarer, more difficult and less remarkable… And so we arrive with these last Essays at a sentiment better known today from london, another philosopher, Friedrich Nietzsche, the author of A Gay Science (1882) . Montaigne’s closing essays repeat the avowal that: “I love a gay and essay, civil wisdom…” But in contrast to his later Germanic admirer, the music here is less Wagner or Beethoven than it is Mozart (as it were), and Montaigne’s spirit much less agonized than gently serene. It was Voltaire, again, who said that life is a tragedy for those who feel, and a comedy for those who think. Montaigne adopts and admires the comic perspective. Van Helsing London Assignment! As he writes in “Of Experience”: It is not of much use to go upon art essay pop, stilts, for, when upon stilts, we must still walk with our legs; and when seated upon the most elevated throne in van helsing assignment, the world, we are still perched on our own bums. Matthew Sharpe is an art essay pop Associate Professor in Philosophy at london assignment, Deakin University.
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