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buffer lab report This laboratory and its associated laboratory report are not to be performed by the student. They are to be used as an example when writing up the experiments we do in the laboratory. In this laboratory you will prepare several phosphate buffer solutions and analyze their properties. You will start by preparing 100 mls of three buffer solutions which are 100 mM in essays on constitution of india, total phosphate and have a (theoretical) pH of 7.21. 1) Prepare the difference between essay, first by weighing out the appropriate amount of NaH 2 PO 4 (actually crystalized as NaH 2 PO 4 · H 2 O) and adding the appropriate amount of on constitution of india, 1N NaOH (provided) and water to achieve the desired result. 2) Next prepare the buffer by mixing the appropriate amounts of NaH 2 PO 4 and Na 2 HPO 4 (actually crystallized as Na 2 HPO 4 · 7H 2 O) in water. 3) Next prepare the buffer by adding HCl to an appropriate amount of Na 2 HPO 4 and ford foundation diversity fellowships water. Note that all of essays on constitution, these buffers will be prepared based on the calculations that you perform below. You will not use a pH meter to titrate them to the correct pH. 4) Next, take a 10 ml aliquot of the second buffer solution and dilute it 10-fold in distilled water.
5) Next, take a 10 ml aliquot of the second buffer solution and dilute it 10-fold in 1M NaCl. Finally, perform a pH measurement on all five of the resulting buffer solutions and explain your results. Note that the difference paper essay, pK A of the essays of india and social justice, dissociation (H 2 PO 4 - == HPO 4 2- + H + ) is 7.21 at dissertation room temperature. The pH's of each of essays of india and social justice, these solutions will probably be different and will not be exactly what you calculated. Consider the effect of activity (as opposed to concentration) in thesis statement alcoholism, your explanation of essays on constitution, each case. Before coming to lab, answer the following questions. These questions will be turned in at the beginning of lab and will count for 20% of the grade for this lab.
1) How many grams of NaH 2 PO 4 · H 2 O and ford how many mls of 1N NaOH will you need to add to on constitution of india and social justice make the crisis in delhi, first buffer solution? 2) How many grams of NaH 2 PO 4 · H 2 O and of Na 2 HPO 4 · 7H 2 O do you need to add to make the second buffer? 3) How many grams of of india and social, Na 2 HPO 4 · 7H 2 O and how many mls of 1N HCl will you need to add to make the digicel competition, third buffer? In the Questions section of your lab report, answer the on constitution and social, following questions. 1) What, chemically speaking, is the difference between buffer 1 and ford foundation dissertation diversity fellowships buffer 3? 2) Calculate the ionic strength of each of the justice, solutions you made. Difference Between Essays And Stories. 3) Based on your knowledge of activities and the Debye-Huckle law, do you expect the pH in buffer 4 to be greater or less than that in the original buffer 2? 4) Same as the essays and social justice, last problem except for buffer 5. Sample Prelab Report. 1) How many grams of NaH 2 PO 4 · H 2 O and how many mls of 1N NaOH will you need to add to between essays and stories make the first buffer solution? The molecular weight of NaH 2 PO 4 · H 2 O is on constitution of india 138. Our goal is to prepare a solution that is 0.1M in total phosphate (all protonated or unprotonated forms of phosphate ion). Since the only source of phosphate here is the NaH 2 PO 4 , we must add 0.1 moles per liter of this to begin with. Our final volume is 0.1 L which means we will need 0.01 moles of between essays and stories, NaH 2 PO 4 or 1.38 grams . This should dissociate to essays form Na + and H 2 PO 4 - in solution.
Considering the dissociate reaction: (H 2 PO 4 - == HPO 4 2- + H + ), and the relationship: we can see that the pH will equal the pK A (7.21, or desired pH) if [H 2 PO 4 - ] = [HPO 4 2- ]. In order to generate a solution in which the difference between essays, concentration of and social justice, these two ions are equal, we will need to convert half of the diprotic phosphate to the monoprotic form by addition of a strong base, such as NaOH. Thesis Alcoholism. Since OH - is such a strong base, the essays and social justice, reaction will be stochiometric and therefore we will need 0.01/2 = 0.005 moles of OH - to convert half of the essay plans future, 0.01 moles of H 2 PO 4 - that we added above to the monoprotic form. Essays Of India And Social. This will require 0.005 L of the essay future, 1N NaOH solution or 5 mls . Note that we will have to essays on constitution justice be careful to leave enough volume in the cylinder upon dissertation dissolving the NaH 2 PO 4 so that we will not go over 100 mls. 2) How many grams of NaH 2 PO 4 · H 2 O and of Na 2 HPO 4 · 7H 2 O do you need to add to make the second buffer? As above, we find that our disired pH is achieved when the concentrations of the diprotic and essays of india justice monoprotic forms of the phosphate ion are equal. Thus we will want to add an equal number of moles of each to the solution. Thus, instead of adding 0.01 moles of NaH 2 PO 4 , we should add 0.005 moles each of NaH 2 PO 4 and of Na 2 HPO 4 . That would be 0.69 grams of NaH 2 PO 4 and on water in delhi 0.005 x 268 = 1.34 g of Na 2 HPO 4 . 3) How many grams of Na 2 HPO 4 · 7H 2 O and how many mls of 1N HCl will you need to add to make the third buffer? This is just the opposite of the first problem. Now we need 0.01 moles of and social justice, Na 2 HPO 4 in 0.1 L of water to get a final total phosphate concentration of 0.1 M. The molecular weight of Na 2 HPO 4 is 268.
So we will need 2.68 grams . Now we need to convert half of the HPO 4 2- to essay plans H 2 PO 4 - . This can be done by of india adding a strong acid like HCl. This reaction is stiochiometric. Therefore we need 0.005 moles of HCl which is 5 mls of a 1N solution. Sample Laboratory Report. Procedure and Results. Competition. In this laboratory, five 100 ml phosphate buffer solutions were prepared and their pH values were measured. Solids were weighed using a Satorius analytical balance. Liquid measurements between 1 and 25 mls were performed using a plastic pipette. Liquid measurements above 25 mls were made using a graduated cylinder.
The water that was used for all solutions was glass distilled water which was provided. The first buffer solution was prepared by weighing 1.38 g of essays on constitution of india, NaH 2 PO 4 · H 2 O (white crystalline solid) and adding this to approximately 75 mls of H 2 O in a 125 ml Erlenmeyer flask. To this, 5 mls of 1N NaOH (provided) was added and the solution was stirred by essay on water swirling until all of the solid had dissolved. The resulting solution was transferred to a 100 ml graduated cylinder and brought to the final volume of 100 mls by adding water and on constitution of india mixing. The second buffer solution was prepared by weighing 1.34 g of Na 2 HPO 4 · 7H 2 O (white, crystalline solid) and essays and stories 0.69g of NaH 2 PO 4 · H 2 O and combining them in essays on constitution justice, a 125 ml Erlenmeyer flask. Approximately 75 mls of water was added and the solution was swirled until all solid was dissolved. The solution was then transferred to a 100 ml graduated cylinder and difference and stories brought to a final volume of essays on constitution of india justice, 100 mls with water as before. On Water Crisis. The third buffer solution was prepared by weighing 2.68 g of essays, Na 2 HPO 4 · 7H 2 O and placing that in a 125 ml Erlenmeyer flask.
Approximately 75 mls of water was added, the solution was swirled until all solids had dissolved and then 5 mls of 1N HCl (provided) was added and mixed. The solution was then transferred to digicel essay a graduated cylinder and brought to 100 mls as above. The fourth buffer solution was prepared by essays justice pipetting 10 mls of buffer solution 2 into a 100 ml graduated cylinder with a 10 ml plastic pipette. This solution was then brought to between term essay a final volume of 100 mls by addition of water. The fifth buffer solution was prepared by pipetting 10 mls of buffer solution 2 into and social justice, a 100 mls graduated cylinder as above. This solution was brought to ford foundation a final volume of 100 mls by and social addition of ford dissertation diversity fellowships, 1M NaCl (provided). Each of the solutions was transferred to a 125 ml Erlenmeyer flask. The pH of each solution was measured using a Beckman pH meter with a combination electrode at room temperature.
Just prior to the series of measurements, the pH meter was standardized at essays of india pH 7.0 and pH 4.0 using standard buffer solutions (provided). Between each measurement, the electrode was rinsed with glass distilled water and droplets of excess water were gently removed with Kimwipe. At the end of the future, series of measurements, the pH 7.0 standard buffer was rechecked and was shown to be within 0.04 pH units of pH 7.00. The values of the of india and social justice, pH's measured for each of the buffer solutions is given in foundation dissertation, Table I. Buffer Solution 1. Buffer Solution 2. Buffer Solution 3. Buffer Solution 4. Of India Justice. Buffer Solution 5. About. In the preparation of buffer 1, 0.01 moles of NaH 2 PO 4 was added to water and of india and social justice dissolved to form Na + and H 2 PO 4 - ions in solution. (There is also a very small amount of proton dissociation. This significantly decreases the pH of the solution at this point, but has little effect on the concentration of thesis alcoholism, H 2 PO 4 - .) Next, 0.005 moles of NaOH was added which dissociated to form Na + and OH - ions. The OH - and H 2 PO 4 - ions then reacted: One half of the H 2 PO 4 - was converted to HPO 4 2- as shown. The final solution also contained 0.015 moles of Na + . In the essays on constitution justice, preparation of buffer 2, 0.005 moles each of the monobasic and dibasic sodium phosphate salts were added resulting again in digicel essay, a solution that contained the same concentrations of H 2 PO 4 - , HPO 4 2- and Na + as solution 1. The preparation of buffer 3 involved reacting 0.01 moles of on constitution of india and social, dibasic sodium phosphate with 0.005 moles of HCl.
The H + that resulted from dissociation of the strong acid reacted with H 2 PO 4 - forming water and HPO 4 2- . The resulting solution contained 0.02 moles of Na + , 0.005 moles of Cl - , and again 0.005 moles each of H 2 PO 4 - and HPO 4 2- . Note that this solution differs from solutions 1 and 2 in ford fellowships, that it contains an extra 0.005 moles of NaCl. Essays Of India And Social Justice. Buffer solution 4 involved a simple dilution. No chemical reaction was involved. All major ion species had a ten-fold lower concentration after dilution. Buffer solution 5 also involved a ten-fold dilution of the buffer 2 constituents, and the addition of NaCl to a final concentration of 0.90 M. The pH values measured for the first three samples were very similar (measurement of the pH 7.0 standard buffer before and after the experiment indicated that measurement variations of a few thousands of a pH unit were within the instrument's intrinsic error) and all were significantly lower than the pH predicted from the equation: where the acid and base form concentrations are used (not activities). (Since the concentrations of the two forms were the same, one would expect that pH=pK A =7.21.) As explained in the question section, it is possible to correct (at least in an approximate sense) for ion-screening effects in ion solutions using the Debye-Huckle theory. As shown in the questions, an increased ionic strength results in a decrease in the pH of a phosphate buffer solution since the activity coefficient of a doubly charged ion (base form in this case) is always smaller than that of thesis, a singly charged ion (acid form in this case) making the last term in the above equation negative.
This effect increases with the square root of the ionic strength (see answers to questions). Since the first three buffers all had similar but substantial ionic strengths, one would expect them to have similar pH values, all less than the pK A . The fourth buffer solution had a much lower ionic strength and thus had a pH closer to on constitution of india and social justice the pK A . The fifth buffer had a much larger ionic strength than any of the others and difference essay thus had a pH much lower than any of the others. Answers to the Questions. 1)If you compared buffers 1 and 3 you would see that chemically they differ as follows: In the first buffer, NaOH (which of course is on constitution really Na + + OH - in solution) is being added to convert half of the H 2 PO 4 - to HPO 4 2- . As a result, the final solution has final sodium ion concentration which is 1.5 times the essay plans future, total phosphate concentration. Sodium and phosphate are the only ions. However, in buffer 3: Here we see that in the end we have an extra sodium ion and an extra chloride ion over what was present in buffer (2).
In fact, buffer (3) is buffer (2) plus 50 mM NaCl. It makes a difference how you prepare your buffers! 2)#9;It is a simple matter to calculate ionic strength from the formula. #9;(1) #9;[Na + ] = 150 mM (remember the Na in the NaOH). On Constitution Justice. #9;(4)#9;This is just (2) diluted by a factor of 10. Thus, I = 20 mM. #9;(5)#9;For this we have essentially buffer (4) with an term essay additional 0.900 M NaCl. Essays Of India. #9;#9;(the NaCl was diluted to 0.9 of its original concentration). Of course the. #9;#9;NaCl dissociates to crisis in delhi Na + and Cl - . Therefore. 3) and 4)#9;We know that: Here, #103; 1 and #103; 2 are the activity coefficients for HPO 4 2- and H 2 PO 4 - , respectively. m 0 is the standard molality which in and social, aqueous solutions at room temperature is essentially 1M. Since in our solutions the concentrations (but not the activities) of the acid and the base are equal.
Thus, we can easily predict how pH will depend on ionic strength. You were only dissertation diversity fellowships, asked to consider buffers (4) and (5) since these should have had the most dramatic effects. However, let's go ahead and make some predictions for on constitution of india and social, each of the difference between essays and stories, buffers. Essays Of India. Note that the above equations should be considered as only very rough estimates for essay on water crisis, buffers with ionic strengths more than 10 or 20 mM. Thus, we will use them in a qualitative, rather than quantitative, way. For all of the buffers, the term containing the ionic strength above is negative and of india therefore we should see that the pH is statement about lower than the essays on constitution of india and social justice, pK A in each case. The first two buffers are the difference between term paper essay, same and on constitution should both have pH's that are two or three tenths of a pH unit lower than the between term essay, pK A (as observed). Buffer 3 has a slightly higher ionic strength and should therefore give a slightly lower pH.
This effect would be small (according to on constitution and social justice the above equation only a few thousands of a pH unit) and thus it is not surprising that we did not see a significant difference in the pH of buffer 3 compared to 1 and between essays 2. Buffer 4 has a much lower ionic strength and should therefore come much closer to the pK A . On Constitution And Social. Actually, at 20 mM, the Debye-Huckle equation is about alcoholism not usually too far off. It results in on constitution justice, a pH of about 7.14. Digicel Essay. The reason why our measured pH was lower may be that at on constitution of india and social justice this low concentration of buffer, the difference between term paper, buffer capacity is low. This means you are much more sensitive to endogenous acids and bases in the water or on the glassware. One of of india, these is dissolved CO 2 which can give water a slightly lower pH than the expected 7.0. The other possible problem may be with the theory itself. A 20 mM ionic strength is still a bit on the high side for Debye Huckle theory. In any case, the theory allows us to rationalize why a higher pH was obtained for (4) than for any of the first three buffers. Thesis. (5) has the essays on constitution of india and social, highest ionic strength of all and therefore has the lowest pH.
The magnitude of the effect is between term hard to predict since the essays on constitution and social, theories are extremely inaccurate at high ionic strengths, but it should have been on the order of a half a pH unit lower than number (4).
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The Indian Constitution Guarantees Justice To All Law Essay
ngo essay topics on international non-governmental organization. The article reproduced below first appeared in 1972 in Transnational Associations . 1. In a further effort to stimulate academic study of international nongovernmental nonprofit organizations, it seemed useful to bring together into one list many of the areas which have not been researched or which merit further attention. 2 This is done below. It is hoped that even if the topics selected do not cover the major areas of interest, they will at least serve to on constitution of india highlight any lacunas. Comments would be welcomed. As a complement to this initiative, the authors have prepared a bibliography of about 1000 articles and documents which represent as much of the literature that could be located in the time available.
3. The term transnational association networks was chosen in order to difference essays and stories provoke comment on the adequacy of the current term international non-governmental organization. International is essays of india not applicable to many INGOs; and the current increasing use of transnational seems more appropriate. Association is used because international organization, in the literature and in practice, is nearly always associated implicitly with IGOs. Networks is added in the plural because most bodies are embedded in several inter-organizational networks - this is usually ignored and INGOs are analyzed as isolated entities.
The properties of the network and the nature of an organization's involvement in it, may be more significant than that of the sum of the isolated entities or an aggregation of their transactions. Non-governmental is dropped because there are many mixed, intersect, organizations particularly in the developing and socialist countries - also in some cultures non- may mean something very close to anti-. To define X as non-governmental is a plain confession of inability to conceptualize X, and in practice means that X can only be conceived of in relation to government - and, in practice, as the hand-maiden of government. For this reason, at statement the national level, terms with a positive connotation are mainly used as appropriate (e.g. voluntary, professional, etc.) 1. Political and general aspects. 1.1.Changing aims and programmes of international associations consequent upon essays on constitution of india justice, the evolution of world problems and the setting up of other international bodies, governmental and between term paper essay, nongovernmental. 1.2.The work of transnational associations as an element in essays on constitution of india and social justice mitigating or exacerbating members' intransigence in the unilateral defense of their own sectional interests. 1.3.The development of the concept of international and transnational association. 1.4.The part played by transnational associations in the establishment of intergovernmental bodies.
1.5.The degree to which transnational associations can reflect public opinion. 1.6.Reasons why transnational associations may be unsuccessful in attaining their objectives. 1.7. The effective powers given to organs in on water in delhi transnational associations. 1.8.Voting systems within transnational associations. 1.9. Role of association networks in the democratic process. 1.10.Transnational association networks and the open or pluralistic society.
1.11.Transnational association networks and the integration of the essays on constitution justice, world system. 1.12.TANs and plans future, issue formulation in the democratic process. 1.13.TANs and the generation of political will. 1.14.TANs as an underdeveloped Third World of the social system from which political will and support is extracted for the governmental and economic sectors. 1.15.TANs, feudal systems, and the structural theory of revolution.
1.16.Contribution of TANs to the adoption of intergovernmental conventions. 2.1.Analysis of the structure of transnational associations and essays on constitution of india, their networks, as compared with their aims. 2.2.Classification and typology of organization in essay a transnational setting. 2.3.Functional substitution between styles of organization in essays on constitution of india and social different settings and over essay future time. 2.4.Association networks as an justice, institutionalization and in some cases, a reification of informal interaction. 2.5.Forms of association which minimize structural asymmetry and difference between, dominance of membership by ingroup elites. 2.6. Factors leading up to and affecting creation of new associations in particular parts of the network, and influencing the essays and social justice, style of organization chosen. 2.7.Ageing and ossification of essay on water crisis particular parts of the association network, and strategies used to combat this.
2.8.Factors affecting the detection and selection of problems for which new associations or programs are required. 2.9.Means of catalyzing increases in association networks activity, particularly in developing countries. 2.10.Association networks as a channel for individual participation in the social process. 2.11.TANs as a vehicle for value generation and expression. 2.12.The lookout institution function of associations in the network. 2.13.Systematic data collection on association networks and the national, subnational, and community level as an indication of social development. 2.14.Lag in the development of association networks compared to government, economic, and mass-media structures, and the consequences for ongoing feedback from the people, their progressive alienation, and the current weakness of the democratic processes. 2.15.Impact of the concept of peoples' organizations in the Peoples' Republic of China, on the United Nations; consequences for the concept of nongovernmental organization and possibilities of convergence towards a new concept of organization. 2.16.Voluntary organization in different cultures and political systems, and the continuum between association networks and tribal and kinship groupings. 2.17.TANs as a means of maximizing point-of-crisis response in a fragmented society in which resources allocation mechanisms are cumbersome. 2.18.Evaluation of the positive and on constitution justice, negative consequences of the proliferation of associations, and difference term essay, the determination of the social systemic features contributing to it or benefitting from it.
2.19.Development of evaluational tools to determine at what stage in the evolution of its activities a given configuration of associations could benefit from essays on constitution and social a, possibly ad hoc, coordinating body or some equivalent mechanism, and at what stage it is premature. 2.20.Future trends in association networks, styles of organization, and modes of action - the concept of a network action strategy. 2.21.Means of determining which bodies are irrelevant in essay a rapidly-evolving democratic society. 2.22.Problems created for of india, association networks by essay plans future, the fragmentation of bureaucracies (particularly with respect to interdisciplinary programs). 2.23.Speed of response of network components to of india and social justice new needs. 2.25.Association secretariats as personal fiefdoms, and the implications for functions of the organization. 2.26. Parallels between geographical and functional territory and examination of possibility that historical processes and empire building in connection with geographical territory (culminating in the nation-state or the UN) may be repeated in connection with the functional territories claimed by between paper, different non-territorial actors. 2.27.Weighted voting techniques as a means of making more fragile and unstable associations possible and viable. 2.28.Mechanisms of sub-committee formation in academic association networks as the institutionalization of the proportions of invisible colleges.
2.29.Methods of communication between international secretariats and their members. 2.30.Transdisciplinary and crossmodal communication via TANs. 2.31.Ecological advantages of particular styles of organization. 3.1.Psycho-linguistic problems in non-Western cultures of using negative descriptors such as nongovernmental and nonprofit for the elements of transnational associations networks. 3.2.Psychological factors affecting mutual recognition of one organization by another, particularly when the one is classed as the negative of the other. 3.3.Psychological factors affecting mutual recognition and essays of india justice, possible interaction of associations in different parts of the network. 3.4.Compartmentalization of public, interest, and private life on the part of each individual, and its consequences for interaction between government and business bodies, and interest, socializing, or value-elaborating groups in the democratic society. 3.5.Governmental activity as corresponding to super-ego activity, economic enterprise to ego activity, and association networks to id activity.
3.6.Psychology of government bureaucrat perception of TANs. 3.7.Psychological factors which favor perception of the isolated organization as opposed to difference essay the network of organizations in which it is embedded. 3.8.Public and on constitution, governmental images of difference and stories transnational association networks, particularly in essays on constitution and social non-Western cultures. 3.9.History and incidence of misconceptions about the role of association networks. 3.10.Psychology of participation in transnational association networks, as members, HQ executives, field staff, or on the governing board. 3.11.Association networks activity as a vehicle for personal development.
3.12.Personality types attracted to association network activity, in essay on water crisis an international setting. 4. Consultative status and relations with intergovernmental organizations. 4.1.Development of the Consultative Status relationship with the UN system, since its inception. 4.2.Comparative analysis of the equivalents to the UN Consultative Status arrangement at the national level, particularly in non-Western countries. 4.3.Working relations between transnational associations and justice, intergovernmental institutions which go beyond official consultative status. 4.4.The UN Consultative Status mechanism as a badge and, through threat of plans revocation, a means of blocking strong opposition. 4.5.Advantages to government of procedures resulting effectively in essays on constitution of india justice a divide and rule relationship with association networks. 4.6.Procedural devices adopted by UN agencies to provide facilities to, and control over, their respective conferences of Consultative Status NGOs, while depriving such conferences of any recognition. 4.7.Polarization and fragmentation of the transnational association network by difference between term, intergovernmental policies of recognition. 4.8.Methods by which transnational associations arrive at the position adopted in their written or oral statements to intergovernmental institutions.
4.9.Development of the UN administrative distinctions between nongovernmental organizations, youth movements, liberation movements, volunteers, and bodies of experts, and its implications for TANs. 4.10.Effectiveness of interaction between UN officials responsible for NGO liaison, and their interaction with national delegations. 4.11.The status and action possibilities of the administrative office responsible for NGO liaison in essays of india and social justice each UN agency, and its interaction within the administration with those offices responsible for youth organizations and volunteer liaison. 4.12.Feasibility of digicel essay competition creating a UN Ombudsman to function as a clearinghouse for interaction, suggestions and proposals between TANs and many components of the UN system. 4.13.Evaluation of different possible mechanisms for multilateral interaction between TANs, multinational enterprises, and intergovernmental agencies, particularly with regard to the rapid allocation of funds in response to crisis and the rapid processing of suggestions for new action. 5. Inter-0rganization relations. 5.1.History of inter-association relationships, conditions under which particular forms have become accepted, and nature of forms likely to essays emerge in essay the future. 5.2.Comparative analysis of arguments used in different settings to propose and oppose the creation of on constitution of india and social justice inter-association relationships or membership of a coordinating body. 5.3.Relations between transnational associations in theory and in practice, particularly in the light of experience with equivalent organizations at the national and subnational level.
5.4.Multi-level structuring of transnational association activity to give several layers of organizations with members which coordinate other organizations. 5.5.Coordinative features of transnational network activity. 5.6.Incidence and causes of the creation of several associations concerned with the same programme area, and competing for the same resources, and the problems or desirability of facilitating a merger. 5.7.Incidence and role of bodies at the national level attempting to coordinate association network activity; their possible relationships to national governments and to any assembly of difference term paper transnational associations. 5.8.Feasibility and utility of a general assembly of TANs and possible models of interaction with the UN system, and multinational enterprises. 5.9.Analysis of any imitative relationship between transnational associations and the UN, which may tend to cause transnational associations to adopt structures and procedures inappropriate to their resources and special advantages.
6. National / transnational dimension. 6.1.Relationship between transnational, national and of india and social, grassroots associations. 6.2.Relevance of transnational association networks as perceived from the national and ford dissertation fellowships, subnational levels. 6.3.The extent to which national members participate in the activities and decisions of transnational associations. 6.4.Trend towards universality in on constitution of india and social transnational associations. 6.5.Problems of regionalization of TAN activity, as it affects association programmes, administration, and policy making. 7. Legal, fiscal, and personnel questions. 7.1.History of efforts to paper essay introduce a form of legal status for essays on constitution and social justice, nongovernmental organizations, with particular reference to the reasons for their failure.
7.2.Examination of essay different mechanisms which could be developed to facilitate transnational association activity. 7.3.Legal instruments required to essays on constitution and social justice facilitate the types of transnational association network activity likely to emerge in the foreseeable future. 7.4.Fiscal and fund transfer problems of transnational associations. 7.5.TAN activity as a career opportunity and the possible means of increasing job security in it. 7.6.Problems created by current international pension and life insurance scheme procedures for TAN personnel. 8. Transnational associations and essays, special issues. 8.1.Contribution and problems of transnational associations networks, in particular issue areas (e.g. peace, development, youth, environment, etc.). 8.2.Transnational association activity in response to essays on constitution natural disasters. 8.3.Effects on development projects of ignoring the presence of association networks, and the effects on those networks of development projects which are successful according to economic criteria.
9.1.Financing of transnational associations. 9.2.Methods of holding and allocating funds (while retaining accountability) that permit them to be moved rapidly to appropriate point of the association network, which must be developed to respond adequately to a particular emerging crisis. 9.3.Means of reducing overhead costs and increasing organizational effectiveness by between term essay, use of shared administrative facilities and office space. 9.4.Evaluation of different possibilities for facilitating TAN operations and personnel problems through a network of international centers offering shared facilities and run as cooperatives. 9.5.Systematic study of operational, administrative, and information problems of transnational associations. 9.6.Methods of evaluating TAN programmes. 9.7.Use of financial ratios techniques to evaluate aspects of non-profit associations' performance, by the balance sheet; comparison between associations in the light of and social justice experience with business enterprise balance sheet analysis.
9.8.Mechanisms by which multinational enterprise funding can be channeled into TAN activity. 9.9. Essay On Water Crisis. Substitution of information systems for permanent organization to facilitate crystallization of appropriate and ad hoc organizations from the network in response to any given network need. 9.10.Mechanisms to facilitate interaction between TAN and intergovernmental networks, by common information systems. 9.11.Possibility of facilitating association network activity by of india and social, conducting all member-association transactions via data networks, holding all organization files on computer, and obviating the need for alcoholism, office space at physical locations. 9.12.Use of computer interaction graphics to essays track and display the difference between paper, evolution of on constitution and social association network activity. 10.1.National and local organization foundation in each country on which membership in transnational associations is difference term paper essay based.
10.2.National and subnational organizations multi-linked to transnational associations, in the equivalent program area. 10.3.Links of essays national government agency departments to transnational associations. 10.4.Links of intergovernmental agency departments to one another, and to transnational associations. 10.5.Intra- and inter-organizational structures for intergovernmental and transnational associations, particularly with inclusion of program, projects, and meetings. 10.6.Patterning of difference term paper organizations with respect to topics in terms of the specialization-multidisciplinary dimension. 10.7.IGO/TAN links and links within the transnational associations network. 10.8.World problems, and on constitution and social justice, the manner in which they are interrelated and the concern of clusters of transnational associations. 10.9.Detailed budgets and fund source data for transnational associations, and their members. 1. Anthony Judge and Kjell Skjelsbaek. Transnational Association Networks (TANs): selected list of research topics on international nongovernmental organization. Transnational Associations , 24, 10, pp.
481-485, 1972 (earlier version of the above) [text] 2. G.P. Speeckaert. Theses on future International Non-Governmental Relations . And Social. International Associations , 12, 2, 1960, p. 93. (Earlier effort at listing study topics in this domain; 16 of 20 topics listed there have been included in the above list.) 3. Anthony Judge and Kjell Skjelsbaek.
Bibliography of Documents on Transnational Association Networks. In: Yearbook of International Organizations (1972-73), Brussels, Union of International Associations, November 1972. (Last appeared in ford foundation dissertation revised form in Yearbook of International Organizations 15th edition, French, Annuaire des Organisations Internationales, 1974; subsequently superseded by Volume 4 of the of india and social justice, Yearbook, Part C of difference between essays and stories which is an updated Bibliography of Materials Relevant to essays on constitution of india and social the Study of Transnational Organization) [summary] 4 . G. P. Speeckaert. Future. Select Bibliography on International Organizations (1885-1984). Brussels, Union of International Associations, 1965, 150 p.
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Tips to Prepare Resume for Interview – CA CMA #038; CS Jobs #038; Articleship Training. 44 Tips to on constitution of india and social justice Prepare Resume for CA, CMA and CS Job Interviews Articleship Training. Essay Plans Future? For CA Articleship Students and CA Job seekers or CMA, CS candidates, Resumes are very important to essays on constitution of india justice join in any financial firm. In previous post we have given 50 Most Frequently Asked Interview Questions for essays, CA CMA CS. Today we are providing tips to write / make resume for essays and social justice, CA articleship / articles and CA Final campus placements of ICAI ICAI(cost), CS (Company secretary) jobs. See below 44 tips to Format / Prepare resume for job interviews.
Having a solid and effective resume can greatly improve your chances of landing that dream job. That is beyond discussion. How does one make sure that his resume is top notch and bullet proof, however? There are several websites with tips around the future web, but most bring just a handful of them. We wanted to put them all together in a single place, and that is and social justice what you will find below: 44 resume writing tips. Tips to plans Prepare Resume For Job Interviews Articleship Training – CA CMA CS. 1. Know the of india and social justice purpose of your resume. Some people write a resume as if the purpose of the document was to land a job. As a result they end up with a really long and plans boring piece that makes them look like desperate job hunters. The objective of your resume is to land an on constitution of india and social interview, and statement about alcoholism the interview will land you the job (hopefully!).
2. Back up your qualities and strengths. Instead of creating a long (and boring) list with all your qualities (e.g., disciplined, creative, problem solver) try to connect them with real life and justice work experiences. In other words, you need to back these qualities and strengths up, else it will appear that you are just trying to inflate things. 3. Make sure to use the right keywords. Most companies (even smaller ones) are already using digital databases to search for candidates. This means that the HR department will run search queries based on specific keywords.
Guess what, if your resume doesn’t have the essay on water crisis in delhi keywords related to and social the job you are applying for, you will be out even before the game starts. These keywords will usually be nouns. Check the ford foundation diversity job description and related job ads for a clue on what the employer might be looking for. You can read more about resume keywords on the article Tapping the Power of Keywords to Enhance Your Resume’s Effectiveness. 4. Essays And Social Justice? Use effective titles. Like it or not, employers will usually make a judgment about your resume in thesis about, 5 seconds. Under this time frame the most important aspect will be the titles that you listed on the resume, so make sure they grab the attention. Try to be as descriptive as possible, giving the employer a good idea about the nature of on constitution, your past work experiences. For example: Bad title: Accounting. Good title: Management of A/R and A/P and Recordkeeping.
5. Proofread it twice. It would be difficult to emphasize the importance of ford, proofreading your resume. One small typo and your chances of getting hired could slip. On Constitution Of India Justice? Proofreading it once is not enough, so do it twice, three times or as many as necessary. If you don’t know how to statement proofread effectively, here are 8 tips that you can use. 6. Essays On Constitution? Use bullet points. No employer will have the time (or patience) to read long paragraphs of text. Make sure, therefore, to essay future use bullet points and on constitution of india short sentences to describe your experiences, educational background and professional objectives.
7. Where are you going? Including professional goals can help you by dissertation diversity fellowships giving employers an idea of and social, where you are going, and how you want to arrive there. You don’t need to on water crisis have a special section devoted to essays on constitution and social your professional objectives, but overall the resume must communicate it. The question of whether or not to highlight your career objectives on the resume is a polemic one among HR managers, so go with your feeling. If you decide to list them, make sure they are not generic. 8. Put the difference between essays most important information first. This point is valid both to the overall order of your resume, as well as to the individual sections. Most of the times your previous work experience will be the most important part of the resume, so put it at essays and social the top.
When describing your experiences or skills, list the difference essay most important ones first. 9. Essays On Constitution? Attention to the typography. First of all make sure that your fonts are big enough. The smaller you should go is 11 points, but 12 is probably safer. Do not use capital letters all over the place, remember that your goal is to communicate a message as fast and as clearly as possible.
Arial and term essay Times are good choices. 10. Do not include “no kidding” information. There are many people that like to include statements like “Available for interview” or “References available upon request.” If you are sending a resume to a company, it should be a given that you are available for essays on constitution justice, an interview and that you will provide references if requested. Just avoid items that will make the competition employer think “no kidding!” 11. On Constitution? Explain the diversity fellowships benefits of essays on constitution and social, your skills. Merely stating that you can do something will not catch the attention of the employer. If you manage to explain how it will benefit his company, and to connect it to tangible results, then you will greatly improve your chances. 12.
Avoid negativity. Do not include information that might sound negative in the eyes of the employer. This is valid both to your resume and to interviews. You don’t need to include, for instance, things that you hated about your last company. 13. Achievements instead of responsibilities. Resumes that include a long list of “responsibilities included…” are plain boring, and not efficient in selling yourself. Instead of listing responsibilities, therefore, describe your professional achievements. Sure, we know that you are good looking, but unless you are applying for a job where the physical traits are very important (e.g., modeling, acting and so on), and unless the employer specifically requested it, you should avoid attaching your picture to the resume. This tip is a complement to the 13th one.
If you are going to describe your past professional achievements, it would be a good idea to make them as solid as possible. Numbers are your friends here. Don’t merely mention that you increased the annual revenues of your division, say that you increased them by $100,000, by 78%, and so on. 16. One resume for each employer. One of the most common mistakes that people make is to create a standard resume and essay plans future send it to of india all the job openings that they can find. Sure it will save you time, but it will also greatly decrease the ford foundation dissertation diversity chances of landing an interview (so in reality it could even represent a waste of essays on constitution and social justice, time). Tailor your resume for each employer. Between Term Essay? The same point applies to your cover letters. 17. Essays Justice? Identify the problems of the employer.
A good starting point to between essays and stories tailor your resume for a specific employer is to identify what possible problems he might have at hand. Try to understand the market of the company you are applying for a job, and identify what kind of difficulties they might be going through. After that illustrate on your resume how you and your skills would help to solve those problems. 18. Avoid age discrimination. It is essays on constitution of india and social justice illegal to discriminate people because of their age, but some employers do these considerations nonetheless. Essay Plans Future? Why risk the essays trouble?
Unless specifically requested, do not include your age on digicel essay competition, your resume. 19. You don’t need to list all your work experiences. If you have job experiences that you are not proud of, or that are not relevant to the current opportunity, you should just omit them. Of India And Social Justice? Mentioning that you used to essay future sell hamburgers when you were 17 is probably not going to help you land that executive position. 20. Go with what you got. If you never had any real working experience, just include your summer jobs or volunteer work.
If you don’t have a degree yet, mention the title and the estimated date for and social justice, completion. Between Essays And Stories? As long as those points are relevant to the job in question, it does not matter if they are official or not. 21. Sell your fish. Remember that you are trying to essays justice sell yourself. As long as you don’t go over between essays, the edge, all the of india marketing efforts that you can put in your resume (in its content, design, delivery method and so on) will give you an advantage over ford foundation dissertation diversity, the other candidates. 22. Don’t include irrelevant information. Irrelevant information such as political affiliation, religion and sexual preference will not help you.
In fact it might even hurt your chances of landing an interview. Essays Justice? Just skip it. 23. Use Mr. and Ms. if appropriate. If you have a gender neutral name like Alex or Ryan make sure to include the Mr. or Ms. prefix, so that employers will not get confused about your gender. 24. Essay Crisis In Delhi? No lies, please.
Seems like a no brainer, but you would be amused to discover the on constitution and social justice amount of people that lie in their resumes. Even small lies should be avoided. Apart from being wrong, most HR departments do background checks these days, and competition if you are buster it might ruin your credibility for good. 25. Keep the salary in mind. The image you will create with your resume must match the salary and responsibility level that you are aiming for. 26. Analyze job ads. You will find plenty of useful information on job ads. Analyze no only the ad that you will be applying for, but also those from companies on the same segment or offering related positions.
You should be able to identify what profile they are looking for and how the information should be presented. 27. Get someone else to review your resume. Even if you think you resume is looking kinky, it would be a good idea to get a second and third opinion about it. We usually become blind to essays and social justice our own mistakes or way of difference essays and stories, reasoning, so another people will be in a good position to essays on constitution justice evaluate the essay competition overall quality of essays, your resume and digicel competition make appropriate suggestions. 28. One or two pages. The ideal length for a resume is a polemic subject. Most employers and recruiting specialists, however, say that it should contain one or two pages at of india maximum.
Just keep in essay on water crisis in delhi, mind that, provided all the necessary information is essays on constitution of india there, the shorter your resume, the thesis statement better. 29. Use action verbs. A very common advice to job seekers is to use action verbs. But what are they? Action verbs are basically verbs that will get noticed more easily, and that will clearly communicate what your experience or achievement were. Examples include managed, coached, enforced and planned. Essays On Constitution And Social? Here you can find a complete list of action verbs divided by skill category. 30. Use a good printer. If you are going to dissertation fellowships use a paper version of on constitution and social, your resume, make sure to use a decent printer.
Laser printers usually get the job done. Plain white paper is the preferred one as well. Unless you are 100% sure that some of essay crisis, your hobbies will support you candidacy, avoid mentioning them. I know you are proud of your swimming team, but share it with your friends and essays on constitution of india not with potential employers. 32. Foundation Diversity Fellowships? Update your resume regularly. It is on constitution a good idea to between term paper update your resume on a regular basis. Add all the new information that you think is relevant, as well as courses, training programs and of india justice other academic qualifications that you might receive along the way.
This is the best way to keep track of difference essays, everything and to on constitution and social justice make sure that you will not end up sending an obsolete document to the employer. 33. Mention who you worked with. If you have reported or worked with someone that is well known in your industry, it could be a good idea to mention it on the resume. The same thing applies to presidents and CEOs. Future? If you reported to on constitution and social or worked directly with highly ranked executives, add it to difference between the resume. 34. Essays On Constitution Of India? No scattered information. Your resume must have a clear focus. If would cause a negative impression if you mentioned that one year you were studying drama, and the next you were working as an accountant.
Make sure that all the essay crisis in delhi information you will include will work towards a unified image. Employers like decided people. 35. Of India Justice? Make the design flow with white space. Do not jam your resume with text. Sure we said that you should make your resume as short and concise as possible, but that refers to the overall amount of information and not to essay how much text you can pack in on constitution and social, a single sheet of essay on water crisis, paper. Essays Justice? White space between the words, lines and paragraphs can improve the legibility of your resume. 36. Lists all your positions. If you have worked a long time for the same company (over 10 years) it could be a good idea to list all the different positions and roles that you had during this time separately. You probably had different responsibilities and developed different skills on each role, so the employer will like to know it.
37. No jargon or slang. It should be common sense, but believe me, it is not. Slang should never be present in a resume. As for technical jargon, do not assume that the employer will know what you are talking about. Even if you are sending your resume to a company in the same segment, the person who will read it for the first time might not have any technical expertise. 38. Careful with sample resume templates. There are many websites that offer free resume templates. While they can help you to get an difference idea of essays on constitution justice, what you are looking for, do not just copy and paste one of the most used ones. You certainly don’t want to look just like any other candidate, do you?
39. Create an email proof formatting. It is very likely that you will end up sending your resume via email to most companies. Apart from having a Word document ready to essay go as an attachment, you should also have a text version of your resume that does not look disfigured in the body of the email or in online forms. Attachments might get blocked by spam filters, and many people just prefer having the resume on the body of the email itself. 40. Remove your older work experiences. If you have been working for essays on constitution of india, 20 years or more, there is no need to have 2 pages of your resume listing all your work experiences, starting with the job at the local coffee shop at the age of 17! Most experts agree that the last 15 years of your career are enough. Do not use a colored background, fancy fonts or images on your resume. In Delhi? Sure, you might think that the little flowers will cheer up the document, but other people might just throw it away at the sight.
Get all updates from our facebook page : https://www.facebook.com/caultimates. You resume should not contain the pronouns “I” or “me.” That is how we normally structure sentences, but since your resume is a document about on constitution your person, using these pronouns is actually redundant. The first thing on your resume should be your name. It should be bold and with a larger font than the rest of the essays text. Make sure that your contact details are clearly listed.
Secondly, both the name and justice contact details should be included on all the pages of the resume (if you have more than one). 44. Consider getting professional help. If you are having a hard time to essay crisis create your resume, or if you are receiving no response whatsoever from companies, you could consider hiring a professional resume writing service. There are both local and online options are available, and usually the investment will be worth the money.
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Top .NET Software Errors: 50 Common Mistakes and essays on constitution of india justice, How to Fix Them. Developing in .NET provides several powerful benefits, including less overall code, improved security, ease of updates/changes, and language independence. That said, the ford diversity, system isn’t without errors and problems. From common exceptions to coding mistakes to incorrect assumptions, most of these issues come down to programmer error. The list below shares the 50 top .NET software errors from around the web. It includes exceptions, broken data bindings, memory leaks, LINQ issues, mistyping errors, and dozens more.
We also look at ways to fix each one. When you’re ready to start coding, download our free guide to essays on constitution of india .NET Profilers for some insider knowledge and everything you need to know about code profiling for .NET. Statement About Alcoholism? And while you’re at it, be sure to check out on constitution and social, Prefix, our own lightweight profiler for digicel, .NET and Java developers. On Constitution And Social Justice? (And, if you’re thinking about .NET Core, read our opinion on why it’s the next big thing here.) This .NET exception gets thrown whenever we try to difference paper essay use a class reference that’s set to null/Nothing, when the code expects otherwise. In the very simple example below, the string “foo” is set to null . The second line above will throw a NullReferenceException because we can’t call the method on a string that points to null. To fix/avoid this error: Build null checking into of india and social justice the code and set default values. Use Debug.Assert to catch the problem before the exception occurs. See examples for avoiding the NullReferenceException .NET error here. Essay On Water Crisis? (@StackOverflow) The DivideByZeroException error gets thrown whenever a program tries to on constitution of india divide by zero. Ford Dissertation Fellowships? To handle it gracefully, protect any code that does arithmetic division within try-catch blocks that look for that specific exception.
Here’s an example: Ways to fix/prevent DivideByZeroException: Use Try/Catch blocks to on constitution catch the exception. Between Term? Set guards on on constitution and social justice, functions that throw errors in essay plans future, the event of a zero value. Use validation on critical user inputs to essays on constitution justice prevent zero values. For more detail on how to handle this .NET error, see this article from Dot Net Perls. Data bindings in WPF can be a huge time saver – when they work well. When they break, they’re one of the more frustrating .NET errors out there. In the on water in delhi, example below, there’s a TextBlock with a missing data context. Frustratingly, it won’t show errors in Visual Studio’s output window. Here are a couple of other fixes for the broken data bindings error:
Add a Value Converter that Breaks into the Debugger. Add a TraceListener so you know right away when a data binding breaks. There’s a great tutorial that gives more detail on fixing this issue here. (@atomicobject) 4. On Constitution Of India? Using a Reference Like a Value or Vice Versa. This problem is specific to C#. In C#, the essay, programmer who writes the object decides whether the value assigned to it is a value or a reference to another object.
The example below shows a couple of essays on constitution and social justice, unwanted surprises. To fix the problem, look at thesis definitions of the of india, object types. In Visual Studio, do this by putting your cursor over essay on water crisis, the object’s name and pressing F12. For a more in-depth explanation of the and social justice, reference/value error, see this tutorial. 5. Essay On Water In Delhi? Letting Compiler Warnings Accumulate. This very common issue erodes the strict type checking provided by essays on constitution of india justice the C# compiler. The temptation to digicel competition hide warnings in Visual Studio’s “Error List” window can lead to a buildup of hidden or ignored warnings.
Unheeded warnings can cause eventual code problems like this: Of course, the easy fix for essays, the buildup of compiler warnings is to set aside regular time blocks to address them. Spending a few seconds on each warning now can save hours down the plans future, road. See this article for more. 6. Essays Of India? Losing Scope Before Disposing an Object.
Disposing objects before all references to them are out of scope is a housekeeping issue. We might assume the garbage collector will take care of difference essays and stories, it when it runs the object’s finalizer, but that isn’t always the case. To fix this error, make sure all .NET objects are explicitly disposed. Use the using statement to wrap all IDisposable objects. Objects wrapped in this way will automatically be disposed when the using block closes. In some cases, the using statement isn’t enough. (@msdev) One example is when nesting constructors are protected by of india only one exception handler. For additional protection, add specific code to check and dispose variables when needed. Statement About? The finally block below does this with the tempPort variable. 7. Redundant Nested Exception Handling. While not exactly a .NET error, using too much exception handling with nested methods is definitely a mistake.
This one creates a lot of essays on constitution of india, redundant code and a real performance drain. The best practice here is essay future using nested exception handling, which performs the of india justice, exception handling only once: For a deeper look at essay competition this mistake, see this article. On Constitution Of India Justice? (@Codeguru) LINQ makes it a lot easier to query data than if we use for/each loops with conditional logic like nested if blocks. Foundation Dissertation? But consider the code below, which uses LINQ-to-SQL to get a customer list:
The code seems fine until we try to essays on constitution and social enumerate the collection. At that point, we’ll get an “ObjectDisposedException.” That’s because link won’t actually perform the essay on water in delhi, query until we attempt to essays on constitution and social justice enumerate the results. To fix this, first convert your LINQ queries to a List using ToList(), or to digicel competition an array using ToArray(). This step will ensure all LINQ queries get evaluated right away. See more on this here. (@VSMdev) 9. Iterating with Values Instead of with LINQ. Here’s another “not quite a .NET error” that’s nonetheless a big mistake. Iterating through long lists of essays on constitution, records is essay plans future far from of india and social justice, efficient. Rather than rely on on water crisis in delhi, a foreach loop or a for loop, use LINQ. LINQ or Language-Integrated Query is a feature of .NET that makes it easier to query objects like long lists or collections.
The code above returns 1,000 customers. That’s much more efficient than getting 100,000 customers with a foreach loop. For more, see this post. (@Upwork) 10. Accessing Virtual Members within a Constructor. This C# error comes from executing code before its time. This can happen when we call an overridden method straight from the constructor of a base class. In the example below, the virtual method call is made on a class before the class’ constructor has been run. To fix the problem, first mark your class as sealed. This ensures that it’s the most derived type within the inheritance hierarchy.
That way, when we call the virtual method, we don’t get a warning. Logic errors happen when we don’t get the result we expected. They don’t always result in error messages because they’re not technically “bugs.” Instead, they’re problems with programming logic. Take a look at the code below. It tries to add up the essays of india, numbers from one to crisis ten. Can you see the error?
The answer is zero! The program didn’t run into of india and social justice any code errors, but it gave us the wrong answer. Digicel Essay? That’s a logic error. We should have set the startLoop variable as 1, and endLoop as 11. To nip logic errors in the bud: Use C# .NET Breakpoints. And Social Justice? This is where we tell C# to essay stop the essays on constitution of india justice, code, so we can assess what’s in the variables. Use the C# .NET Locals Window.
This keeps track of what’s in local variables. Use Try … Catch blocks. Foundation Diversity? For a full tutorial on essays of india and social justice, how to implement the above fixes, click here. 12. Mixing Strings and Numbers with + Most languages use the + sign for both concatenation and arithmetic addition. That means 2 + 2 is 4 and “hello ” + “world” is “hello world.” But what about “hello “ + 2? This would result in “hello 2”. This would be better expressed as “hello ” + “2”. Here’s a less obvious example: In this case, x + y is 412, where 4 is a number and digicel competition, “12” is a string. To head this mistake off: Make sure all values you intend to add are actually numbers.
Use string.Format() instead of concatenating with +. Perform arithmetic as distinct statements before outputting concatenated results or strings. For an in-depth tutorial, click here. On Constitution Justice? (@DreamInCode) 13. Forgetting Strings Are Immutable. Strings are immutable in future, .NET. Essays On Constitution Of India And Social Justice? That means once we create a string, we can’t change its value. It may look like we’re changing a string’s value, but what we’re really doing is creating a new object with a new value. The example below shows how forgetting that strings are immutable can lead us into a problem. (@amazedsaint) There’s another great example of an immutable string error here that results in the creation of 10,000 unwanted string variables. (@codeproject) The article presents an elegant solution: using the between essays and stories, StringBuilder class to change the text without making thousands of new String class instances.
Here’s a common C# error that results from a multithreading mistake. This happens when we use lock with poor code synchronization. The example below checks for curse words in a string, printing a warning if it finds one. It also performs several other operations. The code isn’t synchronized, however, so it’s not thread safe. For instance, two threads might try to on constitution of india and social update the competition, same counter at the same time, causing an essays justice, exception.
Make sure only one thread can read/update a counter at a time. Lock over statement about, checking/updating routines. For a full tutorial on the incorrect granularity error, click here. (@Xenoprimate) 15. Essays On Constitution Justice? Unhandled Exogenous Exceptions. This may sound like the lost Dali painting, but it’s just a fancy way of saying, “unhandled, handleable exceptions.” Since the definition of exogenous is “originating externally,” these exceptions are beyond our control and must be anticipated and handled. The code below shows a good example. We have to thesis statement about alcoholism use the try-catch block because something might have happened to our file. Use try-catch blocks to avoid an error arising from and social, these exceptions. See this tutorial for a good explanation of the different kinds of exceptions, plus whether and how to handle them. Statement About Alcoholism? (@ericlippert)
For any class, the default protection level is “internal.” For any member in that class, the on constitution and social, default level is “private.” We can run into an issue when we forget those facts. When we declare “MySecondClass” public, its variables don’t also become public. If we want MyFirstClass to be able to access the variables in MySecondClass, we’ll need to set MyFirstClass and ford foundation dissertation diversity, the MySecondClass variables to “public.” See this post for more details. (@DeveloperDrive) Apart from essays justice, being a popular developer forum, this is also a common error. This one is something like an OutOfMemoryException because it means your code has exceeded a memory boundary. The stack is difference term paper finite, which means if we have too many memory allocations in it, we’ll get an overflow exception. The simple C# example below shows an essays of india and social justice, infinite recursion that will trigger a StackOverflowException. To avoid the StackOverflowException error, try not to have objects mutually reference each other whenever possible. Between Paper Essay? See this discussion and this article for more insight. (@StackOverflow and @ExpertsExchange) Using busy-wait instead of correct thread synchronization can deliver a troublesome error.
The code below will suck up 100% of the CPU core while the thread in essays on constitution and social justice, Example() processes the while loop. Some developers will try to use something like Thread.Sleep(100) to interrupt an essay plans, infinite loop. While this works, it’s sloppy coding, since what we really need is an in-built synchronization construct. In general, we should only use Thread.Sleep: To make some kind of timer functionality For testing, but not for production For a more in-depth look at how to dodge the busy-wait and thread.sleep error, click here. (@Xenoprimate) 19.
Handling Non-Exogenous Exceptions. Certain .NET errors in the form of exceptions that can’t be foreseen and that originate from essays on constitution and social, outside our control must be handled. For example, let’s say our program does a check for File.Exists. The file does exist, but between the plans, check and the next operation, the file gets deleted. That said, most exceptions should be avoided whenever possible by writing code that renders them unnecessary. Consider the following three exceptions: If we use the int.TryParse() method instead of an on constitution of india justice, exception, we get a 0 response. That means this method avoids the essay crisis, need for essays on constitution of india and social justice, complex and potentially buggy exception handling. For a full breakdown of the above example, see this article. (@DailyDotNetTips) For a robust discussion about avoiding exceptions, click here. Difference Between Essays? (@WardCunningham) See this post for a good explanation of the essays on constitution and social justice, reasons to avoid exceptions. Between Paper Essay? (@Quora)
20. Unsafe Assumptions in Multithreading. Certain assumptions about essays on constitution and social justice, how multithreading works can lead us to unexpected problems. These are especially likely when working with shared state. Often, the mistakes arise when we think multithreaded code works in the same way as single-threaded code. One example is a torn read from non-atomic access to a variable . Foundation Dissertation Fellowships? The following code will return unwanted values: The problem occurs because one thread can read the value of sharedState halfway through a write by another thread.
This forces the variable into values we hadn’t anticipated (or wanted). To fix the problem, make access to the variable atomic. To do this: For a detailed breakdown of incorrect multithreading assumptions in .NET and how to fix them, see this in-depth tutorial. (@Xenoprimate) A nullable value passed to the stack will create garbage. Paradoxically, a similar variable that’s actually set to null won’t create any garbage. In the example above, DoTestA() creates zero garbage, while DoTestB() quickly racks up a large amount. The best way to fix this is to generify our DoSomething method:
For a more detailed explanation of this paradox and how to and social fix it, see this post. (@Xenoprimate) This common mistake is really one of omission. It can result in user problems with no indication of what went wrong. Essay Plans? Consider the case of a user registration functionality with unlogged exceptions. In this case, if registration fails, our log stays empty. Of course, the fix for essays of india, this error is to add logging to the try-catch block.
To see the full tutorial, click here. (@codeproject) 23. Unnecessary Contention in ford dissertation fellowships, Multithreading. Contention happens when two or more threads try to access the same resource at the same time. They contend for the resource.
This situation causes several issues. Even when we use thread-safe coding, contention can still add overhead. For example, when we use the lock keyword, we force some threads to wait while one thread accesses a scope. The following multi-threaded code actually works worse than a single-threaded version would, because it creates a lot more overhead while some threads wait. The solution to this is to essays of india split the digicel essay competition, work into equal chunks before it’s processed.
Then, let each thread perform a local count before it updates the global one. To see how that works, take a look at this article. (@Xenoprimate) 24. Using Weak Cryptographic Algorithms. Using old, outdated cryptographic algorithms is one of the on constitution of india and social, most easily avoided errors. Algorithms like TripleDES, SHA1, and RIPEMD160 can’t deliver the level of security that their more modern counterparts can. To avoid the CA5350 CheckID, use stronger algorithms. Instead of TripleDES, use Aes encryption. Instead of SHA1 or RIPEMD160, use SHA512, SHA384, or SHA256. See this page from Microsoft for full documentation. Difference Between Term Paper Essay? (@msdev) 25.
Using the Wrong Collection Type. In .NET, using the right collection type can save time and avoid errors. Below is a list of the most commonly used C# collections. The List collection type can grow in justice, size to accommodate growing data sets. Essay On Water? The Dictionary collection type is useful for essays and social justice, fast lookups by keys. The HashSet collection type works best for on water crisis in delhi, very fast lookups in a list of unique items. The Stack collection type comes in handy for providing users with ways to go back.
This great tutorial gives a great explanation of how to avoid errors by using the right collection type for the job. (@moshhamedani) This common mistake happens when we create an event handler that handles events occurring in an object, but we don’t clear the link when we’ve finished. This oversight can leave behind an essays on constitution and social justice, unwanted strong reference. In the code below, we subscribe to an OnPlaced event in our Order class, and the following code executes on a button click: When the OrderPlaced method is called, the in delhi, following code executes: However, a reference to the Order object is still held by the OrderPlaced event handler. The Order object is therefore kept alive, even though we removed it from the collection. For more information on this, see:
27. Readonly Shorthand Property Declaration. This WCF error happens when we fail to keep both getter and setter in our code when using the ReadOnly shorthand property declaration with the DataMember attribute. Without the setter part, we’ll get an error. We can circumvent this problem by setting a block with empty brackets, as shown in this article. Of India And Social? (@codeproject) 28. Mistyping the WF/WCF Service Configuration Name. When we use WCF with Visual Studio, we can run into a problem that comes from default configurations. The code above doesn’t specify a services section. It therefore adds a set of default endpoints to your service.
This can result in the use of an incorrect service name. To fix this situation, we’ll need to manually change the name of thesis statement, our service in the configuration file. See this tutorial for more. (@msdev) 29. Modifying SMSvcHost.exe.config for WCF. We can run into several WCF errors when we modify the SMSvcHost.exe.config file improperly. The sample settings for the file are shown below: Some common problems that arise from modifying the essays on constitution of india, file include: Modifying the wrong SMSvcHost.exe.config file. Changing dummy settings in a comment within the file. Thesis Statement About Alcoholism? Failing to restart Net.Tcp Port Sharing service after making changes to essays on constitution and social the file.
For steps to avoid making these common mistakes, see this blog post from Microsoft. (@msdev) 30. Between Term? Leaving Tracing Enabled in Web-Based Applications. Tracing is a very useful .NET debugging tool. It’s also an excellent way for a hacker to and social access your system if it’s left in place in a production environment. Don’t fall into the trap shown below: In the configuration above, any user can access a detailed list of all recent requests to digicel essay the app. How? By browsing the page “trace.axd.” The trace log provides a plethora of useful information to essays on constitution and social the hacker. The best way to prevent hacks through tracing data is to disable tracing. Do this by setting “enabled” to “false” for the trace element.
For more info, see this tutorial. (@dotnetstories) Disabling custom errors in .NET gives clients detailed error messages by default. With the above configuration, hackers get good information about the source of errors that can help them learn to pick our coding locks. Default ASP.NET error messages show our ASP.NET version and framework, plus the exception type. To fix the problem:
Set customErrors mode to RemoteOnly or Doing this displays more generic, nondescript error messages. Set the defaultRedirect attribute of the customErrors element to redirect the user to a new page. Plans Future? See this post for a more detailed walk-through of on constitution of india, fixing this issue. Ford Foundation Dissertation Diversity? (@dotnetstories) WPF has several data binding options. Essays Of India And Social? If we break them, they can cause memory leaks within our applications. For example, look at the class shown below: With the example above, in certain cases, WPF will create a runtime leak by creating a reference to the System.Component.Model.PropertyDescriptor class. When this happens, runtime doesn’t know when to between deallocate the reference.
Therefore, our source object remains in memory. Detect this error by checking the dotMemory automatic inspections snapshot overview page for WPF binding leaks. Fix the problem by making the on constitution and social justice, object a DependencyProperty. For complete instructions, see this tutorial. (@jetbrains) 33. Forgetting to fellowships an XSRF Token to the Client. XRSF tokens protect against cross-site request forgeries. We need to use them any time the essays of india and social justice, browser can authenticate the user implicitly. That includes automatic authentication with cookies, or apps using Windows authentication. The code below passes an XSRF token to the client, avoiding this egregious mistake.
Read the full tutorial on this here. (@OdeToCode) A DispatcherTimer leak is an error where improper use of the DispatcherTimer causes a memory leak. In the example below, the plans future, count variable gets updated once per second by the DispatcherTimer. The reference is held by the Dispatcher, which keeps each UserControl alive, causing a memory leak. Fixing this is easy. Just stop the timer and set it to null. (@Simple_Talk) Building UIs in essays of india and social justice, software lets us add convenient functionality, such as removing certain controls from the UI after the user performs a given action. About Alcoholism? However, if we don’t build the essays, UI correctly, we can introduce a memory leak. Every time we declare a UI element in XAML using the x:Name directive, WPF will create a strong global reference. We may think we can dynamically remove the essay, element, but the control will stay in memory, even after we remove it from the Children collection of the parent control: Here’s how to fix this common issue:
To detect the problem, click the button to remove the control, then take a snapshot in dotMemory. The snapshot will show that the control stayed in essays on constitution, memory. Fix it by calling the parent control’s UnregisterName method. For a full brief on this error and its fix, see here. (@jetbrains) This isn’t actually a leak, but rather an intended behavior. When an app updates large strings to text boxes over several iterations, we can see a buildup of data on their undo stacks. The default settings will create this problem by enabling undo and/or by setting the UndoLimit at -1, which means the number of actions will be limited only by the amount of available memory. To rectify this, either set IsUndoEnabled to false, or set an plans, UndoLimit other than -1 (such as 100). To see this problem and solution explained in more detail, see this article. (@Simple_Talk) Yet another memory leak error is the essays and social, event handler leak.
In C#, we don’t always get a leak when we subscribe to an event and then forget to unsubscribe. In most cases, the events don’t stay in memory. However, when an event publisher is long lived, then all its subscribers will be kept alive too, as in the following example: Here’s the code that creates the instances: The solution here is simple. Any time you subscribe to an event, if it’s raised by a service that has a long life, you must unsubscribe from it. 38. Ford Diversity? Potentially Dangerous Request.Form Value.
Here’s a workaround for an error caused when we want to send HTML code to a server. By default, we’ll get an error, since ASP.NET MVC disables sending this type of code to and social justice the server in order to avoid Cross Site Scripting (XSS) attacks. As shown below, we can use the AllowHtml attribute for the model class to disable ASP.NET MVC validation for that particular property. For the full rundown of using the AllowHtml attribute to avoid this issue, see this tutorial. Difference Essays And Stories? (@ASPSnippets) 39. “The Remote Name Could Not Be Resolved” (WCF/Azure Error) Sometimes a service that works fine on essays and social, a local machine doesn’t play well with Azure. On Water Crisis? In that case, we get a “failed to invoke the service” notification.
This can be an extremely frustrating problem since there’s no obvious reason for of india justice, it to happen in the first place and there’s no obvious fix. However, this blog post offers an elegant solution. Crisis In Delhi? Alter the on constitution of india and social, web.config file as follows: This sets up your service to operate in a load-balanced environment like Azure. When remotely debugging an ASP.NET application using Visual Studio, we can get the following error message: “Error while trying to run project: Unable to difference essays and stories start debugging on the web server. Access is on constitution of india justice denied. Check the essay crisis in delhi, DCOM configuration settings for essays on constitution and social, the machine debug manager. Would you like to disable future attempts to essay competition debug ASP.NET pages for justice, this project?” This happens because the user doing the remote debugging doesn’t belong to the Debugger Users group for the MS Internet Information Server. To solve this problem, add the user to the appropriate group by following the steps shown in this Microsoft support page. (@MicrosoftHelps)
41. ViewBag Does Not Exist in the Current Context. This issue can arise after upgrading an thesis statement about alcoholism, application from ASP MVC 4 to ASP MVC 5. To fix the problem, install the ASP.NET Web Helpers Library, then open the project’s web.config file and update the bindings as follows: In the appsettings, find “webpages:Version” and update to essays on constitution of india and social justice version 220.127.116.11. Then restart Visual Studio. See this blog post for more. Statement? (@AhmedAlAsaad) 42. Error While Trying to Run Project.
This error comes about essays on constitution, when debugging an future, ASP.NET app with Visual Studio. The full error message is: “Error while trying to run project: Unable to start debugging on the web server. The project is not configured to be debugged.” We can run into this error for essays of india and social justice, two reasons: The ASP.NET app is thesis about alcoholism missing a web.config file.
The project folder’s Execute Permissions property in Internet Services Manager is set to. To fix the problem, either add a web.config file (if it’s missing) or set Execute Permissions to Scripts only. For more info, see this Microsoft help page. On Constitution? (@MicrosoftHelps) 43. Not Taking Advantage of term essay, Dependency Injection. Let’s say our Controller needs a FooService that lets it fetch a Foo that it can render to the user, like so: The trouble is, our Controller needs fine details about how to create a FooService . That means we have to replicate that logic everywhere a FooService is needed. ASP.NET 5 MVC 6 gives us a baked-in feature called Dependency Injection. This lets us declare the dependency in essays justice, the constructor. The ASP.NET 5 framework will then pass it in for us. To see all the steps to take advantage of this powerful feature, see this tutorial. (@ArmenShimoon)
Misuse and overuse of the var keyword is thesis about alcoholism a common and essays of india and social, basic error. The real purpose of var is to let us declare a local variable when we don’t know the type name. Thesis Statement About? This is usually true with anonymous types when we don’t get the type name until compile time. Yet some developers use var every time they declare a variable. In a local variable declaration, the type name gives us an on constitution and social justice, added layer of description: Other reasons to limit the difference essay, use of essays justice, var: It encourages Hungarian notation. Diversity Fellowships? It destroys the layer of context provided by type names.
It increases reliance on IntelliSense. It doesn’t provide backward compatibility. For an in-depth argument about var as an error, see this article. 45. Incorrectly using IoC Containers. Dependency injection is a powerful .NET tool we can use to essays on constitution and social justice avoid redundant code and save time and effort. Without dependency injection, we would have to essay future reproduce the on constitution, following code within multiple methods: However, when we use dependency injection improperly in essay plans future, the following ways, we run into errors: Using the container to retrieve dependencies instead of injecting them. Abstracting the container. Accessing the container to essays on constitution of india resolve components dynamically.
For an in-depth tutorial on using IoC containers correctly, click here. (@DevTrends) 46. .ToLower() Not Working in LINQ Query. The String.ToLower method returns a copy of a string, converted to lowercase. However, this can cause a confusing error when we try to use it to statement compare values from different sources. Take the example below: One solution (@ExpertsExchange) is to avoid the use of .ToLower here and instead use IndexOf with the case-insensitive OrdinalIgnoreCase (@msdev) property within the request: 47.
Be Careful with Optional Parameters. We can get errors in C# 4.0 when we don’t keep an eye on our use of on constitution and social justice, optional parameters. The following code shows a common misuse: Here, the about alcoholism, member function takes different arguments for different static types. With this code, we’re violating the principle of least surprise.
Avoid this construction whenever possible. (@ElegantCode) 48. Overloading Methods Defined in Base Classes. We can cause hard-to-find errors in our C# code when we overload methods defined in base classes. When we do this, we increase the chance of ambiguity and of india, the chance that our interpretation of the spec differs from the compiler’s. The code below uses overloading improperly. For a deep look at why overloading methods defined in base classes causes trouble, see this tutorial. Thesis? (@InformIT)
49. Essays? Using “” Instead of String.Empty Instead. The use of “” when we mean String.Empty can cause a subtle error. Essay In Delhi? The difference between the two is, “” is a constant, while String.Empty isn’t. Essays On Constitution And Social Justice? It’s a read-only field assigned to a constant. Another reason to use String.Empty instead of quotes is that String.Empty handles memory more efficiently than “”, because it doesn’t create an object.
Therefore, operations using “String.Empty happen faster. This arises from a temptation to avoid extra hassle by storing cryptographic secrets in essays, a web.config file. Below is a sample from an on constitution, ASP.NET 4.6 web config XML file: We should never store secrets in a web.config file like that. Instead, we need to refer the code to a protected file, like this: For a full breakdown of how this works, see here. Foundation Dissertation Diversity Fellowships? (@shanselman) We hope you found this list of 50 .NET software errors helpful. Essays On Constitution Of India And Social Justice? Do you have a better fix for any of the errors and mistakes above? Do you have a software error you think ought to be included in our list?
Give us a shout in the comments below.