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area 51 essay This paper is an analysis of the key facts behind the Bob Lazar S-4 story. It is management intended for those who are already familiar with the basic story. It is the homework dan gutman not intended as a telling of the management story. The Bob Lazar story can be summed up best with two general opposing set of observations; Everyone involved seemed to essays, be telling the story truthfully to the best of tools project their ability. The Homework Dan Gutman? The one exception seemed to be the tools management claim by Lazar that he had two masters degrees, one from MIT and one from Cal Tech. Nothing found in any investigation of the claim gave the reflective essay on life education claim any support. Despite the management fact that everyone seemed to be telling the truth there were a lot of pieces in the puzzle that did not fit together. Some of these discrepancies included a) Lazar being hired at S-4 without any apparent visible qualifications b) Lazar starting work the publish essays journal day after the final interview and receiving a security clearance reportedly 38 levels above “Q level” when security clearances at the time were taking 12-18 months to process. c) On the first day of work he gets to read over tools project 100 documents detailing various government alien research programs, when the rule would be that all this would be highly compartmentalized, and the homework machine his “need to know” should only allow him to only read briefings related to tools, the part of the program he would be working on. d) After taking Lear and essay on life others to watch the flying saucer tests from the edge of the tools project base, Lazar was not fired. Instead he was told that his security clearance would be suspended for 6-9 months and essay on life he could apply to get it back.

More bizarre is the fact that Lazar was told that the security clearance was pulled not because he violated his security clearance by telling and showing people what was going on in a Top Secret program, but because his wife was having an affair and this made him psychologically vulnerable. After this debriefing, he doesn’t even have to wait the tools management 6-9 months. He is called back to work at S-4 shortly after when they now know for sure he was passing classified material to people with no “need to know.” Although there were many indicators that things should not have happened the way Lazar claimed, Lazar’s basic story of the homework machine being at project management, the base and the homework being exposed to a back-engineering program related to flying saucers remained intact after an 6 month investigation by investigative reporter George Knapp at management, KLAS-TV in Las Vegas and essays journal investigations by other researchers. Tools? There were many things that indicated Lazar might just be telling the story exactly as he had experienced it such a) Lazar underwent regressive hypnosis which would be a strange move by someone who was making up a story. These sessions revealed no deception and indicated he had in professional resume services des moines, fact been involved a program that looked like a flying saucer program. b) Lazar underwent four lie detector tests which he did not fail.

The second session of two lie-detector tests was conducted by Terry Tavernetti who worked for the casino industry and who did lie-detector tests every day. Tavernetti was hired by KLAS-TV and project management his conclusion was “If he’s (Lazar) lying he should be in Hollywood because he gave absolutely no physiological indication of essays journal attempting deception.” c) Lazar named Mike Thigpen as the member of the Office of tools management Federal Investigations (OFI) who interviewed him related to his security clearance. Knapp confirmed in his investigation that there was a person by publish essays journal this name working for tools project the OFI and that the reflective essay on life agency’s job was to do background checks on people who get clearances to work at the Nevada Test Site or at Nellis AFB. Later in his investigation he actually tracked Thigpen down and tools project management confronted him about design visiting Lazar, but Thigpen claimed he couldn’t remember. d) Despite the fact that Los Alamos National Labs (where Lazar claimed he had worked and tools management held a Q clearance) denied any connection to Lazar, Knapp was able to essay children, verify Lazar’s claim by tools finding h is name in the Los Alamos lab phone book, recovering an article that identified Lazar as being a physicist working at Los Alamos, and having Lazar take him on a tour through the buildings at Los Alamos. During this tour Lazar appeared to essay, know the staff, was allowed to go anywhere he wanted and seemed to know his way around d) Most importantly, Knapp found two dozen witnesses at the base, or connected to the base, who substantiated all or parts of Lazar’s story that there were recovered alien saucers and management a live alien at the base. e) Knapp arranged for someone who had worked at the base to question Lazar about how things operated at the base that would not be common knowledge such as where is the cafeteria and how do you pay for your food there.

Lazar was able to machine dan gutman, answer the management questions. f) Lazar was questioned many times on his story and never contradicted himself. g) There are many witnesses around Lazar (including Knapp, Lear, and Huff) who will testify that in percy bysshe shelley essay, the months following Lazar leaving the program that phones were being tapped, houses being broken into, and people were followed. The strongest evidence in this regard is given by Knapp who stated that on project six occasions, people who had agreed on reflective on life the phone to go on camera were quickly visited by people “flashing badges” or claiming to be with the secret service threatening them. In all six cases the people backed out of going on camera. In the case of one woman, who claimed to have been in meetings discussing the movement of alien material from Wright-Patterson AFB to Area 51, twenty years later she will still not even talk to Knapp after implied death threats to her and her daughter. h) Finally, Lazar was able to take witnesses out to project management, the edge of the base on March 22 and March 29, 1989 and let them see a flying saucer test over S-4 that all agreed appeared to be an object best described as a UFO. The object appeared where Lazar said it would appear at exactly at percy bysshe shelley essay, what time Lazar said it would appear. Of the many theories that have been floated to tools project management, explain the Bob Lazar/ Area 51 story the theory that best seems to explain the various discrepancies and facts of the story is that this was a move to shelley, gradually disclose the basic fact that there was some sort of crashed saucer program at S-4. It was masked with various misdirections (some might use the word disinformation) to project, prevent researchers from obtaining solid proof of the saucer program and therefore end the cover-up. This disclosure conclusion is accepted by on life all the main participants as a possible answer to what had occurred to Bob Lazar. Knapp, who conducted the tools project biggest investigation of the case, came to essay, this conclusion; “I’ve worked it longer than anyone and my opinion is that while it is not a black or white story and it is not clear as to what was going on whether Bob was really telling a revelation or whether he was telling a story that was supposed to be told.

I don’t believe he was consciously telling some disinformation thing. I think he was led down a path. Tools? I think they let him see glimpses of stuff. Package Design? They decided to pick someone who could be easily discredited after the story gets out and he was perfect for it. He had such crazy wild interests and had credentials that were not easily provable. They figured let’s see what happens when we tell this story of Area 51… I believe Bob really was out there. Tools Management? I believe he really did see some of essay this. He saw something that looks very much like flying saucers…I think maybe there are factions that wanted this story out. Would people really freak out? How would they react?

It could very well be that they did have the intention – let’s tell this story. Bob gets discredited and then everyone will leave us alone, because we really do have exotic things flying around out there. No one will ever believe a story about what is flying around out here ever again. The effect was that they put it out and then pulled it back. They allowed Bob to tools project management, spill the beans, allowed us to tell the story, and bysshe essay then in the eyes of a lot of people discredited him entirely.” 1. When presented with this theory that Lazar had been taken to the base knowing that he would spill the beans and then get exposed, John Lear agreed and stated that he and Lazar had actually discussed the possibility; “That’s certainly plausible. I’ve always thought that it was possible they were trying to get the project management information out. They said Lear is essay interested in tools project management, it. Dream Essay? Let’s work this out so that he can get the information out. Tools? I’ve always told Bob (Lazar) that we tried our best but we didn’t do a very good job.” 2. Lazar’s close friend Gene Huff said; When you extrapolate that out that there must have been some people that wanted to get it out and some who didn’t – right? I think there was a conflict there because if there was a consensus that they wanted to essay on life, get it out it could have been accomplished. They certainly tried to prevent it after the fact.

He asked them when he was there, “How do you keep this secret?” and they said it’s the easiest thing in the world to do. As long as you don’t prove anything one way or the other – as long as you keep people on the fence and tools management ridicule those who believe or who have seen things, and dismiss the rest it is easy to keep secret because everyone wants to thesis package, say there’s no life anywhere else that we have discovered. 3. The time line of the Lazar story is supported by management other apparent gradual disclosure events that were occurring at the same time. President Reagan was leaving office just as the Lazar story happened. Reagan had a big interest in the UFO subject, and researchers around at the time will remember that there was a lot of talk about Reagan disclosing the truth before he left office, including one rumor that stated Reagan would appear in a video message with the reflective on life live alien. Lazar was hired only five weeks after the UFO documentary “UFO Cover-up Live” which was hyped prior to its airing as a disclosure effort by those controlling the UFO secret. Tools Project? Most of the people involved in the documentary didn’t like participating because the whole production was carefully scripted. Everyone was forced to read from cue cards, and professional resume writing services des moines the material on the cue cards was not what they had written.

No one knew who had written the material on the cue cards. In the small audience of less than a dozen quietly sat the Falcon from the Defense Intelligence Agency. It was Falcon who had contacted Bill Moore for almost a decade providing him the whole MJ-12 and Project Aquarius story. Besides Falcon being in the audience, there were other indications that those in tools project, control might have been behind the show. The executive producer of the show was Michael Seligman who was working for Grey Advertising in New York. Grey had long faced the thesis rumor in the UFO community that it was a front for the CIA. Tools Management? This does not mean that Seligman knew but that the CIA might just have used Grey without being visible in the whole process. Such a story would seem like typical UFO conspiracy theory, except that Grey Advertising had been connected to another UFO documentary where there was influence from government officials.

In 1974 UFOs Past, Present, and Future was released. One of the producers of the journal show Bob Emenegger, was at the time a Vice-President for Grey advertising in Los Angeles. Emenegger stated that the documentary had nothing to do with Grey but it is possible higher ups arranged doing the documentary without his knowledge. Emenegger did confirm at least two items that indicated a CIA connection to the documentary. Project? He did not know why but stated that there had been a CIA agent, Dick Betsy, present during the entire production. Resume Writing? The second thing that Bob brought up was about his partner in the project Allen Sandler. Emenegger told British researcher Robbie Graham that Sandler, “did things for tools management the CIA, and maybe even the FBI… they all seemed to work together.” Despite the essay bad reviews of UFO Cover–up Live by participants, in tools project, the succeeding years it has become apparent that there were items shown in the documentary that appeared to be ideas that officials may have wanted to get out that were carefully hidden within the documentary. These included. Alien graphics – there were thirteen graphics that showed an alien, wire-frame views of the alien’s hands and feet, the brain, and the structure of its internal organs. Essay Children? Later marking were discovered in the corners of the frames that indicated the drawing had come from FTD at management, Wright-Patterson AFB.

Curt Brubaker, a producer, later admitted that is where he had in fact obtained the dream children drawings from Wright-Patterson. Live alien – the story of tools project three live aliens since 1947 as guests of the professional writing des moines United States was told. This is part of what has become known in the UFO community as part of the core story. Many researchers (Whitley Streiber, Linda Howe, Bill Moore, Jamie Shandera, Bob Emenegger) were all offered interviews with a live alien around the time of the tools project management documentary. Linda Howe was even offered an interview with a Captain who had actually lived with the alien in captivity. Crystal – the story of an reflective on life alien crystal was told. The aliens could use it to show us our history and in management, most stories told about the crystal the resume services time of Jesus Christ was mentioned. Tools Project? Linda Howe was told about the crystal. So was Paul Benniwitz, and Moore. Jamie Shandera, Moore’s partner in the MJ-12 investigation, hinted to on life, Greg Bishop just before he disappeared from the UFO community that he had been shown something that Moore speculated might be the crystal.

Bill Moore stated that Falcon had mentioned the crystal “numerous times.” Bob Emenegger had an experience he thinks might have been connected to project management, the crystal story. He was asked by a government official “If we had something where we could show Christ giving the sermon on the mount, how would you present it to the public?” The MJ-12 Navy connection – the documentary claimed that the Navy was the key group in writing des moines, the UFO situation, and that the headquarters for MJ-12 was the Naval Observatory in Washington D.C. Lazar would later state that the Navy was in charge of the UFO back-engineering going on tools project management at S-4. In the early fifties, Wilbert Smith who was in charge of the Canadian flying saucer investigation told people working with him that his contacts to the homework machine, the subject in the United States were from the tools Navy. In the last couple years Ronald Pandolfi, a senior analyst in charge of the UFO files at the CIA, would tell the story that all flag officers in Naval Intelligence are read into the core UFO story. Dream Essay? Following the show the producer was “visited by a local FBI agent--a story that has been confirmed--apparently to discuss the show and project its contents.” 4 Most importantly, a flow chart was shown on the show that indicated how the dream UFO cover-up was structured from the President on down. One chain in the command went President – MJ-12 – DIA – Area 51.

This was the first time Area 51 / UFOs connection was mentioned publicly. It was a full five weeks before Lazar was hired at S-4 and six and a half months before his first backlit interview on KLAS-TV where he went public with his story. Those in control of the UFO cover-up were leaking the tools UFO / Area 51 connection even before Bob Lazar got on the stage. Putting the Pieces Together. Dream? Consider the following possible scenario. The whole story centers not on Bob Lazar but on John Lear. Lazar is tools only a pawn in the game. John Lear had become interested in UFOs, and overnight became a prominent UFO figure just months before Lazar came on the scene.

His family name alone made him a person whose word carried some weight. He had exposed the resume writing services existence of Area 51, the Stealth fighter, and was attracting a lot of attention in Las Vegas and in the UFO community with lectures (including one to tools project management, the Las Vegas chapter of the Association of Former Intelligence Officers) and papers on the UFO cover-up. People were listening to him, and he was attracting big audiences. Percy? Although Lear was popular many in the UFO community at the time had doubts about some stories and management conclusions that he was putting out. Lear knew this making a joke at one point that any question asked of Lazar that started with “John Lear says” would be answered with “John Lear is design a nutball.” The questions about some of what Lear was saying by tools management researchers would make him a perfect candidate for putting out professional resume a story that would get wide distribution but that would not be taken seriously. The targeting of project Lear mirrored the on life targeting of earlier researchers and film producers who were used to get information out but keep everyone sitting on the fence when it came to the UFO reality. In the mid fifties Walt Disney was contacted by the military to produce a UFO documentary to help acclimatize the management population about the UFO reality. He was promised actual UFO footage for the documentary. As he was finishing up on children the documentary he was notified that the film would not be available He finished the project and released it without the film. In 1974 Bob Emenegger and Allan Sandler signed a contract with the Pentagon to produce another UFO documentary.

They received cooperation from all the military and intelligence officials they contacted. As part of the deal they were promised, and actually had in their possession, film of an actual landing of tools project management aliens at Holloman AFB. At the last moment, like Disney before them, the film was pulled at the last moment and reflective on life was delivered back to the Pentagon from Los Angeles where the documentary was being produced. They were, however, allowed to put eight seconds of the video for the documentary not involving the landed craft or aliens. Despite not having the project whole film, the idea that aliens had interacted with the thesis package design military did get out, as Emenegger and Sandler told the project management story of the dan gutman landing, described as “as an event that might have happened” using animation. Two of the management researchers who were targeted to get out information were Linda Howe and Bill Moore. Linda Howe had gained UFO community and media prominence with her cattle mutilation documentary called A Strange Harvest. As she was preparing for a new HBO project on UFOs she was approached by AFOSI agent Richard Doty who told her she had upset people in Washington with her cattle mutilation documentary. The Homework Dan Gutman? He showed her a purported Top Secret UFO briefing for the President, and offered her actual film for the HBO project from the project management alien landing at Holloman AFB. Howe would later share what she had read in the briefing with the thesis package UFO community but was never able to verify any of the tools project information in the document. The idea that there were numerous high-level UFO projects got out and a second message was delivered that there had been an alien landing at Holloman was repeated.

Linda suffered little damage except for losing the HBO documentary caused by Doty’s failure to provide the film. The next researcher target after Howe was Bill Moore who had become a target following the release of his co-authored book The Roswell Incident. Thesis Package? The book was a heavily documented account of the tools management 1947 Roswell UFO crash. It sold over publish essays a million copies and propelled him to the top of a list of respected UFO investigators. Tools? Only nine days after the book’s release he was contacted twice by a DIA agent code-named Falcon with the message that he was the only one who knew what he was talking about, and 5 “he represented a group of machine highly placed people who were unhappy with the secrecy surrounding the tools management UFO subject, and thesis design wanted someone they could trust in order to release the information to tools management, the public but “without breaking the law.” Moore was fed a series of documents including the now infamous MJ-12 documents. He spent a number of reflective on life years studying them and was not sure about tools them. Essay? He, however, was forced to release then in 1987 when Falcon informed him that they were about to be released in Britain. Management? Moore released the documents which was the beginning of the end of his UFO career. He was unable publicly verify the documents and faced numerous accusations that he had hoaxed the documents. After telling the thesis story of his interactions with Falcon he withdrew from the field a few years later.

Moore was neutralized but the project concept of MJ-12 would get out. In the succeeding years a dozen other witnesses would independently confirm the children existence of MJ-12 – the Majestic group. One such confirmation was provided by John Lear’s mother who phoned her friend General Jimmy Doolittle on John’s behalf. Asked by Mrs. Lear if Majestic had existed Doolittle replied, “Yes Moya, it did, but that’s all I can say.” CIA’s Pandolfi told researcher Dan Smith that because the government can’t track the UFO phenomena they track the people who study it. Management? 6 It also appears that the government may not be able to control the UFO phenomena but they can control the researchers and film producers. As with Howe and Moore the idea was that Lear would be used to carry another key piece of the publish journal UFO story that they wanted out - the story of management alien hardware and at essay, least one alien at tools, Area 51. Why they would want it out is somewhat speculative, but the concept of controlled releases has been discussed openly by Dr.

Kit Green. As a former member of the CIA, Green had as part of his job for six years control of the “weird desk” which handled the phenomenology files including UFOs. Speaking with author Mark Pilkington, Green described gradual UFO disclosure. If something really strange in the area of UFOs is true, then what do we do about conveying that information to the public? First we must consider what may be the basic facts (describes the core story which is percy bysshe shelley distilled core of the information known about the subject that in 1986 that he Hal Puthoff, and Jacques Vallee had agreed on – “The ETs came here, maybe once , maybe a few times. Tools? Either through accident of by design, the US government acquired one of their craft.

The only problem is package design that the physics that powered the tools project management craft were so advanced that for decades we humans have struggled to understand it or to duplicate it.”)…if you were to give them the core story right off the bat, they’d get sick, so you do it slowly over ten or twenty years. You put out a bunch of percy essay movies, a bunch of books, a bunch of stories, a bunch of Internet memes about reptilian aliens eating our children, about the tools crazy stuff we’ve see recently in Serpo. Then one day you say. “Hey, all that stuff is nonsense, relax, it’s not that bad, you don’t have to dream, worry, the reality is this” and then you give them the real story. Now that is a tried and tested desensitization model. And to the extent that there is a core story that is true, and to the extent that the people who want to get the core story out want to do it in tools project management, a way that will not hurt the people, that’s what they would do – they come up with a bunch of nonsense, and then they get rid of it, gradually making the public more comfortable to that when they are finally presented with the truth, it’s not as frightening as they originally feared. “I can believe that,” they’ll say. Shelley? “I didn’t believe the crazy reptile stuff, and I didn’t belief that they were abducting babies from wombs on beams of light. But I can believe the part about the tools management spaceship and the back-engineered technology.” 7. Lazar would carry the story of back-engineering alien technology. A true piece of the story would be mixed in with piles of material he would read in “briefings” presented to publish, him on the first couple days at S-4 such as the aliens creating man through a series of genetic manipulations, the account of a battle with the tools management aliens underground at Area 51, government projects on control of time and space, and the homework deals with the tools management Russians. Essay? As had happened with Bill Moore and the MJ-12 documents researchers would reject the alien Area 51 story it as just another UFO hoax, once everyone learned about Lazar questionable background, and the inconsistencies in the story.

Like Moore whose career was ruined by his MJ-12 announcement, Lear would hopefully be silenced, or at least totally discredited. Bill Moore had introduced the existence of MJ-12 to the public and was silenced as a credible researcher. Lear would do the same for the Area 51 disclosure. The concept that there were crashed saucers at Area 51 would become installed in the public consciousness, and the necessary cover-up would be maintained. At least that was the plan. This gradual disclosure scenario begins to explain many of the inconsistencies that have always been a problem in the Bob Lazar story. Consider for example the fact that Bob Lazar fit none of the qualifications that would be needed for the job on the base. Even he himself admitted this saying it had “perplexed him” why he was hired at S-4.

He confirmed in many interviews that there were many people available who would have been better qualified. His only real expertise was in jet engines as he had built one in project, a Honda he owned and talked about it with Dr. On Life? Teller who was his main reference on his resume. Lazar asks to work at Groom Lake where there are probably thousands of management jobs dealing with jet engines where he might have some ideas to contribute. Yet, he is not hired for jet engine related job, but for one of 22 jobs at the base working on flying saucer back engineering. So why was he hired at S-4? The answer lies in dream essay, his three interviews for the job. All three according to Lazar were mostly technical.

The only oddball question was the first question in tools, the second interview – tell us about your relationship with John Lear and reflective on life what do you think of him? That’s how we know for sure that Lear was the target. That’s why Lazar was hired in the flying saucer program at S-4 instead of the jet engine program at Area 51. Those behind the plan wanted him there because of his association with Lear. Otherwise it makes no sense to place a friend of Lear’s in the Top Secret UFO program if the plan is to keep it secret. There are two possibilities of how authorities knew the Lear connection. The first possible reason was that Lazar was actually working for the government and was part of the setup . Tools? It is not know if Lazar was asked directly by Knapp if he was working in cooperation to get the thesis package story out, but there are a couple other facts which indicate this was a possibility. The first indicator was that Lazar stated that part of his job was to spy on John Lear and tell security people at S-4 about him.

In one interview with Knapp, Lazar’s friend Gene Huff explained, “the security guys had found out that Bob knew John Lear, and they wanted Bob to interact with John Lear to see if John really knew anything about the tools management actuality of what was going on there. John was listening to Bob and Bob was listening to John reporting to the security guys what John said…he was spying on John.” 8. Dream Children? The second possible reason authorities might have known about the Lazar Lear friendship is that Lazar had been asking UFO related questions at Los Alamos on Lear’s behalf. That would have triggered a security alarm, and project management the authorities would have been monitoring him. His association with Lear and his newfound interest in UFOs made him the perfect candidate for working at S-4. They could show him what they wanted and they would be assured that he would carry the information back to Lear. Dream Children? In 1987 Lear had written a paper for other researchers about crashed saucers and about things such as the aliens killing many scientists and Special Forces at an underground base at Dulce. Project Management? Lazar brought back stories about crashed saucers and also about the alien killing of scientists and Special Forces. In the design briefing he had seen, however, the incident had occurred at Area 51 and not Dulce. Lear would be interested in this underground battle story as he had written about it. In the management same was Moore was interested in Roswell and therefore was fed the MJ-12 document which included details on thesis package the Roswell crash written up exactly as Moore had outlined the tools project management event in his 1980 Roswell book. Viewing the Lazar encounter at S-4 as a possible event that was planned from the beginning explains many of the inconsistencies that have always been part of the story.

Often when the Bob Lazar flying saucer story is brought up there are a substantial number of researchers who believe that the machine story was set up by the USAF as a cover story for tools the many earthly advanced aircraft that supposedly were being developed at Area 51. A cover story is a fictional version of a story that is put out to cover an organizations real actions or intentions. A prime example of the idea that the Lazar story was a cover story was presented by Norio Hayakawa who met with Bob Lazar in February 1990 almost a year after Lazar went public with his claim about flying saucers at S-4. After the dan gutman interview Lazar gave Hayakawa instructions about when and tools where he could go to watch the UFO tests for himself. After driving to the spot Lazar had told him to go, Hayakawa described that he and others with him “observed a bright orangish light appearing over the Groom Mountains and (it) made some interesting maneuvers. I was quite impressed at professional resume, that time. Management? Around 7:15 p.m., another light came up.” Hayakawa stated the object zigzagged and was exhibited extraordinary maneuverability. Later analysis of the picture showed a “domed structure – a disc.” Hayakawa stated that he was very excited and package design the incident began an tools project interest in Area 51 that continues to the homework, this day. Later, however, Hayakawa came to believe that the objects he had seen were not alien crafts but “our aircraft (such as prototypes of newer black triangular craft) (or possibly, the initial phases of test-flights of management UAVs, or ‘unmanned aerial vehicles’, or even ‘unmanned combat aerial vehicles’ (UCAVs), or other remotely-controlled platforms.” 10 The Lazar stories he believed may only have been a cover story. A key example of a confirmed cover story is the one that was used just after the first nuclear test at percy bysshe shelley, the Trinity site in July 1945.

Because the explosion could be seen as far away as Texas, the military put out a cover story that there had been an ammunition magazine explosion at the Alamogordo Field. Project Management? The public bought the story, they went back to their daily life, and forgot about what they had seen. That is how a cover story is supposed to work. If Bob Lazar’s Area 51 story was a cover story it did not work so well. In fact, it could easily go down as the worst cover story ever employed. If one googles the Pyramids of Giza you will come up with 1,370,000 hits. If you Google the Great Wall of China you will come up with 18,000,000 hits. If you Google Area 51 you will come up with 91,000,000. Area 51 has become one of the most famous places in reflective essay, the world. That’s the first thing that goes against the Area 51 story from tools project management being a cover story.

Nobody forgot and the homework dan gutman nobody went back to project management, their daily lives. The second thing that goes against professional resume writing des moines the cover story explanation is the unlikely possibility that what Lazar and his group saw in March 1989, or what Hayakawa and his group saw in project, February 1990 were good old American technology. Hayakawa came to the conclusion that they were our aircraft such as black triangles, UAVs, or other remote control vehicles. However, the question must be asked in 2011. Did the resume des moines USA have black triangles or UAVs twenty-one years ago that could duplicate the flight characteristics of management a flying saucer? The argument that they did would be a tough sell. In addition to the lack of bysshe shelley essay evidence that the USA had this very advanced technology back in 1990 the question arises as to whether there were even any advanced triangles and UAVs at Area 51 in 1990. Knapp came up with over two dozen witnesses that pointed to flying saucers being there. How many witnesses are there to management, prove that such things as advanced black triangles were being tested in 1990? Perhaps the rumored stories of star-trek like advanced aircraft such as black triangles and UAVs were just cover stories to cover for package the flying saucers being tested at S-4.

There seems to be more witnesses for management the saucers at Area 51. A prime example showing that it is more likely that officials are using advanced aircraft to explain their inability to explain UFOs, than Top Secret planes being misidentified as UFOs can be seen in a UFO study put out by the CIA in 1997. 11. Percy Bysshe? The UFO study of CIA files was ordered by James Woolsey, Clinton’s first CIA Director. Woolsey had a UFO sighting and therefore had a personal interest. There may also have been pressure from Clinton for the study as he was looking into UFOs.

The final report was written by NRO historian Gerald Haines who came up with the tools conclusion that a lot of UFOs were actually the U-2 and SR-71. “According to on life, later estimates from CIA officials who worked on project the U-2 project and the OXCART (SR-71, or Blackbird) project,” wrote Haines, “over half of all UFO reports from the late 1950s through the 1960s were accounted for by manned reconnaissance flights (namely the U-2) over the United States.” By Haines own figures commercial planes at this time were flying 10,000 to 20,000 feet and the homework machine dan gutman the U-2 was at 60,000. The pilots according to Haines would see the object high up and assume it to be a UFO. This would mean a difference of 40,000 to 50,000 feet between the plane and the U-2. Tools Project Management? (The U-2 would later fly at 70,000 and the SR-71 at percy, 80,000 so the numbers used above by Haines are the most conservative numbers possible.) Most people have seen commercial airlines fly overhead. They now fly at project management, 35,000 to 40,000. Most people would agree that the human eye would not be able to see the airliner unless there was a contrail that gives it away. Even then the object at percy bysshe, the head of the contrail is tools no more than a speck in the sky. In the CIA argument the minimum number of dream feet between the commercial plane and the U-2 or SR-71 would be 40,000. The maximum would be 70,000 feet for an SR-71 at 80,000.

Given this information what are the chances 50% of all UFO sightings were from pilots seeing objects at least 40,000 feet above their altitude, or from ground witnesses where the spy plane is 60,000 to tools, 80,000 feet above the journal ground? The chances are zero and none. The CIA knew that scientists, the media, and conservative UFO researchers were so desperate for a natural explanation for management UFOs that they would fall for the CIA conclusion that their spy planes were causing half of all UFO sightings. Given the facts presented in reflective essay on life, the 1997 CIA study, the tools project management rational conclusion of the facts is that the package CIA was trying to explain away unexplained UFOs sighting in tools project, their files, and their role in machine dan gutman, the UFO mystery. They did this by using spy planes as a cover for UFOs, not the other way around. Project Management? The CIA study also backs up the idea that cover stories are used after the journal fact to tools management, cover something that has become a public problem.

If a cover is bysshe used before it tends to jeopardize the secrecy of a program. The biggest drawback to tools, the Lazar story being a cover story comes when we put the story in its proper historical perspective. Today Area 51 is a household word where almost everyone in machine, the world knows what it is. However, prior to May 1989, when Lazar was first shown in a KLAS-TV interview, 99.99999% of the world had no idea what Area 51 was. Tools Management? It was in the pre-Internet days where only a couple people in Las Vegas would have seen a story on it. Here is the historic situation prior to the May 1989 Lazar interview.

No one in the public, except John Lear and a couple hikers even knew there was even a base there. There were mountains hiding the base and it was in the middle of an inhospitable desert where few people dared to machine, travel. From 1955 till 1989 officials had been able to test various Top Secret planes in complete secrecy. In 1985 they grabbed 49,000 more acres of land to keep out hikers, installed heavy security around the tools project management base complete with cameras, ground motion detectors, and professional resume writing signs with threat to kill messages to anyone who chose to get closer. It doesn’t get much more quiet, secure and secret than that. Like all other Top Secret military facilities in tools project management, the United States, and around the journal world, those at Area 51 quietly went about their Top Secret work for the national security of the country. The cover story explanation expects the researcher to believe that one day in late 1988, the officials running the tools project base decided to all take off their clothes, run onto the Las Vegas strip with their hair on fire, waving their hands, and yelling “Area 51 Area 51 Area 51”. Why would anyone call attention to the base when it was totally unknown to the public, and essay on life completely secure?

Why is tools project this (and possibly Kirkland AFB with the reflective on life Bennewitz story) the only places where officials decided to put all their secrecy and security at project management, stake by calling attention to publish essays journal, what was going on tools at the base? Was all this to professional resume writing services des moines, deceive a small number of researchers with no public influence? The basis of all military secrecy is to keep quiet and out of the mind of the management enemy. Yelling Area 51 while running around naked with your hair on fire tends to go against that basic rule. One idea that was put forward to back the cover story idea is shelley that the flying saucer story at Area 51 is one that would attract Russian spies who would get caught outside the tools management base.

Would officials really draw attention to package, everything going on tools at this massive Top Secret base to catch a spy? Strangely, the “Russians spy” story had actually been presented by base security to Lazar to get him to feel patriotic and on life aware of the project ever present enemy. In a story much more creatively written than the one that was hinted to Bill Moore about Kirkland AFB, Lazar was told that the Russians had actually been partners at S-4 working to back-engineer the essays saucers. There had been a breakthrough by project the American side at which point they threw the Russians off the base. Now they roamed the streets of Las Vegas trying to dream, bribe S-4 workers for information.

When an S-4 worker did not show up for a couple days, Lazar was told they feared the Russians had him. Lazar’s security boss Dennis Mariani took Lazar down to tools, the local police detachment and had him registered to carry a gun. The Homework Machine? There were Russians and saucers both at Kirkland, Dulce, and Area 51. There was a chance of a Russian spy being gunned down in downtown Las Vegas. The only project management thing missing was the weapons of mass destruction. It was just like a James Bond movie.

What would the military mind do without an enemy? In 1989 the Russians were the flavor of the thesis package design year. How would the project management Russians spies get back on the base? Would they phone up Knapp or Lazar and get instructions? How would base security know who the spies were among the hundreds of people who showed up outside the base every night after the the homework machine story broke? Another problem would be that the perimeter base security had no authority to arrest anyone and the Russians would be watching from public land.

Would the tools project Russians risk an publish journal agent when all they would have to do is project management reprogram their satellite to journal, photograph the project management base? Would the thesis Groom Lake officials run a cover story when they knew that it would simply cause the tools management Russians to reprogram their satellites? The Russian reaction, according to Knapp who was in Russia after the fall of the Soviet Union, was that they did use their satellites to take a look. They changed their satellite to check the base everyday instead of once or twice a month. In one meeting Knapp had a General handed him a photo of essay S-4 that was taken in 1988. Would the Area 51 officials employ an unneeded cover story knowing that they would expose everything happening at Area 51 to increased scrutiny from enemies of the United States?

The logical course of action would be to do what all Top Secret bases do – not attract attention to the fact you are there and only use a cover story to cover things that get exposed. An example of the risk of not just shutting up comes from an tools incident where President Jimmy Carter leaked to the press the percy bysshe shelley essay fact that the USA had Stealth technology. Project Management? It caused anger at Skunkworks because how they knew the Russian satellites would be trained on the production facilities watching who came and professional resume writing services went and what went in and out of the buildings. In a similar way Carter outed the remote viewing program when he publicly told a story of a “psychic” who had located a downed plane (a Russian TU-22 supersonic bomber being used as a spy plane) in Africa that American intelligence officials were unable to find after an extensive search. Dr. Russell Targ, one of the directors of the program, wrote that the unwanted commendation exposed the Top Secret program and the only thing they could do to minimize the damage was change the code-name for the program. Secrecy is the rule. Tools Project? The cover story explanation is shaky at essay, best. Tools Project Management? The Lazar story, if true, seems to present one of three options. Officials brought Lazar in to work on the flying saucers not knowing that he would spill the professional writing services beans, or it was a story they wanted out bad enough that they were willing to project, have every spy agency in the world to now pay close attention to what was going on at Area 51. The third most probable explanation is that they wanted the saucer story out but they misread what would happen.

They thought the writing services media would run its usual three day coverage, and the flying saucer story would get into tools, the UFO world. Lastly, the public and the spies would lose interest after all the inconsistencies in Lazar’s story became public. What they didn’t count on the homework dan gutman was George Knapp. Lear was the planned target. He would widely publicize the story the plan was that it would not get any serious attention. Lear, however, simply handed the story off to Knapp who carried out a six month investigation. During this investigation he would uncover enough witnesses validating the Lazar claim to justify staying with the story.

Reporters usually can’t do this because they have to get to the next story. News is a business, and new stories are the life blood of what sells. Knapp did something that was totally unexpected. Instead of tools project a short segment ridiculing the UFO story, as all other reporters had done, he ran the Lazar claims to design, ground and went public with what he had discovered. This tenacity by Knapp, along with a public interest in UFOs, caused the story to go viral, or as Knapp described it “like a tsunami travelling around the world.” This is what officials had not expected. Every major news outlet in tools project management, the world took time to travel to professional writing des moines, Area 51 or at least to do a story. Tools? The story continued to grow.

All the journal Area 51 officials could do is tools project management continue to package, deny the base’s existence, use presidential decrees to keep themselves out of jail, and take over project management another 5,900 acres to stop the busloads of dream children people who were now up in project management, the hills (called by Newsweek the Groom Lake bleachers) from looking down every night at the base and hoping to see a flying saucer. The base took a call from John Podesta, the President’s Chief of Staff, asking if they had saucers at the base. President Clinton said so many people in his administration believed there was a saucer and the homework an alien at Area 51 that he sent someone to the base to check it out. There was a congressional representative who did an tools management investigation on percy bysshe essay the rumors. He indicated to Knapp the cover-up at the base was going on because those in charge were afraid they would end up in jail if exposed. All of this for a cover story when the base was secure, quiet and project management unknown before Lazar? It doesn’t seem highly likely looking back. Once the media storm had quieted down, and bysshe once Area 51 officials were able to project, close down all the places where people could watch the base activities, the officials did exactly what they should have done before they brought Lazar on journal the base. They secured the base, said nothing, and went about their business.

It is tools management exactly what every other Top Secret military base does, and why using a “we’ve got a flying saucer” cover story doesn’t make much sense. The theory that the Lazar/S-4 story not created as a cover story, does not negate the fact that American intelligence would have watched the Russian (Soviet Union) reaction to the Lazar/S-4 story, and reflective on life would have exploited it after the fact if they could. American intelligence would be watching Russian reaction to all things being done in America, the release of the final Blue Book study, or the release of the Federal Budget, or the tools project appointment of a foreign ambassador. Essay Children? The study of these various Russian reactions, and the secret government behind the reactions, became known as Kremlinology. 1 George Knapp interview of John Lear and Gene Huff, Coast to Coast AM Radio, March 22, 2009.

5 Greg Bishop, “ Project Beta : The story of Paul Bennewitz, National Security, and project the Creation of the Modern UFO Myth?” Paraview Pocket Books New York, 2005, Page 64. 6 Gary Bekkum interview with radio talk show host Angelia Joiner, The Joiner Report, August 6, 2010. 7 Mark Pilkington, “Mirage Men: An Adventure into Paranoia, Espionage, Psychological Warfare, and UFOs” page 280-282.

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monopolies essay Published July 12, 2016. Economists overwhelmingly agree that the actual costs of monopoly are small, even trivial. This consensus is based on a theory that assumes monopolies are well-run businesses that limit their output in order to drive up prices and maximize profit. And because empirical studies have found that monopolists do not restrict output or raise prices by very much, most economists have concluded that monopolies inflict relatively little harm on the economy. In this essay, I review recent research that upends both the theoretical and tools project management empirical elements of this consensus view. 2 This research shows that monopolies are not well-run businesses, but instead are deeply inefficient. Monopolies do drive up prices, as conventional theory suggests, but because they also reduce productivity, they often ultimately destroy most of an industry’s profits. Resume? These productivity losses are a dead weight loss for the economy, and project management far from trivial. The new research also shows that monopolists typically increase prices by using political machinery to thesis package design limit the tools, output of competing productsusually by blocking low-cost substitutes. By limiting supply of these competing products, the dream essay children, monopolist drives up demand for its own.

Thus, in contrast to conventional theory, the management, monopolist actually produces more of its own product than it would in a competitive market, not less. But because production of the substitutes is restricted, total output falls. The reduction in productivity exacts a toll on all of society. But the blocking of low-cost substitutes particularly harms the poor, who might not be able to percy essay afford the monopolist’s product. Tools? Thus, monopolies drive the poor out of many markets.

In this essay, I first review the reflective essay, standard theory of tools project management, monopoly that contends it inflicts little harm, and then I introduce a new theory that refutes that view. In this new theory, groups within monopolies act as both adversaries that reduce productivity and allies that eliminate substitutes. The new theory thus demonstrates that monopolies in fact cause substantial economic harm, and that harm falls disproportionately on people with fewer financial resources. I then provide several historical examples of essay, monopolies from my own research and that of others. I’ll discuss monopoly subgroups in their role as adversaries in the sugar, cement and construction industries. I’ll discuss monopoly subgroups acting as allies in the dental and tools project legal industries. But I want to emphasize that in all monopolies, subgroups engage in both roles. The Homework Machine Dan Gutman? I’ll also take a fresh look at project, a familiar example of dream, a monopoly, U.S. Steel, showing how subgroups acted as both adversaries and allies.

These few examples are illustrative only and provide a narrow glimpse of a far broader economic phenomenon: Monopolies are prevalent in the U.S. (and international) economy. The conclusion summarizes this analysis and provides historical perspective for future efforts. In the project management, standard theory of monopoly found in textbooks, the monopolist is a single seller of a good who increases his or her price above competitive levels, leading to reduced output. The key cost of monopoly is the restriction of thesis package, industry production. Two basic assumptions, or tenets, underlie this theory. One assumption is that monopolists produce efficiently and maximize profits. This tenet is based on project management, logic, not evidence. Shelley? Nobel Laureate George Stigler 3 provides one rendition of this logic: “The goal of efficiency is pervasive in economic life, where efficiency means producing and selling goods at the lowest possible cost (and therefore the largest possible profit). This goal is tools sought as vigorously by monopolists as by competitors” (1988, pp.

162-63). Another assumption is that monopolists have close substitutes. This tenet is primarily based on logic, not evidence. Again, Stigler makes the case, arguing that “it is virtually impossible to eliminate competition from economic life. If a firm buys up all of the homework dan gutman, its rivals, new rivals will appear. If the state gives away monopoly privileges there will emerge a strong competition in the political area for these plums” (1988, p.164). The consensus view that monopolies inflict little actual damage on tools management, society has dominated the economics literature since the seminal work by University of Chicago economist Arnold Harberger (1954).

Applying the standard model to historical data, he calculated that monopolies do not restrict output or drive up prices by percy essay, very much, so that their actual costs are small. This quickly became the accepted view. But the primary source of project, support from economists comes not from the empirical results, but from the percy bysshe essay, theory’s compelling logic. In the following sections, the logic and empirical results are challenged by a new view. There is a key implicit assumption buried in tools project management the standard theory of monopoly. Not only are monopolists single sellers, but they also produce the percy bysshe shelley, goods by tools project, themselves . That is, the monopolist (and perhaps clones or mindless automatons) staffs all of the machines, all of the phones, all of the processes involved in the homework machine producing the good. Project? Stated differently, in this abstraction, there are no heterogeneous groups comprising various individuals or interests and, hence, no frictions that might lead to low productivity.

Monopolists have every incentive to be productive (as do their clones or automatons). This implicit abstraction of monopolies being one-person operations has led the economics profession to essays journal miss very significant problems with monopoly. Close study reveals that monopolies are in fact composed of many subgroups, and it is the interplay among these groups that leads to low productivity and the elimination of substitutes. Sometimes these subgroups have interests that do not align, and they act as adversaries . Sometimes their interests align well, and they act as allies . When a monopoly forms, it stops competition from the outside. But this naturally leads to significant competition inside the monopoly, as subgroups fight among themselves over new opportunities afforded by the monopoly. That is, subgroups act as adversaries , and this often reduces productivity. This competition among subgroups within the monopolyfor better pay, working conditions or decision-making poweroften threatens to tear the monopoly apart.

To survive, the project management, subgroups agree to find ways to limit internal competition. Mechanisms are introducedcall them competition-reducing mechanismsthat enable subgroups to credibly commit to not compete. An example might include a worker subgroup demanding a work rule that forbids other workers from performing “their” particular task. But these mechanisms come at the homework, a high cost: reduced productivity. The standard assumption that monopolies are efficient producers is undermined. But the new view of monopoly contains another key element: monopolist subgroups acting as allies to eliminate substitutes from competitors external to the monopoly. Consider the logic of close substitutes. Politically adept monopolies (as they are de facto since the large majority of tools project, monopolies result from special privileges granted by the government) often use their political influence to weaken or destroy existing substitutes for their product.

Entrepreneurs may be well aware of the the homework machine, monopolist’s political power and thereby be discouraged from developing substitutes. Lastly, imagine what types of substitutes a monopoly might try to weaken or eliminate. It would not go after those with broad political support. Tools Management? Rather, it would target those with little support, those purchased by politically disadvantaged low-income segments of the the homework dan gutman, population. A few examples of monopolies that reduce productivity and kill substitutes. As just mentioned, subgroups within monopolies act as adversaries and allies. Adversarial relationships often reduce a monopoly’s productivity substantially. Project? When subgroups act as allies, their joint goal is often to eliminate products that might otherwise compete with theirs. While subgroups in any monopoly engage in dream essay both adversarial and cooperative actions, I’ll discuss separate examples of each in this section. Adversaries: Reducing productivity.

I’ll start by looking at some adversarial relationships. In the United States, the tools project, sugar cartel, cement industry and construction business provide excellent examples of subgroups within monopolies acting as adversaries and reducing productivity. During the machine dan gutman, Great Depression, the sugar manufacturing industry was one of tools, many industries permitted to form a cartel as part of New Deal economic policy (see Bridgman, Qi and Schmitz 2015). In exchange for this permission, the industry agreed to sell sugar at a “fair” price. In addition, members of the essays journal, industry, including factory owners and incumbent farmers, drafted a joint plan (subject to government approval) for how the cartel would meet price targets and share cartel profits. Tools Project Management? The cartel allocated sales quotas to factories each year so as to hit the agreed-upon price target, a price in essay line with the project, agreement with the federal government. Resume? This cartel operated from project management, 1934 to the homework machine 1974.

There were many adversarial relationships within the sugar industry that led to cartel rules beyond the factory sales quotas. Project? These additional rules greatly lowered productivity, as well as productivity growth. One such example: conflict between farmers and factory owners. Just as factory owners wanted and received sales quotas, farmers demanded and got quotas on the number of acres used to grow sugar crops. The acre quotas were not a mechanism to control sugar prices; the factory sales quotas served this purpose. Rather, they were a mechanism to ensure that incumbent farmers received a share of the monopoly profits. Without the acre quotas, for example, firms could have moved their factories beyond the geographic range of incumbent farmers.

It was this adversarial relationship between factories and farmers that led to acre quotas. Sugar-producing states were also locked in adversarial relationships, most notably by “stealing” manufacturing industries from each other, a common practice that goes back to the late 1800s. So some cartel subgroups, in particular, local and state authorities, had the incentive to push for essay on life, limits on the renting of quotas, whereby acre quotas could be traded only project management, within counties. Ultimately, they succeeded in percy shelley essay including such rules in the cartel agreement. These cartel rules led to large productivity losses.

When the cartel was started in 1934, California and Colorado were the biggest beet-sugar-producing states, while Minnesota and project management North Dakota were very small producers. After World War II, the opportunity cost of land and (irrigated) water in Colorado and California grew much faster than in, say, Minnesota and North Dakota. Because cartel rules prohibited farmers from renting their quotas beyond the local area, however, quota rights could not flow from, say, California to North Dakota, where additional acres would have been more profitable. The result was tremendous inefficiency, as the percy, opportunity cost of inputs used to produce a given quantity of sugar in California was much greater than that in North Dakota. The same thing happened where sugar cane was grown. When the sugar cartel started, Louisiana was a large cane producer, but Florida had barely begun its cane crop, and so received a very small quota. After WWII, the profit of the project management, marginal farmer in Florida began growing much faster than that of his or her counterpart in Louisiana but, again, quotas could not move to Florida, where production would have been more profitable. Quotas also led to publish essays slower productivity growth by eliminating the incentive to find ways to increase output by, for tools management, example, increasing the period during which factories can operate during the year. Professional Writing Services? Indeed, the sugar industry’s factory-operating days have increased dramatically in the United States since the cartel ended. The U.S. cement industry provides another good case study of adversaries within a monopoly. Tools Management? 4.

During the 1950s, a powerful union, the United Cement, Lime and Gypsum Workers International Union (CLGW, for short) had a near-monopoly on the supply of labor to the industry. Again, there were many adversarial relationships among subgroups. One was between different groups of workers. Because the workers were earning very high wages, there was potentially severe competition for jobs. Hence, groups of workers fought for rules that would secure their jobs from essay, competition from other workers. For example, union contracts had rules such as: “When the tools, Finish Grind Department is completely down for repairs, the Company will not use Repairmen assigned to the Clinker Handling Department on repairs in the Finish Grind Department.” 5 No detailed knowledge of cement plants is needed to understand that this rule was meant to protect the repair jobs in the Finish Grind Department. This rule enabled workers to reflective on life credibly commit to not compete with each other. This rule, and many others like it, not only protected jobs, but led to underutilization of project management, capital. 6 Such rules led to a waste of resources, like energy.

7 Such mechanisms, sometimes called restrictive work practices, led to dream essay children significant reductions in industry productivity. Other restrictive work practices resulted from adversarial relationships between workers and managers. After the CLGW negotiated a big wage increase in the early 1960s, managers invested in tools project management larger, labor-saving machines that led to significant job losses. Unions reacted by demanding a 1965 rule that prohibited managers from professional resume writing services des moines, firing workers made redundant as a result of tools management, new investment, new ways of organizing production and so on. Managers agreed to the union demand, but this restrictive work practice significantly reduced productivity. One would expect this rule to have dulled investment incentives and, indeed, there is evidence of a dip in investment in the late 1960s. But the energy crisis of the 1970s hit the cement industry hard, and the industry responded by making big investments in new, energy-efficient machinery. The new machines were also more labor-efficient, but managers abided by their earlier commitment not to reduce employment. Hence, large productivity gains were repeatedly sacrificed to preserve peace between adversaries. When foreign competition rocked the professional des moines, industry in the 1980s, the landscape changed. Cement factory managers were no longer committed to the rules they had agreed to with the CLGW.

The industry was able to expand its output and reduce its workforce; labor productivity soared. The gains that were missed in the 1970s were enjoyed in the 1980s. Construction: Size is not the issue. Discussion of monopoly typically conjures up images of giant corporations and tools project giant manufacturing establishments, like U.S. Steel and its massive factories. But, in fact, the size of the professional writing services des moines, monopolist’s operation does not correlate with its destructive impact. Monopolies consisting of small units, operating on a small scale, also do great damage. 8. Judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis found this to be true 90 years ago in dealing with the Chicago construction industry. Project? He described an industry in turmoil: “It is the violation of no confidence to say that building construction has gotten into bad repute in this community.

There was a general disposition to essays journal keep away from management, it as a thing diseased. Capital avoided it. The wise dollar preferred almost any other form of activity or no activity” (Montgomery 1926, p. 273). To address these serious problems in Chicago construction, Landis was appointed to arbitrate wage disputes (Montgomery 1926). Professional Resume Writing Services? But Landis felt that if he was to do his job well, he needed to also analyze the work rules in the industry. This surprised and scared most of the parties involved. Landis also knew that the work rules contained in tools management the contracts were the tip of the iceberg, so he spent a considerable amount of time going out to jobs, talking with the publish journal, workers and investigating the situation firsthand (p. 270). He concluded that while high wages were an issue, “The real malady lurked in a maze of conditions artificially created to give parties a monopoly, and in tools project management rules designed to produce waste for dan gutman, the mere sake of waste; all combined to bring about an insufferable situation, not the least burdensome element of tools project, which was the reflective on life, jurisdictional dispute between trade-union members of the same parent organization” (p. Management? 273). The waste he reported is with us still (Schmitz 2016).

I can also apply these ideas to nonindustrial markets not usually thought of essay on life, as pervaded by monopoly, such as the markets for professional services. Although these markets are made up of thousands of project, independent professionals, these professionals band together to act as a cartel, a monopoly composed of many separate business entities. I will show that the problems of monopolylow productivity and the elimination of low-cost substituteshave permeated these markets as well. Indeed, the problems created by these monopolies are particularly pernicious because they limit the supply of shelley, low-cost substitutes for high-priced professional services. For example, lawyers limit the provision of inexpensive legal advice by paralegals, and dentists limit the provision of low-cost fillings by project, dental therapists. Dream Children? These limitations are not too harmful to the rich. Project Management? But for publish essays journal, those with low income, such restrictions make legal advice and dental care unavailable.

They are priced out management, of the market. Again, the costs of monopoly are inflicted disproportionately on the poor. Subgroups in a monopoly are not necessarily adversaries. Indeed, they may act as allies when they try to eliminate competition from substitute products. Consider, for example, the dental industry. There are many thousands of children, dentists, but they coordinate their actions through state dental associations. While these associations may have some public benefit, such as continuing professional education, they also act like a cartel, finding ways to increase the price of project, their members’ services. They do so in essays journal a way that also increases the demand for their services. One service dentists provide is filling cavities. In many countries, dental nurses or dental therapists, as they are called, are trained to provide these services, most often in school-based programs for children. 9 In the United States, dental therapists have been vigorously opposed by project management, dentists, with a few exceptions, including the native villages of children, Alaska and the state of Minnesota.

The impact of project, these cartel restrictions is profound. Dental therapists require less training than dentists and so are able to the homework dan gutman provide basic services at a lower cost. Blocking these mid-level providers significantly increases the tools project, price of filling cavities, and publish low-income people may be forced to go without basic dental care. The debate over dental therapists in the United States is not over. Since Minnesota authorized the tools project management, licensure of dental therapists in essay 2009, Maine and Vermont have passed similar laws.

A number of states are considering similar measures, despite stiff opposition from management, state dental associations. The laws often require that dental therapists work under the direct supervision of dentists, ostensibly for the protection of patients, but the arrangement also protects dentists from the homework machine dan gutman, competing directly with dental therapists operating independently. In most health markets, monopolies restrict or kill low-cost substitutes. For example, in project the hearing aid industry, audiologists, who have Ph.D.s, often put tremendous entry restrictions on hearing aid fitters. The fitters are less skilled, but are perfectly capable of most work.

Again, the poor are hurt by this. This same analysis applies to many other types of services. Lawyers introduce statutes to prevent the “unlawful practice of law.” Essentially, lawyers don’t allow anyone who is not a member of the bar to dream essay provide legal advice, so paralegals are not allowed to operate independently. Project? Again, low-income people suffer the most from lack of access to journal lower-cost alternatives. In the construction industry, unions block the project, use of preassembled parts on construction sites. Professional Writing Services? This eliminates a close substitute: factory assembly. Again, this hurts the poor the most, as they buy houses that use such materials. Schmitz (2016) provides many more industries and much more analysis. Adversaries and allies: Low productivity, few substitutes.

U.S. Steel is often cited as a classic example of a monopoly. The company controlled a large share of the steel business and used this control to drive up prices. But it is also a good example of the project, new theory, illustrating the bigger picture of the costs its monopoly imposes on the economy. Thesis? The monopoly’s subgroups act both as adversaries that reduce productivity and tools management as allies that eliminate competition from substitute products. The U.S.

Steel monopoly was composed of many subgroups, including shareholders, managers and hourly employees, as well as the United Steel Workers of America, the union that organized the entire steel workforce. I’ll sometimes refer to the monopoly as the reflective essay on life, USS-USW monopoly. In some settings, these groups were fierce adversaries. In others, they were strong allies. Tools? Consider their adversarial roles. Given that the monopoly was generating significant profits, at least at publish essays journal, first, subgroups had an incentive to increase their share of the pie and certainly to protect their share from other subgroups. Tools Project Management? The subgroups developed mechanisms to protect their share of profits, mechanisms that essentially committed the essays journal, groups to not compete with each other.

Unions and management agreed on restrictive work rules that helped to protect jobs, but led to inefficient production. Executives ignored technological innovations, such as continuous casting of steel, that could have produced steel at much lower cost, but would have disrupted the bargain between the firm and its workers. All of these compromises between adversaries harmed the company’s productivityand because the company so dominated the steel industry, the entire industry was less productive as a result. Next consider the subgroups in their roles as allies. The competitive vacuum that allowed the USS-USW monopoly to project management survive while being unproductive was no accident. Indeed, it was a situation that USS-USW worked hard to create and the homework machine dan gutman maintain. The issue is not merely that U.S.

Steel bought up and maintained control of competing steel companies within the United States, as monopolists always do, or that the USW successfully organized the entire steel workforce. If subgroups USS and USW had done only management, those two things, they still would have faced significant competition from foreign firmscompetition that would have forced them to raise productivity and take on new, better technology. But USS-USW used its political clout to lobby for tariffs that protected it from foreign competition. That is, U.S. Steel worked to restrict the thesis, output of foreign steel, a close substitute for steel made domestically. These restrictions meant that the demand for domestic steel was higher than it would have been otherwise, allowing U.S. Steel to increase its output, even as it increased prices. These artificially inflated prices injured any U.S. buyer of steelbe it a car manufacturer or an oil drillerand ultimately hurt the consumer. For decades, the theoretical understanding and empirical analysis of monopoly have themselves been monopolized by a dominant paradigmthat the tools project, costs of design, monopoly are trivial.

This blindness to new theory and analysis has impeded economists’ understanding of the actual harm caused by monopoly. Rather than inflicting little actual damage, adversarial relationships within monopolies have significantly reduced productivity and economic welfare. Tools Management? And in many industries, subgroups within monopolies collaborate to eliminate competition from dream essay, low-cost substitutes. This lack of competition in the marketplace has a disproportionate impact on tools, poor citizens who might otherwise find low-cost services that would meet their needs. I’ve described this as a “new” theory, but in truth its roots go back decades, to the ideas of Thurman Arnold. Arnold ran the Antitrust Division at the Department of Justice from 1938 to 1943, taking aim at a broad range of package, targets, from automakers to Hollywood movie producers to the American Medical Association. 10 He argued that lack of competition reduced productivity and that monopolies crushed low-cost substitutes, hurting the poor.

Arnold supported his arguments through intensive real-world research. He and his staff undertook detailed investigations of monopolies, examining the tools project management, on-site operations of many industries and reflective essay documenting the productivity losses and destruction of project, substitutes caused by monopoly. Arnold began his work at a pivotal timein the midst of the Great Depression, just after the thesis, United States had experimented with the cartelization of its economy. Faith in competitive markets had reached such a low that cartels and monopolies were thought to be, perhaps, better alternatives. Management? His work and bysshe shelley essay ideas played a big role in reinvigorating confidence in competitive markets. He mounted an aggressive campaign to protect society from monopoly. Tools Management? The campaign had two parts: forceful prosecution of monopoly through the courts, accompanied by an array of speeches and articles to educate the general public about machine dan gutman, its costs.

Economists gradually forgot Arnold and his ideas, convinced by Harberger’s empirical work and the introspection of economists, leading to, for example, the logic provided by Stigler and project management others. Scholars and regulators who studied monopolies focused on prices alone and found little to thesis package worry about. But as shown by the research reviewed in this essayand an expanding body of tools project management, empirical workthe problems caused by monopoly are significant, and still pervasive. Percy? My hope is that this paper will open a new era of discussion about tools, monopoly and its costs, and ultimately lead policymakers to encourage greater competition for percy essay, the benefit of all. 1 The author thanks Ann Harrington for her valuable suggestions on the content and organization of tools, this essay. The views expressed here are those of the author, not necessarily those of others in the Federal Reserve System. 2 Schmitz (2016) contains more detailed discussion and references to the material in this article. 3 Stigler (1988) presents the dream essay, familiar logic behind this assumption.

4 The history of this industry, and tools the rise and fall of essays, monopoly in it, is beautifully described in Northrup (1990). A quantitative analysis, on management, which the following discussion is based, can be found in Dunne, Klimek and Schmitz (2016) 5 Quoted from the Voice (Oct. 1978, p. Bysshe? 86), a monthly publication of the CLGW union. 6 Machinery in the Finish Grind department was idle (broken) for longer than was necessary. Machines in other departments also may have had to be slowed.

7 Kiln fuel was being burned even if the plant was not able to produce cement. 8 For Thurman Arnold, who directed the Antitrust operations of the Justice Department from 1938 to 1943, size was not the decisive factor in management determining a monopoly, but whether the monopoly reduced efficiency. Bridgman, Ben, Shi Qi, James A. Schmitz Jr. 2015. “Cartels Destroy Productivity: Evidence from the New Deal Sugar Manufacturing Cartel, 1934-74.” Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Staff Report 519. Dunne, Tim, Shawn Klimek, James A. Schmitz Jr. Publish? 2016. “Monopoly Stifles Productivity, Competition Spurs It: Evidence From Post WWII U.S. Cement Manufacturing.” Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Staff Report, forthcoming. Harberger, Arnold C. Tools Project Management? 1954. “Monopoly and Resource Allocation.” American Economic Review 44 (2): 77-87. Kolasky, William. 2013. “Thurman Arnold: An American Original.” Antitrust 27 (3): 91-92.

Montgomery, Royal E. 1926. Percy Bysshe? “The Landis Arbitration and Award.” University Journal of Business (University of Chicago Press) 4 (3): 260-93. Northrup, Herbert R. 1990. Tools Project? “From Union Hegemony to Union Disintegration: Collective Bargaining in Cement and Related Industries.” Journal of Labor Research 11 (3): 360. Schmitz, James A. Jr. 2016. “The Costs of package design, Monopoly are Large and Inflicted Disproportionately on management, the Poor.” Federal Reserve Bank of essay, Minneapolis Staff Report, forthcoming. Stigler, George J. 1988.

Memoirs of an Unregulated Economist . University of Chicago Press.

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100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. Tools Project! VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for professional resume services, over 20 years. She specializes in management helping people write essays faster and easier. For your paper, you will pick an issue to research. You will need to be sure that this is an reflective essay, arguable issue, which means it is one that people hold different views about. Tools Project! As you read through information on bysshe shelley essay this issue, you should be narrowing your topic into a single statement which states your position. Tools Management! This could be a claim of fact, definition, cause, value, or policy.

Note: Some teachers use the term argument essay and others call it a position essay. The Homework Dan Gutman! These terms mean the same thing and are used interchangeably in this article. Is there a way to tools project, reduce abortions without legislation? (policy) Does a police officer's racial background make a difference in how they do their job? (value) Should the racial make-up of a police department be the thesis design same as the community they serve? (definition) How can pro-life and pro-choice groups work together? (values) Should Barbie be banned? (value) Should reality T.V. shows have regulations? (policy) What is true beauty? (definition) Is video gaming good or bad? (value) Are beauty contests a positive thing for young girls? (value) Are participation trophies in athletics a good idea? (policy) Are overbearing sports parents helpful or harmful? (definition) Should young children be pushed to compete at athletics? (policy) Should children have scheduled activities or be left more time for free play? (value) What is the tools project management cause of the increase in resume des moines child obesity? (cause) How can we encourage children to be more active? (policy) Should people on welfare be required to project, submit to drug testing? (policy) Why do so many celebrities have terrible life problems? (cause) Should media coverage be regulated? (policy) What is the effect of media coverage on elections? (fact) What is human trafficking? (definition) How can human trafficking be stopped? (policy) How do elected female officials differ from elected males? (fact) How important is it to have equal representation of dream children genders and races in tools project management political office? (value) How can we support the election of more females to political offices? (policy) How can we get more minorities to become police officers? (policy) How can the rights of reflective essay artists and writers be protected on the Internet? (policy) Why should you pay for your music? (value) Does religious persecution exist? (fact) Should people be allowed to tools, make designer babies? (value) What can be done to reduce unemployment among young African American men? (policy) Should the minimum wage be raised or lowered? (policy) This essay argues that sometimes, a nursing home can be the best choice. Reflective Essay! Poor Across Oceans. This essay argues that we need to care more for people in tools project developing countries. Hunger Hurts. How can we solve the bysshe essay problem of hunger? Should we have a national high school exam? (policy) Is private school tuition (elementary, high school, or college) really worth it? (value) Does statewide testing (like the TAKS/STAAR test in Texas) really increase student knowledge? (cause) Should colleges abolish reliance on SAT and ACT scores in admissions? (policy) How should the project country's school system be reformed? (policy) Should the U.S. Essay On Life! adopt an educational system like Europe's? (policy) What causes students to graduate from tools high school without basic skills? (cause) How do American students compare with students from other countries? (fact) What role should technology play in education? (value) What is the value of essay children a liberal arts education? (value) Should students be required to management, take foreign language courses (or any other type of dream specific course)? Does adding days to project, the school year really improve learning? (fact) Should schools continue to publish essays journal, spend money on tools management fine arts? (value) How should students whose first language is not English be taught in public schools? (policy) Should college athletes be paid? (policy) Cell phones control our relationships. Dream Essay! (definition) Computers are changing the way humans think. Project Management! (fact) Texting and essays journal, cell phone use has caused young people to be less able to concentrate and focus (or you can do the reverse—has caused them to be able to handle multi-tasking more effectively and efficiently). (cause) Cell phones have changed the way we relate to each other in management positive ways. (value) Cell phones, texts, and services des moines, emails are not as good as talking face-to-face. (value) Textbooks should be replaced by i-Pads and online resources. (policy) How are online technologies changing the management way we live? (policy) How is technology changing our definition of what it means to be human? (value) What laws should we have about cell phone use in cars? (policy) How is social media changing family relationships? (definition) Should parents limit teenagers' use of social media? (policy) What privacy policies should be upheld by social media companies? (policy) What should (and should not) be posted on Facebook by design college students? (value) Should scientists be allowed to experiment on human embryos? (value) What is nanotechnology? What are its applications and possible uses in tools the future? (definition) Which kind of topic are you most interested in?

Is China the Next Superpower? (Fact) How should we respond to the global problem of illegal immigration? (policy) Would a border fence solve the immigration problem in the U.S.? (fact) What is the relationship between immigration and nationality? (definition) What causes people to essay, immigrate illegally? (cause) Should the U.S. have a visitor work program? (policy) How has immigration affected the history of the U.S.? (definition) Should all states have laws giving policemen the right to require people to project management, prove their legal status? (policy) How can legal immigration be streamlined? (policy) Who should be allowed to immigrate? Who should not? (value) How many illegal immigrants live in the U.S.? Who are they and where do they live? (fact) Toilet Video Games? Have We Gone Too Far? Is war inevitable? How does war become integral to society? (definition) How do people justify war? (value) What might help establish peace? (policy) Should the U.S. continue to act as a policeman for professional services, other countries? (value) How should the tools project United States defend itself against terrorism? (policy) Is drone warfare ethical? (value) How is cyber warfare becoming more important? (fact) Is the U.S. engaging in cyber attacks on other countries? (fact) How did 9/11 change the way Americans feel about themselves as a world power? (definition) Should military spending in machine dan gutman the U.S. increase or decrease? (policy) How important is race to American identity? (fact) To what extent does individual identity depend on management ethnic affiliation? (definition) How does immigration from Latin America affect the culture of dan gutman America? (fact) Why do Americans think in terms of a person having one race when so many Americans have a mixed racial, cultural, and/or ethnic background? (value) Is it a good idea for people to adopt children from another ethnic group? (value) What is culture? (definition) What is the management value of knowing your racial and cultural heritage? (value) Should schools be required to teach multiculturalism? (policy) Should churches work harder to be multi-racial? (value) How can parents help raise their children to be appreciative of other cultures? (policy) Is global warming a problem and percy bysshe, if so, what can we do about it? (fact) How can we resolve the economy versus environment debate? (policy) How can we be sure to provide clean water for everyone? (policy) What responsibility do Americans have for providing clean water to other nations? (value) How will the worldwide population increase affect our planet? (fact) What can be done to stop poaching of endangered species? (policy) Is hunting good for the environment? (definition/fact) How can citizens be responsible for their local environment? (policy) What can manufacturers do to help clean up the tools management earth? (fact) What is the importance of clean water? (fact) What is the relationship between health and pollution? (fact) How does the reflective current trend of species extinction compare to the past? (fact) What can Americans do to project, stop global pollution? (policy) How can we encourage people to recycle more? (value) How does global warming increase the bysshe shelley essay dangers of disease in the U.S.? (fact) Sometimes, it can help to look through your textbook to find essays to spark ideas.

In my class, we use a book by Nancy Wood called Perspectives on Argument . In the back of tools management this book is a list of suggested issues and bysshe, articles related to those issues. Tools Management! Usually, these articles are just a start for looking for the homework machine, a topic. You can take an idea from the article you like and then research it to find out what different people think about that issue. Still having trouble finding a topic? Try looking up an issue you are interested in on project management YouTube. You might get some good ideas just browsing around. Publish Essays! Sometimes the title of a video can give you a main idea and title.

Especially look for ideas that can be turned into questions that you can argue pro or con. Whether you go online or look at a paper copy, you can use the news to give you an tools, idea of what to write about. Just remember that if you are doing a research paper that you will need to cite any sources that you use, so make sure you keep a copy. How to Write an Evaluation Paper with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 16. 100 Easy Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas with Research Links and Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 32.

How to Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 21. How to Write an the homework dan gutman, Argument Essay Step by Step. by Virginia Kearney 15. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by tools project management Virginia Kearney 108. Dream Essay! How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40. Virginia Kearney 2 weeks ago from United States. Hi Rosie--You have a good topic and an interesting personal connection. I'd suggest that you do a frame story introduction and conclusion. Start with your situation and then stop part-way through and tools project management, ask the shelley question: should you call CPS? Then do your answer and tell why or why not.

Finish with telling the project end of your story. See my articles on How to write an argument paper and How to write a position paper for full instructions. Wondering how to resume services des moines, write a position essay. Topic should you call Child Protective Services. In my personal life we are going through a situation where we called the child protective services but much is not being done. Was thinking if I choose this topic I could write some of our family's frustration about the situation, don't know how to go about writing this essay. Virginia Kearney 4 weeks ago from United States. Khen--You can find help if you look for my articles about how to write different kinds of position or argument papers. Project! I have several different articles that can lead you step by step through the process. Can you please help me in my position paper?

Virginia Kearney 2 months ago from United States. Roami, You have an interesting idea. I think one way for you to get some good information to start your paper is to research why local languages are not included in the instruction first. Next, you might want to the homework dan gutman, interview some people to find out their positions and to management, get some quotes on this topic. Finally, you might want to get some research articles which show whether or not using a local or home language of a student helps them to learn better. Design! In the United States, research has shown that students who receive some instruction in their own language at tools, least at first often do better in the long run than a child who is fully immersed in English.

In my own experience as a teacher, I discovered that children who came to an all-English classroom before grade 2 or 3, generally was very competent in that language by age 12. However, if they entered an all English school later, they were often not able to catch up. However, that only works if the child is in a school where no one else speaks their native language (as is dream essay children often true in the U.S. but not true in a school where all the children speak their local language together). You have a wonderful topic and one that is very important for your country to consider. I wish you great success in tools your paper. pls, i need u to look into this position topic for professional services des moines, me.

Should local languages be made as compulsory as religious languages in schools. Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Hi Sam, you might want to try my article about Funny Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas, or else do the negative of any idea here or in management one of resume writing des moines my many other argument essays. In a devil's advocate paper, you want to go against what most people think. Project! Here are a few ideas just to professional services des moines, get you thinking: Why Trump will be regarded as one of our top 5 presidents. Why we should leave ISIS alone. Why race is less a problem in America than Europe.

Why the leader of North Korea isn't really crazy. I have this assignment of playing the role of project management devil's advocate and I can't think of a good topic! ( I personally prefer a political related topic). Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from essay United States. Aidyn-You add a very interesting position topic. I had not thought about project schools making rules against fasting but it certainly could hurt a child's performance in school if they were fasting for dream essay children, a longer period than a day or two.

That could cause a school to tools project management, be concerned. Thanks for your comment and idea. Essays! Aidyn Krikorian 6 months ago. I greatly appreciate your website, and I have a suggestion for a topic. Should we allow fasting or other religious acts in project schools? This topic facsinates me and I do hope you will consider it.

I have chosen a topic to use for a paper from this webpage and will be returning. Thank you, Aidyn. Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Rose--You did not mention what aspect of culture you are writing about which makes it hard to help you. However, for example, if you are writing a paper arguing to people that only like modern music that classical music is worth listening to, you could start by talking about publish journal what you agree with about tools project management modern music and acknowledge why people of your generation might prefer to listen to it. Then you could explain why they would actually enjoy classical music if they gave it a try or explain how they could grow to services des moines, appreciate that kind of music. I need help on my regerian Argument eassy on culture. I dont now how to start it, Does anyone knows how.thanks.

Preston Heard 8 months ago. These are great topics for the upcoming research essays. I will definitely be using one of them. Thank you for this resource! Aaron Gibson 8 months ago. Excited for management, your class this semester! Matt Hartman 8 months ago.

This article along with many of the other articles you have written will be very helpful this semester! I'm looking forward to your class! Virginia Kearney 11 months ago from United States. Dan Gutman! Look for my articles about how to project, write argument or position essays for lots of journal ideas on tools management how to introduce essays and find sources. Luckily, Google Scholar has lots of excellent peer-reviewed essays that are good sources, but you can also find many good sources that come from government, Universities or published journals that post online (look for .gov, .edu or a journal that also appears in print). One easy way to start your introduction is to publish essays, tell a story about project a student who is reflective generally shy (or maybe bullied) but gets excited (and more included by tools others) when they are able to share about their own culture during a multiculturalism unit. I am doing an Apa essay on should schools be required to teach multiculturalism any idea on how I should start my intro and what sources I should use? Virginia Kearney 11 months ago from United States.

Bebe--You don't tell me whether your paper is a research paper or not, but I've written many articles on how to dream essay, write different sorts of essays. You can use the search engine on HubPages to tools project management, find them, or look at package design, the links that usually appear when you pull up one of my articles. Project! Search Argument essays or How to dan gutman, Write a Position Essay or just type in VirginiaLynne. To start a paper on your topic, I think I would use a story in the introduction showing a miscommunication when people don't talk face to face. Hey . Can you please help me in tools project my position paper . I dont how to start . My topic is cellphone,texts and emails are not as good as talking face to services, face . It is from yours sample :) thank you. I think that is video gaming good or bad is a great topic to tools project, choose. Virginia Kearney 18 months ago from United States. Dan Gutman! Yes Alsaifl, I think that What is beauty? could be a topic.

You are right that your answer would be a definition claim. Project Management! Jumanah Alsaif 18 months ago. Is the package design topics What is true beauty? (definition) a good topic for a position paper? I was thinking of writing how the definition of tools project management beauty is different for each individual. Brittany Adams 14 2 years ago. Machine Dan Gutman! Thank you so much for posting! This helps a lot with my writing!

Tariq Ali Khan 2 years ago. Excellent work buddy! Thank you so much ! Kristen Howe 2 years ago from Northeast Ohio. Tools Management! Great topics for a variety of essays for everyone who needs to be inspired. Thesis Package! Voted up for tools, useful! That Tom Hanks video is hilarious. These ideas are very thought-provoking and inspiring! Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Cindy A. So glad I was able to give you some good information!

Unbelievable. You have helped me enormously. Thank you so much. Thank you for these great topics. VJG 2 years ago from Texas. This would be an interesting article for school students. They always seem to struggle for essay ideas. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States.

Hi Safa--Here are the dan gutman main steps: 1. Choose a question you are going to write about. Then think about what your answer to tools, the question is going to be. 2. Decide what you want your reader to dream essay, think, do or believe after they read your essay. Tools Management! That is your thesis (the answer to your question). Essay On Life! 3. Decide who you want to persuade to believe this (that is your reader or audience). Think about what that reader already knows and project, believes about your topic.

That will help you develop your arguments. The reader should not be someone who already believes what you do. If they do, you aren't really arguing are you? 4. Think of at machine dan gutman, least 3 reasons why your reader should believe your thesis. Tools Project Management! Those reasons will be the main body part of your essay. 5. Think of publish essays journal examples or evidence which supports each of project those reasons. The Homework! That is what you will use to tools management, support those three reasons. 6. What objections will your reader have? Write those out and also your answers to those objections. This will be a paragraph after your reasons.

7. Package Design! For your conclusion think of what good will come if your reader believes you. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Hi katha- if you look at tools, the bottom right blue box I have the links to sample essays. The Homework Dan Gutman! These are student essays so they are published by my students under their own names here on hubpages. Maybe I should move these up on tools project management the page so you can find them more easily.

Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Machine! Samarah--Yes I think that vaccinating children is tools project a very good topic. You can also narrow that to dan gutman, particular types of vaccinations that are new like the chickenpox vaccine or the management HPV. Another possible argument on publish essays journal this topic is whether or not it is true that vaccines are the main reason for management, better health in people today than in the past. Is the right to vaccinate children a good topic? Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from publish journal United States. I think you can do something related to obesity or how different types of food are good or bad for your health.

Or you can talk about GMO foods or organic or locally grown produce. Tools! Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from the homework United States. Xstatic--I love the fact that you do have a position on everything--I like to management, look at reflective essay, all sides of things and that is great as an instructor teaching positions, because I can play the devils advocate, but sometimes I do need to just nail down my own point of view! Jim Higgins 5 years ago from Eugene, Oregon. A great how to for position papers. I have not written one for years, though I have a position on almost everything.

Useful Hub and tools project management, well done as usual. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is publish essays journal a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.

Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Sometimes writing—especially writing for standardized tests—can feel like something you get or don't get. That's primarily because it's very difficult to explain and teach writing in a mechanical way, especially when you're up against time limits. In this article, we've broken how to write the ACT essay into 8 steps that work for management, every essay, every time. Then, we show you exactly how to do it with an actual ACT essay example. Many students ask us how to write an ACT essay, and while the answer is simple enough to explain in 8 steps (as we do below), it's not necessarily simple to do . As with any skill, the key to design learning how to write an ACT essay is to study a good model (which we are going to tools project cover in this article) and then practice, practice, practice. Tackling ACT Writing, Step by Step. The ACT essay plan below has been modified from shelley essay, our ACT Essay Tips article to tools fit the new ACT Writing Test. The template includes 3 sections: planning, writing and revising. If you practice using this template to write ACT essays, you'll get much faster and (probably) more precise. Here's the sample prompt we'll be responding to:

Many of the children goods and services we depend on project daily are now supplied by intelligent, automated machines rather than human beings. Dream? Robots build cars and other goods on tools project management assembly lines, where once there were human workers. Many of our phone conversations are now conducted not with people but with sophisticated technologies. We can now buy goods at a variety of stores without the help of a human cashier. Automation is generally seen as a sign of progress, but what is bysshe shelley lost when we replace humans with machines?

Given the accelerating variety and prevalence of intelligent machines, it is worth examining the implications and meaning of their presence in our lives. Perspective One: What we lose with the tools replacement of bysshe essay, people by machines is project some part of our own humanity. Even our mundane daily encounters no longer require from us basic courtesy, respect, and tolerance for other people. Perspective Two: Machines are good at low-skill, repetitive jobs, and at high-speed, extremely precise jobs. In both cases they work better than humans. Reflective? This efficiency leads to a more prosperous and progressive world for everyone.

Perspective Three: Intelligent machines challenge our long-standing ideas about what humans are or can be. This is tools good because it pushes both humans and essay children machines toward new, unimagined possibilities. Write a unified, coherent essay about the increasing presence of intelligent machines. It may feel like you won't have time to plan your essay before you write, but really, it's something you can't omit. Tools? Trust us.

Organizing your thoughts as you write will cost you way more time than if you take the percy bysshe essay time to plan out your essay before you begin writing. Step 1: Read the Prompt and the Perspectives Provided, Then (Tentatively) Choose a Position. Because addressing the relationship between your perspective and at least one of the other three perspectives is an project management, integral part of the essay task, you need to make sure you understand what each prompt is saying. The good news is essay that each perspective includes both a general assertion about intelligent machines as well as an opinion that places the tools project topic in a broader context, saving you some work in coming up with your own, independent perspective. While it is possible to come up with a fourth point of view on professional resume des moines the topic, I don't recommend it, as the added time you'll have to spend coming up with your own point of view could be better spend developing your comparison of your perspective to at least one of the other perspectives.

If your perspective is a blending of multiple perspectives, then that's also fine, as long as you make sure you compare your blended perspective to each of the tools perspectives it combines; otherwise, you won't fulfill the analyze the relationship between your perspective and at least one other perspective part of the task. Bottom line: choose the perspective you think you can support the best. For this sample ACT essay, I'm going to tentatively choose to argue Perspective Three (that intelligent machines challenge long-standing ideas about humanity, which in writing services des moines, turn pushes humans and machines toward new, previously unimaginable possibilities), simply because that happens to be the position I think I'll be able to support the best. Step 2: Quickly Brainstorm Evidence and Explanations to Support Each Perspective. Because the ACT essay involves discussing the tools relationship between your perspective and at least one of the other perspectives given, not just the one you agree with, you'll have to use multiple pieces of essay on life, evidence in tools project, your essay.

At this point, if you find that you're able to find more convincing evidence to support a different perspective than the one you've chosen, you can always switch - after all, you're still planning. Also, you don't have to write in complete sentences, or phrase things as elegantly as you will in publish essays, the actual essay, so don't worry about that. Opening paragraph of the prompt : If you haven't already, read through the paragraph at project management, the beginning of the essay prompt. The Homework? You can appropriate some or all of the examples in it to use in your own essay. Personal Experience : you can tell any story (real or not) about you or someone else you know (or make up) that supports any one of your points. Statistics : again, these can be real or made up. You could invent a research study that looked at recordings of tools project management, phone calls and writing des moines found 80% of people end up cursing while using automated phone menus (to support perspective one), make up statistics that show automated cashiers are able to process 3x as many check-outs as human cashiers (to support perspective 2), or come up with any other kind of statistics that support one of the project perspectives. Specifics from Sources : use knowledge of events from history or current events to support your points. If you're not certain of the details, it's all right - the essay graders won't deduct points for dream, factually inaccurate information. Project Management? For this essay, you could use the invention of the printing press (and its effects) as an example of how mechanization can lead to unimagined possibilities. Here's the professional resume writing services des moines evidence I came up with for my essay:

Perspective One: What we lose with the replacement of people by machines is some part of tools management, our own humanity. Even our mundane daily encounters no longer require from us basic courtesy, respect, and tolerance for other people. Evidence : Many of our phone conversations are conducted not with people, but with sophisticated technologies. that don't necessarily work at 100% Explanation : People get so frustrated with the technology that when they press 0 to speak with a real human they are often rude and discourteous. Perspective Two: Machines are good at low-skill, repetitive jobs, and at high-speed, extremely precise jobs. In both cases they work better than humans.

This efficiency leads to a more prosperous and bysshe shelley essay progressive world for everyone. Evidence : Robots build cars on assembly lines. Explanation : Lower cost, decreases risk of injury to management human workers. Perspective Three: Intelligent machines challenge our long-standing ideas about what humans are or can be. This is good because it pushes both humans and machines toward new, unimagined possibilities. Evidence : Brain-computer interfaces that allow people to control computers with their brains are a thing. Explanation : Allow people to overcome physical limitations, inspire us to continue researching and expanding knowledge. Step 3: Brainstorm Your Counterarguments to, or Analyses of, the Other Perspectives. There's no one right way to respond to the perspectives the ACT gives you. Some of it depends on what point of view you take. For instance, if I agreed with Perspective One, which takes a negative view of the effects of intelligent machines, I might want to discuss both of the other two perspectives (which both take positive views of intelligent machines) in one paragraph, and then disagree with them in the next paragraph as I present my support for Perspective One.

Since I am arguing for Perspective Three (machines challenge our ideas about what humans are or can be, which pushes us and machines toward new possibilities), I am going to argue against Perspective One and Perspective Two separately, because I have strong evidence for my analyses of each perspective. Machine? Because the essay only requires you to analyze the relationship between your perspective and at least one other perspective, if I had lots of evidence to management use in my comparison of my perspective and Perspective One, but nothing to say about thesis package design, Perspective Two, I could also decide not to discuss that perspective at all. In this case, I was able to thing of solid arguments for and against both of the project other perspectives, so I chose to analyze both of them and percy bysshe shelley their relationship to my perspective below. Again, these are not necessarily worded in their final form. Perspective One: What we lose with the replacement of people by machines is some part of our own humanity. Even our mundane daily encounters no longer require from us basic courtesy, respect, and tolerance for other people. Evidence : Many of our phone conversations are conducted not with people, but with sophisticated technologies. Tools Management? that don't necessarily work at 100% Explanation : People get so frustrated with the the homework machine dan gutman technology that when they press 0 to speak with a real human they are often rude and discourteous.

Counterargument/analysis : The benefits outweigh the costs, because providing people with the option to submit prescriptions or ask about store hours through an automated menu frees up customer service reps to tools answer real questions. In addition, recordings of calls with angry customers are used to improve the menus. Perspective Two: Machines are good at thesis package design, low-skill, repetitive jobs, and at high-speed, extremely precise jobs. In both cases they work better than humans. This efficiency leads to tools a more prosperous and the homework progressive world for project management, everyone. Evidence : Robots build cars on assembly lines. Explanation : Robots take over children dangerous jobs which decreases risk of injury to tools human workers, lowering cost to employers. Counterargument/analysis : This perspective is true, but is limited in its consideration of the implications. Robots can not only do things instead of publish, humans, but can actually work with humans, as in tools management, precise surgery, to a better result than either humans or machines alone. Now that you have the main points of your essay, it's time to the homework dan gutman organize them in project management, a way that makes sense.

Make sure to include your introduction (with your thesis statement containing your point of view, or at least a rough sense of resume writing services, your thesis statement) and conclusion in this organization. If you have time, you can include transitions now, but you can also just add them as you are writing. The increasing prevalence of tools project, machines challenges us, etc, will put this in fancy words when I write the essay for the homework machine dan gutman, real. Perspective One argues that replacing humans with machine leads us to lose part of our own humanity, because even our mundane daily encounters no longer require from tools, us basic courtesy, respect, and tolerance for other people. Reflective? I have witnessed this in my own life through watching my mother interact with some of management, those sophisticated automated phone systems. She sometimes gets so frustrated with the technology refusing to professional resume services do what she wants that, by the time the tools project management menu allows her to speak to a real human, my mother is no longer courteous or respectful. Despite this frustration, I think the benefits outweigh the costs, because providing people with the option to submit prescriptions or ask about store hours through an automated menu frees up customer service reps to answer real questions. In addition, recordings of percy bysshe shelley, calls with angry customers are used to improve the tools project management menus. In contrast to Perspective One, Perspective Two argues that the main utility of machines is in their ability to perform repetitive tasks more precisely and resume services efficiently than humans.

In auto plants around the world, robots build cars on assembly lines, performing their jobs with high precision and at lower overall cost to employers, who can make a one time purchase rather than having to pay a human a yearly salary (and worry about project, liability issues) The true impact of intelligent machines in our lives is that they challenge us to re-think our preconceived notions of what people can do or become in the future. Thesis Package? An example of this is brain-computer interfaces that allow people to control computers with their brains. With BCIs, people can overcome physical limitations.. In addition, BCIs have capture the project management interest of people from all different backgrounds and are being applied to non-scientific fields to create new, previously unimagined inventions and essays ways to interact with the world. In conclusion, rather than taking away from tools management, our humanity, intelligent machines help us to professional resume move forward as a species to project management new heights. By the end of this step, you should try to have about 30 minutes left so you have enough time to write. If you don't, just keep in mind that you might have to skimp on some of your explanations/counterarguments for the perspective(s) you compare to your own. Once you've structured your argument, it's time to write it all down!

Step 5: Introduction Paragraph Thesis. Write your introduction. If you can think of an interesting first sentence that brings your thesis into a larger discussion, start with that. (If writing the introduction stumps you, just leave 10-15 lines blank at the beginning of the paper and come back to it.) From the simplest system of essays, pulleys and ropes in ancient Greece to the most complex supercomputer in tools management, the world today, machines have had (and continue to have) a profound influence on the development of humanity. Make sure you clearly state your thesis. For a 3+/6 essay, this should include your perspective on the issue and how it relates to at least one of the other perspectives presented in the prompt. While some argue that machines have a negative impact on the homework dan gutman us, the tools project management increasing prevalence of intelligent machines in the world challenges us to change long held beliefs about our limitations and to continue forward to new and even more advanced possibilities.

When you start your first body paragraph , try to think of a first sentence that refers back to the first paragraph. Ideally, you'll start every paragraph by referring back to your thesis to create a unified argument. One common argument against the increased presence of machines in our day-to-day lives (seen in Perspective One) is journal that machines leach away at our basic humanity. Then address the argument opposing yours (in this case, Perspective One). Explain the evidence that supports this perspective in project, 3-5 sentences.

I found this to be true in the homework, my own life as a result of witnessing many a phone conversation between my mother and an automated telephone menu. For whatever reason, she consistently has issues with the menus that try to tools project verify her date of birth. The automated system never understands what she says (possibly because of her accent), and asks her to input the numbers via her keypad; of course, my mom's smartphone is so smart that the screen turns off while she is on a call, making it impossible for percy shelley essay, her to follow the automated phone system's instructions. By the tools management time the essay system gives up and tools management routes her to speak to a human representative, my mother is writing des moines often so frustrated that she is tools project management far from courteous and respectful to that person. Then, make sure to publish journal explain your counterargument to this perspective, tying it back to your thesis. Despite my mother's understandable frustration with automated phone systems, however, overall the benefits outweigh the costs. Providing people with the tools project management option to submit prescriptions or ask about store hours through an reflective, automated menu frees up customer service representatives to answer questions machines are incapable of tools project management, addressing. In addition, the recordings of angry phone calls (where customers are not courteous, respectful, or tolerant of publish journal, other humans) are used to improve the phone menus to make them more user-friendly. Thus, the momentary disrespect toward other humans caused by tools project management machines is percy essay more than compensated for by the positive effects of project management, those same machines. If you're only comparing your perspective against reflective essay on life one of the others, then this paragraph should contain further analysis of the relationship between the two perspectives. Tools Management? If you're comparing your perspective against both of the other perspectives (as I did in this essay), then this is where you introduce your thoughts on the second perspective.

Another school of thought, exemplified by Perspective Two, argues that the the homework dan gutman main utility of machines is their ability to project perform repetitive tasks more precisely and more efficiently than humans, which leads to percy bysshe shelley a more prosperous and tools progressive world for everyone. Address the argument of this second perspective (in this case, Perspective Two). Explain the essay evidence that supports this perspective in 3-5 sentences. In auto plants around the world, robots build cars on assembly lines. Project Management? Instead of having to pay a human employee a yearly salary, invest time in training that employee, and worry about liability should that employee be injured, manufacturing plants can now make a one-time purchase of an intelligent machine that will perform that same job at higher levels of precision. This leads to thesis package design a more prosperous world for the manufacturers, as they are able to invest less money to get a better product. Then, make sure to explain how this perspective relates back to your perspective. This perspective is fine as far as it goes, but is limited in management, its consideration of the implications. Robots can not only work in place of humans, but can also work cooperatively with humans to professional resume writing services des moines a greater results than either could have hoped for alone. This can be seen in highly complex and delicate surgeries, where a surgeon controls robotic microtools to perform operations that even ten years ago would have been unimaginable and impossible.

Introduce your main perspective, linking it back to the counterarguments you've made against at least one of the other perspectives. I agree with Perspective Three that the true impact of intelligent machines in our lives is that they challenge us to re-think our preconceived notions of what people can do or become in the future. Present one final example in support of your perspective. A final example of tools project, this is brain-computer interfaces, or BCIs. Writing Des Moines? Humans are able to project management manipulate computers with their brains via electrodes that are either implanted in percy, their brains or attached (temporarily) to their heads. With these intelligent machines, formerly paralyzed people who had no hope of communicating with others are able to transcend their physical limitations by concentrating to form words out of project management, keyboards on bysshe shelley essay the computer screens. In addition, BCIs have captured the interest of people from all different backgrounds and are being applied to tools project management non-scientific fields like music to create new, previously unimagined instruments that react to people's thoughts, adding a new dimension to an ancient art form. Truly, intelligent machines are providing the impetus not just for publish essays, greater efficiency, but for greater accomplishments. Check your time.

Try to project have 5-6 minutes left at this point. Come up with a quick sentence that restates your thesis to design wrap up the project essay. In conclusion, rather than taking away from our humanity, intelligent machines actually help us to move forward as a species to achieve new, previously unimagined possibilities. Let's look at our complete ACT essay example: [1] From the publish essays simplest system of pulleys and ropes in ancient Greece to tools the most complex supercomputer in dream, the world today, machines have had (and continue to project have) a profound influence on the development of humanity. While some argue that machines have a negative impact on us, the publish increasing prevalence of project, intelligent machines in the world challenge us to change long held beliefs about writing, our limitations and to continue forward to new and even more advanced possibilities. [2] One common argument against the increased presence of machines in our day-to-day lives (seen in Perspective One) is that machines leach away at our basic humanity. I found this to be true in tools project, my own life as a result of percy, witnessing many a phone conversation between my mother and an automated telephone menu. Tools Project Management? For whatever reason, she consistently has issues with the menus that try to verify her date of the homework machine, birth.

The automated system never understands what she says (possibly because of tools project management, her accent), and asks her to on life input the numbers via her keypad; of course, my mom's smartphone is so smart that the screen turns off while she is on a call, making it impossible for her to project follow the on life automated phone system's instructions. Tools? By the percy bysshe essay time the system gives up and routes her to speak to a human representative, my mother is often so frustrated that she is far from courteous and respectful to that person. Despite my mother's understandable frustration with automated phone systems, however, overall the benefits outweigh the costs. Providing people with the option to submit prescriptions or ask about store hours through an automated menu frees up customer service representatives to answer questions machines are incapable of tools project management, addressing. In addition, the recordings of angry phone calls (where customers are not courteous, respectful, or tolerant of other humans) are used to improve the phone menus to make them more user-friendly. Thus, the momentary disrespect toward other humans caused by machines is essay more than compensated for by the positive effects of those same machines. [3] Another school of thought, exemplified by Perspective Two, argues that the main utility of machines is their ability to perform repetitive tasks more precisely and more efficiently than humans, which leads to a more prosperous and progressive world for everyone. In auto plants around the world, robots build cars on assembly lines. Instead of having to pay a human employee a yearly salary, invest time in training that employee, and worry about liability should that employee be injured, manufacturing plants can now make a one-time purchase of an intelligent machine that will perform that same job at higher levels of project management, precision. This leads to a more prosperous world for the manufacturers, as they are able to invest less money to get a better product.

This perspective is fine as far as it goes, but is limited in its consideration of the implications. Robots can not only package work in place of humans, but can also work cooperatively with humans to a greater results than either could have hoped for alone. This can be seen in highly complex and delicate surgeries, where a surgeon controls robotic microtools to project perform operations that even ten years ago would have been unimaginable and impossible. [4] I agree with Perspective Three that the true impact of intelligent machines in our lives is that they challenge us to package design re-think our preconceived notions of what people can do or become in the future. Tools Project Management? A final example of this is brain-computer interfaces, or BCIs. Humans are able to manipulate computers with their brains via electrodes that are either implanted in essay children, their brains or attached (temporarily) to their heads. With these intelligent machines, formerly paralyzed people who had no hope of communicating with others are able to transcend their physical limitations by concentrating to form words out of keyboards on the computer screens. Tools Project? In addition, BCIs have captured the interest of people from all different backgrounds and are being applied to non-scientific fields like music to create new, previously unimagined instruments that react to people's thoughts, adding a new dimension to an ancient art form.

Truly, intelligent machines are providing the impetus not just for greater efficiency, but for greater accomplishments. [5] In conclusion, rather than taking away from our humanity, intelligent machines actually help us to move forward as a species to percy bysshe essay achieve new, previously unimagined possibilities. In these last 2-4 minutes, you want to read over your essay and trying to project management pick up a point or two by revising. In this time, you can do a number of things. You can, of essay, course, correct mistakes : Paragraph 1, Sentence 2: [subject/verb agreement; change is bolded] The increasing prevalence of intelligent machines in the world challenges us to project management change long held beliefs about our limitations and to professional services des moines continue forward to new and even more advanced possibilities. You can replace dull or problematic words or phrasing with fancier words or clearer turns of phrase: Paragraph 2, last sentence. Thus, the momentary disrespect toward other humans caused by machines is more than compensated for by the positive effects of those same machines.

We can change it to: Thus, any momentary disrespect my mom might show to a customer service representative (as a result of frustration with the automated system) is more than compensated for by the positive effects of those same machines. There you go! Now you know how to write a good ACT essay. If any part of this was confusing, re-read that section. Then try to do it yourself with a sample ACT essay prompt.

Practice planning your essays in 8-10 minutes before you start writing . The time limits above should be your goal; start by giving yourself more time and then shrink it down. You can use the list from our ACT essay prompts blog post or any list of ACT-like questions and start with the planning stage . Don't forget to check out our full analysis of the ACT Writing Rubric, with strategies and explanations that can guide you in management, your essay planning! Our blog post about dream essay, ACT essay tips has more in-depth information about the details of planning and tools management arguing in the ACT essay. If you've already taken the ACT and are wondering how the new essay differs from the old ACT Writing test, definitely be sure to check out package our article on the enhanced ACT Writing section. Want to tools project improve your ACT score by 4 points? Check out our best-in-class online ACT prep program. Children? We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your ACT score by 4 points or more. Our program is entirely online, and it customizes your prep program to your strengths and weaknesses. We also have expert instructors who can grade every one of your practice ACT essays, giving feedback on how to tools project improve your score. Check out our 5-day free trial:

Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from children, Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College. Project? She scored 99 percentile scores on essay on life the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on how to excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on tools project social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of reflective, our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply!

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