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Book Report Alternative: Writing Resumes for Characters in Historical Fiction. Business. Historical fiction transports its readers back in time with the characters. Readers can feel as if they are experiencing life vicariously with the characters in these novels. Book. Invite your students to school engage even more with the characters and setting of the historical fiction that they read by helping a character from their reading choose and 2009, apply for a job. What would it be like to search for harvard school thesis, a job in history a review essay, the past? What qualifications would be needed? Students explore help wanted ads, in print and school thesis, online, to see what employers want. Then, students draft a resume so their characters can apply for essay movie tickets, jobs. Historical Fiction Novels : This sheet features a list of harvard business, dozens of historical fiction novels. The traditional book report rarely gives students the dissertation 2009, opportunity to move beyond summary to engage with the book and respond analytically or in any detail.
Chris Crowe warns teachers: Forget traditional book reports. Kids hate them, and harvard school, you'll hate reading them, in part because they're inherently boring and in part because it is impossible to tell whether or not your students actually read the books they will have written their reports on (151). Diana Mitchell offers similar advice: Students tire of responding to novels in the same ways. They want new ways to think about a piece of literature and new ways to dig into it (92). What teachers need, Mitchell suggests, are book report alternatives that whet the interest of students in exploring new directions and in help on a essay, responding with greater depth to the books they read (92). Crowe, Chris. Young Adult Literature. English Journal 90.1 (September 2000): 149-51. NCTE/IRA NATIONAL STANDARDS FOR THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS. Students read a wide range of print and nonprint texts to build an understanding of texts, of themselves, and of the cultures of the United States and the world; to acquire new information; to respond to business the needs and essay hyderabad, demands of society and the workplace; and for harvard business school thesis, personal fulfillment.
Among these texts are fiction and nonfiction, classic and contemporary works. Students read a wide range of literature from many periods in many genres to build an understanding of the many dimensions #40;e.g., philosophical, ethical, aesthetic#41; of human experience. Students apply a wide range of strategies to comprehend, interpret, evaluate, and appreciate texts. They draw on their prior experience, their interactions with other readers and writers, their knowledge of word meaning and of other texts, their word identification strategies, and their understanding of textual features #40;e.g., sound-letter correspondence, sentence structure, context, graphics#41;. Students adjust their use of spoken, written, and visual language #40;e.g., conventions, style, vocabulary#41; to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences and for different purposes. Students employ a wide range of strategies as they write and use different writing process elements appropriately to four communicate with different audiences for harvard business, a variety of purposes. Students apply knowledge of language structure, language conventions #40;e.g., spelling and fear history essay, punctuation#41;, media techniques, figurative language, and genre to create, critique, and discuss print and nonprint texts.
Students use a variety of harvard business thesis, technological and information resources #40;e.g., libraries, databases, computer networks, video#41; to gather and synthesize information and to create and communicate knowledge. Students participate as knowledgeable, reflective, creative, and critical members of a variety of essay tickets, literacy communities. Students use spoken, written, and visual language to accomplish their own purposes #40;e.g., for learning, enjoyment, persuasion, and the exchange of information#41;. The Resume Handbook: How to Write Outstanding Resumes Cover Letters for harvard business thesis, Every Situation (Resume Handbook, 4th Ed) by Arthur D. Rosenberg, et al. Resume for Sarah Elisabeth Wheaton. Before this lesson, students will read a book independently, in literature circles, or as a whole class. analyze a historical fiction novel for explicit and implicit information about a character. Dissertation 2009. Introduce the assignment to students: What if a character from your book came to you and asked you to help write a resume so he or she could apply for a job? What would you need to know to help that character? You would need to harvard school thesis know that character’s skills, knowledge, and personality traits. You would also need to know the specifics about the job they are looking for. Share additional details about the assignment using the interactive Writing Resumes for Fictional Characters.
Use books, Web resources, and collected resumes to share more details about the different types of easy book, resumes. If desired, go over the components of business school thesis, a resume in four goals essay, more detail, using the Resume Workshop, from Purdue OWL. Invite students to harvard business explore the sites further on their own, but note that the resources are geared toward an older audience. A Family Essay. The resources include sample resumes. Distribute the Resume Component Checklist. Business. Have students mark out any components that they wish to omit from their characters’ resumes. Have the students write a resume to get promoted to the next grade level. Have teachers from the next level provide feedback. Informal feedback can come from students who respond to the character resumes and then search out the related book is excellent feedback for students. You might make arrangements with your school library to display copies of the resumes in a notebook. Students looking for something to hyderabad read can then browse through the notebook for suggestions.
Students celebrate a novel they have read and harvard business school, get hands-on experience with technical writing by creating a board game based on plan the novel and writing the instructions for it. In this alternative book report, students identify the elements of business school thesis, fiction in book, books they have read by creating glogs, interactive multimedia posters, and then share their glogs. In this alternative to harvard school the traditional book report, students report on their novel choices using Facebook-like pages. In this alternative to the traditional book report, students respond to a play they have read by creating a resume for one of its characters. To prepare for literature circles featuring historical novels, students research the decades of the 1930s to the 1990s and share their information using Prezi, a web application for creating multimedia presentations. Students identify the elements of fiction in a book they have read and help on a essay, share summaries of them by business thesis, writing and illustrating their own mini-book. Students respond to a book they have read by thinking symbolically to create a business card for one of the characters. Students make bookmarks on computers and easy book reports, share their ideas with other readers at their school, while practicing summarizing, recognizing symbols, and writing reviews—all for an authentic audience. Students select a book to read based only on its cover art. After reading the book, they use an interactive tool to create a new cover for it. Students explore book covers of a variety of books then create a new cover for a book they have read.
Students must think critically to create comic strips highlighting six important scenes from a book they have read. Students explore familiar literary characters, usually first encountered as adults, but whose childhood stories are only told later. Students then create childhoods for adult characters from books of their choice. Harvard Thesis. Students write a persuasive letter to the editor of a newspaper from a selected fictional character#039;s perspective, focusing on a specific issue or situation explored in the novel. Students select a job listing for a character in a book they have read, then create a resume and application letter for that character. Comic frames are traditionally used to illustrate a story in a short, concise format.
In this lesson, students use a six-paneled comic strip frame to create a story map, summarizing a book or story that they#039;ve read. Each panel retells a particular detail or explains a literary element #40;such as setting or character#41; from the story. Grades 9 12 | Student Interactive | Organizing Summarizing. This tool guides students through the creation of a resume that can be saved and edited. Written and audio tips provide extra support. Grades 7 12 | Calendar Activity |nbsp August 29. Students write original short works of historical fiction in verse format, modeling the plan dissertation, style Hesse used to harvard business school write Out of the Dust . Students explore the genre of essay tickets, historical fiction by writing original works and harvard business school thesis, comparing all of the finished pieces. Professional Library | Journal. Fear A Review. In this article, Versaci details the many merits of school, using comics and graphic novels in the classroom, suggests how they can be integrated into historical and social issues units, and recommends several titles. Offers 50 diverse suggestions intended to reports offer students new ways to think about a piece of literature, new directions to explore, and ways to harvard business school respond with greater depth to essay hyderabad the books they read. © 2017 IRA/NCTE.
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ncsu cover letter We are looking for hardworking turf students who want to join our staff. For the right individuals there are great opportunities for advancement at Oak Hill. While at business school Oak Hill, employees will participate in all facets of golf course maintenance required to maintain two championship golf courses at the highest level. A Family Member Essay? In addition to standard maintenance, cultivation practices, and tournament preparation. Oak Hill is continuously working with golf course architects on improving the East and West courses. A major restoration project will begin in August of 2019 on the East course.
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Experience with warm season turf grass management is business school, a must. Must have an outstanding eye for detail. Goals Of Psychology Essay? Must be detail oriented. Must be highly motivated to learn and teach. Must have a positive attitude, professional manner and appearance. Salary $28,000-$30,000 per year plus $320 per month health insurance stipend. The Tillery Tradition Country Club is harvard thesis, located in Mt. Gilead, NC on Lake Tillery.
Opened in 2000, it is an 18 hole semi-private course. We have just recently converted our old bentgrass greens to MiniVerde bermudagrass and are set to re-open September 8th. Our website is currently under construction but you can find us on goals of psychology, Facebook at harvard thesis The Tillery Tradition Country Club. Please send resume to: GM/Head Golf Professional. Tillery Tradition Country Club. 214 Tradition Drive. Mt. Gilead, NC 27306. Lawn Doctor of North Raleigh is looking to four goals essay, add a highly motivated, hard working individual with a great eye for detail to its growing team.
Ideal candidate must be able to: -work in all conditions (i.e. heat, cold, rain, etc.) when needed. -lift 50 lbs. repeatedly. -possess a valid driver’s license with clean driving record. -have reliable transportation to harvard business school, and from work. -work independently and meet production goals. -have the ability to effectively communicate with fellow employees and customers. -be self-motivated and book, have the business, ability to dissertation bac francais 2009, make intelligent decisions. -maintain a safe work environment. HS diploma or GED required and prior experience in the turf industry is highly preferred, but not required.
Possession of harvard business a NC Ground Pesticide Applicator's license is also a plus, but not required to begin work. Candidate will work towards passing the certification exam as conditions of employment once hired. We offer competitive pay, depending on experience, with plenty of opportunity for fear and contemporary a review, professional growth into harvard business school thesis, management positions. Promotions and bonuses available to fear and contemporary history a review, employees who meet their goals. Commission and other benefits also available. Harvard Thesis? Candidate must be available to work Monday - Friday, 7am - 5pm, as well as some Saturdays during the busy times of the year. Job responsibilities include, but not limited to: fertilizer/ pesticide applications to interviewing, turf and trees/shrubs, core aerations, seedings, operating/ maintaining equipment, loading/unloading product from vehicles, and maintaining a neat and clean vehicle. If you are looking to grow your career with a young, local franchise, please email your resume to email@example.com.
Bellerive Country Club continues to build and thesis, strengthen the team in reports preparation for the 2018 PGA Championship. We have a lot of opportunities available for positive, career-oriented individuals. Read more about the business school, 2018 Turf Grad program in plan bac francais the attached pdf. To apply, send a resume and cover letter electronically to firstname.lastname@example.org. Loyola Marymount University’s Facilities Management department has an thesis, immediate opening for a Groundskeeper, Athletic Fields. This position is primarily responsible for maintaining five athletic fields by creating safe, high quality playing surfaces for baseball, softball, soccer, and two practices fields. The groundskeeper will prepare fields for both practices and games; provide disease observation and identification; apply fertilizer, pesticides, herbicides, and fungicides with both boom sprayer and spreaders; and operate all necessary equipment pertaining to athletic field maintenance. Loyola Marymount University shares in a rich intellectual heritage fostered by the Jesuit and Marymount educational traditions and founded on social justice and bac francais, ethical values. Governed by an independent Board of Trustees, LMU cherishes its Catholic identity while at the same time welcoming people from harvard business diverse social, religious, and cultural backgrounds. Easy? LMU is in Los Angeles, yet near the harvard thesis, Pacific Ocean, offering a dynamic cultural environment.
We seek candidates who are able to work weekends when required. Incumbents are typically expected to possess a two or four year degree in four Turfgrass Science or related field or equivalent experience. Harvard Business School Thesis? The incumbent is expected to have a minimum of 2 years experience in athletic field maintenance, and demonstrated knowledge in the areas of fear and contemporary a review athletic field maintenance, including turf, skinned area, pitchers mound, and homeplate. Business Thesis? Candidates must possess a valid California driver's license, and maintain a “satisfactory” driving record as evidenced by essay, DMV. We offer a comprehensive benefits package and competitive salary. Interested candidates may apply by submitting a resume to http://jobs.lmu.edu. Equal Opportunity Employer If you have any questions about this position, please contact Zach Dodenhoff, Athletic Fields Supervisor at 310-338-4224. Job Title: Baseball Facility Groundskeeper. Department: Facilities Management. Reports to: Grounds Manager.
***NOTE All applicants must list all employment history related to this position under the section “Work History Summary”. Incomplete applications will not be accepted for consideration. Only qualified candidates need apply*** Summary: Assumes the responsibility for school, the resources and functions assigned to the grounds department in completing maintenance and repair services to the Division 1 Baseball facilities including but not limited to work orders, turf walks, drives, trees, shrubs, flowers, mulch, fences and planting beds. Hours are Monday Friday, 8:00 AM 5:00 PM with nights and weekends required. Essential Duties and Responsibilities: · Maintain mowing, fertilizing, watering, reseeding, shrubs, tree care, spraying, flowers, etc. · Operate safely and correctly reel mowers, infield rake.
· Prep Baseball field for practices and games. · Line painting on baselines and batter box. · Operate mowers, tractors, weed eaters, backhoes, chain saws, dump truck, edger, street sweeper, etc. · Performs assigned tasks with equipment, either hand or power tools, and in accordance with written or oral instructions by the Grounds Manager or Grounds Foreman. · Operate a forklift. · Read directions and labels of chemicals, diagrams, sketches, operation manuals and manufacturer’s specifications. · Perform other duties necessary assigned by the Grounds Manager.
· Be available to work during emergency situations snow or storms, etc. · Be friendly and courteous. Area of Study: General studies and/or trade. Experience : 2 years experience. Knowledge, Skills and Abilities: · Maintain a valid North Carolina driver’s license. · Requires lifting up to four, 75 lbs. and moving it without assistance between buildings and across campus effectively and efficiently.
· Work well with public as well as with co-workers. · Requires knowledge of business thesis small equipment such as lawn mowers (push and ride), weed eaters and and contemporary history a review, tractors etc. · Must be punctual and follow rules of the university. Complexity of Duties: Requires working in inclement weather. Harvard? Standing, bending and working with small equipment such as weed eaters, lawn mowers etc. Types of Contacts : Maintains contact with faculty, staff and students as well as co-workers in order to collect information for completing job.
Decision-Making : Analyze information in order to make decisions based on standard operating procedures and policies. Major decisions are made after speaking with the essay movie, Grounds Manager. Physical Demands : Requires working long hours in inclement weather. Lifting 75 lbs. without assistance and moving it from one location to another. Working outside in various types of weather and being on call during inclement weather.
Mental Demands : Requires meeting deadlines in order to complete work orders or projects in a stressful amount of time. Some weekends may be required such as graduation, orientation, etc. Other Information : Requires working with other departments at the plant in order to get special projects, such as graduation done in a timely manner. Campbell University is unable to accept paper or email applications. Please apply online at http://www.campbell.edu/about/employment/ and click Apply for this Position below the description of the position for which you are applying. Please submit a cover letter, resume and contact information for three references.
If you have any questions, or if you are an harvard school, individual with a disability and interviewing a family member, need assistance completing an application for employment contact the Human Resources Department at 910-893-1256 or email email@example.com. Campbell University is an Equal Opportunity Employer. Please Note: All positions at Campbell University require honesty, integrity and an understanding of the Mission Statement of Campbell University. Campbell University maintains a continuing policy of nondiscrimination in thesis employment. It is our policy to provide equal opportunity in all phases of the employment process and in compliance with applicable federal, state, and local laws and regulations. Accordingly, the University is committed to plan dissertation 2009, administering all educational and employment activities without discrimination as to race, color, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, age, ethnicity or national origin, religion, disability, genetic information, protected veteran status and any other characteristic protected by law, except where appropriate and harvard thesis, authorized by dissertation bac francais 2009, law. School Thesis? This policy of nondiscrimination shall include, but not be limited to, the following employment decisions and practices: hiring; upgrading; promotions; demotions or transfers; layoffs; recalls; terminations; rates of movie tickets hyderabad pay or other forms of compensation; selection for training, including apprenticeship; and recruitment or recruitment advertising. Employees and applicants of Campbell University will not be subjected to any form of harassment or discrimination for exercising rights protected by, or because of their participation in, an investigation or compliance review related to Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of harvard business school 1964, the Age Discrimination in Employment Act, the Americans with Disabilities Act, Executive Order 11246, Section 503 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, the Vietnam Era Veterans' Readjustment Assistance Act of 1974, the Veterans Employment Opportunities Act of 1998, or any other federal or state nondiscrimination law, rule, or regulation. Campbell University also maintains affirmative action programs to implement our equal employment opportunity policy. Employees or applicants who wish to review appropriate portions of these affirmative action programs may schedule an appointment to do so by contacting the Vice President for Business and Treasurer at the Buies Creek campus, during normal business hours.
Vacancy Number: S00570. Working Title: Assistant Director of Grounds Sports Turf. Career Band Title Horticulture/Grounds Technician. Location of fear and contemporary essay Workplace Main UNCW Campus. Competency Level Advanced. Essential functions of this position: The position is responsible for the technical, maintenance and overall landscape of the turf grass program (natural and artificial) management for business school thesis, the Athletics Department.
This includes fields and surrounding grounds for all of the following: Brooks Field, UNCW Baseball Practice Field, Boseman Field, UNCW Soccer Stadium, UNCW Soccer Practice Field, Harold Greene Track Complex and goals of psychology essay, the natural common areas within the athletics complex. This position directly supervises student employees and also serves as primary point of contact when the Director of Grounds Sports Turf is absent or position is business school thesis, vacant. Game management duties for UNCW Baseball and Softball may include (but not limited to): field lining, field maintenance, field repair, irrigation management, weather management, and waste management. This position may also assist the designated game manager in event management functions, facility management and crowd control. The Assistant Director of Grounds Sports Turf must ensure all outdoor playing and practice environments are safe, clean, and maintained to meet expectations at interviewing member the Division 1 level.
N.C. Minimum Required Knowledge, Skills, Abilities: High school diploma or equivalency and demonstrated possession of the competencies necessary to perform the harvard business school thesis, work; or an equivalent combination of training and experience. Requires North Carolina Pesticide License. Additional knowledge, skills, and abilities required to perform the essential functions of the position: Advanced knowledge of agronomy and environmental turf grass management practices including pest/disease/weed management. An understanding of help on a essay soil chemistry, a working knowledge of sports field construction principles, practices and methods and a thorough understanding of the sports governing bodies’ requirements for field layout and markings. An intermediate degree of administrative and executive ability, especially in terms of problem solving and decision making. Excellent oral and harvard business, written communications skills. Knowledge of current federal, state and four goals essay, local laws and harvard business, regulations affecting the essay movie tickets, management and operations of sports fields and harvard business, facilities (including, but not limited to employment, safety and environmental standards, laws and regulations)
Participation in continuing education opportunities such as seminars, workshops, web-based training courses, field days and trade shows. Obtain and maintain a valid pesticides license within 90 days of hire. Preferred education, professional skills and experience: Associate or bachelor’s degree in movie tickets horticulture, turf management or related field from an appropriately accredited institution and three years of experience in school the development and implementation of landscape plans and grounds maintenance; or an equivalent combination of education and experience. Certifications or licensure required to perform the essential functions of the position: Recruitment Range $33,500 - $35,000. NC Salary Grade Equivalency 63. Hours Per Week 1.0 (40 hours per week)
Months Per Year 12 Months. Work Days Monday - Friday, some weekends required. Work Hours 8:00AM - 5:00PM, some evenings required. Anticipated Ending Date if Time-Limited. Position Number 7999. Job Posting Date 07/10/2017. Job Closing Date 07/25/2017. PLEASE NOTE: To receive full consideration, please be sure you have fully completed the entire application before you apply for this position. Failure to answer all required questions will cause the system to disqualify your application.
Due to the high interest in positions at UNCW, we are happy to answer any questions you may have regarding the position if selected for an interview. Thank you in essay hyderabad advance for your understanding. You will be required to attach a cover letter and resume to school thesis, successfully apply for movie tickets hyderabad, this position. To receive full consideration, please be sure you have completed the ‘Work History’ section of the application before you apply for this position. For more info/to apply visit http://jobs.uncw.edu. Applications must be submitted through the online application system to be considered. List of 3 Professional References. This position is being recruited at the Advanced level. If no applicants apply who meet the required competency and business school thesis, training experience requirements, then management may consider other applicants. Salary would be determined based on competencies, equity, budget, and goals essay, market considerations.
UNC Wilmington actively fosters a diverse and inclusive working and learning environment and is an equal opportunity employer. Qualified men and women from harvard business thesis all racial, ethnic or other minority groups, protected veterans, and individuals with disabilities are strongly encouraged to apply. MHRoberts, PA is a Design, Build and Maintenance Landscape Firm. Matt Roberts is a Landscape Architect, that graduated from the NC Design School, worked for Campus Planning and is also in the list for tickets, Architecture Services with the NCSU Design School. Thesis? We provide all landscape services, both commercial and four of psychology, residential. The position offers an exciting and diverse possibilities ranging from basic landscape maintenance to harvard business school, plantings and a wide variety of installations. We are looking for a career oriented individual who is hard working and essay hyderabad, wants to business school thesis, move up in the company. We typically promote to supervisory positions, based on education and experience within the help on a essay, company. Opportunities in the future include supervisory position, running own crew and steady income. Position available immediately. Please read these instructions before downloading the harvard business, software:
Click below to download the interviewing, software: TurfFiles provides turfgrass information to homeowners, students, extension personnel and professional turfgrass managers. Funding for harvard, this site is provided by the Center for Turfgrass Environmental Research and Education, the Turfgrass Council of North Carollina and the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences at North Carolina State University. Information available on this site is provided by faculty and staff in the Departments of Crop Science, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology and Soil Science at NC State University. TurfFiles provides turfgrass information to homeowners, students, extension personnel and professional turfgrass managers. Funding for this site is provided by the Center for Turfgrass Environmental Research and Education , the easy reports, Turfgrass Council of North Carollina and the College of harvard business school Agriculture and 2009, Life Sciences at North Carolina State University.
Information available on this site is provided by faculty and staff in the Departments of Crop Science, Entomology, Horticulture, Plant Pathology and Soil Science at thesis NC State University.
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14 Skills and Values Employers Seek in Jobseekers. by Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., and Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. Job Skills to list on harvard, your Resume. And Contemporary. Deals with acting in a responsible and fair manner in all your personal and work activities, which is seen as a sign of maturity and self-confidence; avoid being petty. How to describe this skill on your resume: Conscientious go-getter who is highly organized, dedicated, and committed to school thesis, professionalism. Employers probably respect personal integrity more than any other value, especially in light of the reports, many recent corporate scandals. How to describe this skill on your resume: Seasoned professional whose honesty and integrity create effective leadership and optimal business relationships. Deals with openness to new ideas and school, concepts, to working independently or as part of a team, and to carrying out multiple tasks or projects. Of Psychology. How to describe this skill on your resume: Highly adaptable, mobile, positive, resilient, patient risk-taker who is open to new ideas.
Employers seek jobseekers who love what they do and will keep at it until they solve the problem and get the job done. How to describe this skill on school, your resume: Productive worker with solid work ethic who exerts optimal effort in bac francais 2009 successfully completing tasks. 5.Dependability/Reliability/Responsibility. There#8217;s no question that all employers desire employees who will arrive to work every day? on time? and harvard business school thesis, ready to work, and who will take responsibility for their actions. How to describe this skill on your resume: Dependable, responsible contributor committed to excellence and success. Employers want employees who will have a strong devotion to the company? even at times when the company is four goals of psychology not necessarily loyal to its employees. How to describe this skill on your resume: Loyal and dedicated manager with an excellent work record. 7.Positive Attitude/Motivation/Energy/Passion. The jobseekers who get hired and the employees who get promoted are the ones with drive and passion? and who demonstrate this enthusiasm through their words and business, actions.
How to describe this skill on your resume: Energetic performer consistently cited for unbridled passion for work, sunny disposition, and upbeat, positive attitude. Look at it this way: if you don#8217;t believe in easy yourself, in your unique mix of skills, education, and abilities, why should a prospective employer? Be confident in yourself and what you can offer employers. How to describe this skill on your resume: Confident, hard-working employee who is committed to business school, achieving excellence. 9.Self-Motivated/Ability to Work Without Supervision. While teamwork is always mentioned as an important skill, so is the ability to and contemporary, work independently, with minimal supervision. Business School Thesis. How to describe this skill on your resume: Highly motivated self-starter who takes initiative with minimal supervision. No matter what your age, no matter how much experience you have, you should always be willing to learn a new skill or technique. Jobs are constantly changing and evolving, and you must show an reports, openness to grow and learn with that change. How to describe this skill on your resume: Enthusiastic, knowledge-hungry learner, eager to meet challenges and quickly assimilate new concepts.
While there is some debate about whether leadership is something people are born with, these skills deal with your ability to take charge and harvard school, manage your co-workers. How to and contemporary history a review, describe this skill on your resume: Goal-driven leader who maintains a productive climate and confidently motivates, mobilizes, and coaches employees to meet high-performance standards. 12.Multicultural Sensitivity/Awareness. There is possibly no bigger issue in harvard business thesis the workplace than diversity, and jobseekers must demonstrate a sensitivity and awareness to interviewing, other people and cultures. How to describe this skill on your resume: Personable professional whose strengths include cultural sensitivity and an ability to harvard business school thesis, build rapport with a diverse workforce in multicultural settings.
Deals with your ability to design, plan, organize, and help on a essay, implement projects and tasks within an allotted timeframe. Also, involves goal-setting. How to thesis, describe this skill on your resume: Results-driven achiever with exemplary planning and organizational skills, along with a high degree of detail orientation. Because so many jobs involve working in one or more work-groups, you must have the ability to fear and contemporary a review, work with others in a professional manner while attempting to achieve a common goal. How to describe this skill on your resume: Resourceful team player who excels at building trusting relationships with customers and colleagues. Final Thoughts on Employment Skills and Values. Employability skills and personal values are the business, critical tools and traits you need to succeed in the workplace? and they are all elements that you can learn, cultivate, develop, and interviewing a family essay, maintain over your lifetime. Once you have identified the sought-after skills and values and assessed the degree to which you possess them, begin to market them by building them into school your resume, cover letter, and interview answers) for job-search success. Plan. See also our Transferable Job Skills for Jobseekers.Click here to begin building your own resume!
More Information about Employability Skills: Skills Employers Seek, reporting on annual results from the National Association of Colleges and business school, Employers (NACE) survey of employers to determine the top 10 personal qualities/skills employers seek. From the Career Development Center at Binghamton University. Skills Employers Seek, from Loughborough University. Skills Employers Seek, from Psych Web Top 10 Soft Skills in Demand, from LiveCareer Resume Skills Section, from LiveCareer. Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of fear a review essay, career coaches, certified resume writers, and business thesis, savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the job you want.
Dr. Randall S. Hansen. Dr. Randall S. Hansen is founder of Quintessential Careers, one of the help on a essay, oldest and harvard business school, most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of EmpoweringSites.com. He is also founder of MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and EnhanceMyVocabulary.com. Four Goals Of Psychology Essay. He is publisher of Quintessential Careers Press, including the Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Dr. Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in harvard business thesis books, and hundreds of articles. He’s often quoted in the media and a family essay, conducts empowering workshops around the country.
Finally, Dr. Hansen is business thesis also an educator, having taught at the college level for more than 15 years. Reports. Visit his personal Website or reach him by email at firstname.lastname@example.org. Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career. Katharine, who earned her PhD in harvard organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of book, Dynamic Cover Letters for New Graduates and A Foot in the Door: Networking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters, Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Business Thesis. Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at dissertation email@example.com. Check out Dr.
Hansen on school thesis, GooglePlus. I AM A CAREER CHANGER This page is your key source for all things career-change related. You#8217;ll find some great free career-change tools and resources. Changing careers can be traumatic, especially if you have been in your current career for a long time, but you do not have to go through the process alone or  Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog. Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog Career and job-search news, trends, and scoops for job-seekers, compiled by the staff of Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!! These pages remain as an archive of our previous blog posts. Please check out the new and improved Quintessential Careers Blog for Job-Seekers and Careerists. Dissertation. Interview Advice Job  The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers. Harvard School Thesis. The Quintessential Directory of bac francais 2009, Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employer#8217;s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and employment section of the  Quintessential Careers: I am a Career Coach or Counselor.
The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employer#8217;s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to business, go straight to four goals of psychology, the career and harvard school, employment section of the  Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter. Customer Service Customer Service. 800-652-8430 Mon- Fri 8am - 8pm CST. Sat 8am - 5pm CST, Sun 10am - 6pm CST Stay in touch with us.
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Harvard Business School Collection (DASH) - Harvard Online Learning
Essay on Social Change: Meaning, Characteristics and other details. Here is your essay on Social Change! Change is the internal law. History and science bear ample testimony to the fact that change is the law of life. Stagnation is business, death. They tell us stories of man’s rise and growth from the Paleolithic age to the Neolithic age, then to the Stone Age and next to the copper age etc. On the essay movie tickets hyderabad, stage of the world, scenes follow scenes, acts follow acts, and harvard thesis, drama follows drama.
Nothing stands still. Image Courtesy : 2.bp.blogspot.com/_1-xvEOICRwA/SHQeR5CcI3I/AAAAAAAAAVs/OUtRL2GLZXg/s1600-h/PontmorlaisWest_CircusParade_1948-49_CliveArthur.jpg. The wheel of time moves on and on. The old dies and the young steps into the world. We ring out the old and ring in the new. A child changes into a boy, a boy into a youth and then into a man. The bud changes into a flower. The dawn turns into morning, morning into noon, noon into afternoon and afternoon into night. It is said, “Today is not yesterday, we ourselves change. No change is permanent, it is subject to change.
This is observed in all spares of activity. Change indeed is painful, yet needful”. Flowing water is wholesome, and stagnant water is poisonous. Only when it flows through and alters with changes, it is interviewing a family member, able to refresh and school thesis, recreate. Change is an ever-present phenomenon. It is the law of nature.
Society is not at a family essay all a static phenomenon, but it is business thesis, a dynamic entity. It is an ongoing process. The social structure is subject to incessant changes. Individuals may strive for a family essay, stability, yet the fact remains that society is an every changing phenomenon; growing, decaying, renewing and accommodating itself to changing conditions. The human composition of societies changes over time, technologies expand, ideologies and values take on new components; institutional functions and school thesis, structures undergo reshaping. Hence, no society remains complete static. Incessant changeability is very inherent nature of human society. A social structure is a nexus of present relationships. A Family Member? It exists because social beings seek to maintain it. It continues to exist because men demand its continuance. But the existing social structure is influenced by many factors and forces that inevitably cause it to change.
Society is thus subject to continuous change. The change of man and society has been the central and quite dominant concern of sociology right from the time when it emerged as branch of learning. The concern for social change is of great importance not only in studying past changes but also in investigating ‘future’ developments. Meaning of Social Change : Change implies all variations in human societies. Thesis? When changes occur in the modes of living of individuals and social relation gets influenced, such changes are called social changes. Social change refers to the modifications which take place in life pattern of people. It occurs because all societies are in a constant state of disequilibrium.
The word ‘change’ denotes a difference in anything observed over some period of time. Hence, social change would mean observable differences in any social phenomena over any period of time. Social change is the change in society and society is a web of social relationships. Hence, social change is a change in social relationships. Social relationships are social processes, social patterns and social interactions. These include the mutual activities and relations of the various parts of the society.
Thus, the term ‘social change’ is used to describe variations of any aspect of social processes, social patterns, social interaction or social organization. Social change may be defined as changes in the social organization, that is, the structure and functions of the society. Whenever one finds that a large number of persons are engaged in movie hyderabad, activities that differ from those which their immediate forefathers were engaged in some time before, one finds a social change. Whenever human behaviour is in the process of modification, one finds that social change is occurring. Human society is constituted of human beings. Social change means human change, since men are human beings. School? To change society, as says Davis, is to change man. Theorists of social change agree that in most concrete sense of the word ‘change’, every social system is changing all the essay, time. Business School? The composition of the population changes through the fear history a review, life cycle and thus the occupation or roles changes; the members of society undergo physiological changes; the continuing interactions among member modify attitudes and expectations; new knowledge is constantly being gained and transmitted. The question to what social change actually means is perhaps the harvard business, most difficult one within the scientific study of change. It involves the plan dissertation, often neglected query of what ‘kind’ and degree of change in what is to be considered social change.
Most analysts of social change deal with this question implicitly somewhere in their theoretical system or in the context of the harvard school thesis, latter’s application to some empirical case. For the present purpose it should suffice to examine definitions that are frequently used to conceptualise change. According to Jones “Social change is a term used to describe variations in, or modifications of any aspect of social processes, social patterns, social interaction or social organization”. As Kingsley Davis says, “By Social change is meant only such alternations as occur in social organization – that is, the interviewing a family, structure and functions of society”. According to Maclver and Page, “Social change refers to a process responsive to many types of changes; to changes the man in made condition of harvard business school life; to changes in a review essay, the attitudes and beliefs of men, and to the changes that go beyond the human control to the biological and harvard thesis, the physical nature of things”.
Morris Ginsberg defines, “By social change, I understand a change in social structure, e.g., the plan dissertation bac francais, size of the society, the composition or the balance of harvard thesis its parts or the easy book, type of its organization”. P. Fairchild defines social change as “variations or modifications in school, any aspects of social process, pattern or form. B. Kuppuswamy says, “Social change may be defined as the process in which is goals essay, discernible significant alternation in the structure and functioning of a particular social system”. H.M. Johnson says, “Social change is either change in the structure or quasi- structural aspects of a system of change in the relative importance of coexisting structural pattern”. According to Merrill and Eldredge, “Change means that large number of persons are engaging in activities that differ from harvard those which they or their immediate forefathers engaged in some time before”. Anderson and Parker define, “Social change involves alternations in the structure or functioning of societal forms or processes themselves”. According to M.D.
Jenson, “Social change may be defined as modification in ways of doing and thinking of help on a essay people. As H.T. Mazumdar says, “Social change may be defined as a new fashion or mode, either modifying or replacing the old, in the life of people or in the operation of harvard thesis a society”. According Gillin and Gillin, “Social changes are variations from the accepted modes of life; whether due to alternation in a family member, geographical conditions, in cultural equipment, composition of the population or ideologies and brought about by diffusion, or inventions within the harvard school thesis, group. By analyzing all the definitions mentioned above, we reach at the conclusion that the two type of changes should be treated as two facts of the same social phenomenon. Two type of changes are e.g. (i) changes in the structure of society, (ii) changes in the values and social norms which bind the interviewing a family, people together and help to maintain social order. These two type of changes should not, however, be treated separately because a change in one automatically induces changes in the other.
For example, a change in business thesis, the attitude of the people may bring about changes in the social structure. Towards the close of the 19 century, there was a tendency in the countries of Western Europe for families to grow smaller in help on a essay, size. There is a general agreement that this has been brought about mainly by voluntary restriction of births”. In this case, a change in the attitude of the people is mainly responsible for change in the social structure. On the other hand, a change in the social structure may bring about attitudinal change among the members of the society. Transformation of school rural society into industrial society is not simply a change in the structure of society.
For example, industrialisation has destroyed domestic system of four goals essay production. The destruction of domestic system of production has brought women from thesis home to factory and office. The employment of women gave them a new independent outlook. The attitude of independence instead of dependence upon men has become the trait of women’s personally. Hence, these two type of changes should not be treated separately but both of them should be studied together. The problem of social change is one of the central foci of easy book sociological inquiry.
It is so complex and so significant in the life of individual and of society that we have to explore the ‘why’ and ‘how’ of social change in all its ramifications. Characteristics of Social Change : The fact of social change has fascinated the keenest minds and still poses some of the great unsolved problems in social sciences. The phenomenon of social change is not simple but complex. It is difficult to understand this in its entirety. The unsolved problems are always pressurising us to find an appropriate answer. To understand social change well, we have to harvard business school thesis analyse the nature of social change which are as follows:
1. Social Change is essay, Social: Society is a “web of social relationships” and hence social change obviously means a change in the system of social relationships. Business? Social relationships are understood in terms of plan bac francais 2009 social processes and social interactions and social organizations. Thus, the term social change is used to describe variation in social interactions, processes and social organizations. Only that change can be called social change whose influence can be felt in a community form. The changes that have significance for all or considerable segment of business school population can be considered as social change. 2. Social Change is Universal: Change is the universal law of nature. The social structure, social organization and movie tickets hyderabad, social institutions are all dynamic.
Social change occurs in all societies and at all times. Harvard School Thesis? No society remains completely static. Each society, no matter how traditional and conservative, is constantly undergoing change. Just as man’s life cannot remain static, so does society of fear and contemporary history a review essay all places and times. Business? Here adjustment take place and here conflict breaks down adjustment.
Here there is revolution and here consent. Here men desire for fear and contemporary essay, achieving new goals, and here they return to old ones. 3. Social Change occurs as an Essential law: Change is the law of nature. Social change is also natural. Change is an unavoidable and unchangeable law of nature. By nature we desire change. Thesis? Our needs keep on changing to satisfy our desire for change and to satisfy these needs, social change becomes a necessity. The truth is that we are anxiously waiting for a change. According to Green, “The enthusiastic response of change has become almost way of life. 4. Social Change is Continuous:
Society is an ever-changing phenomenon. It is help on a essay, undergoing endless changes. It is an “ongoing process”. These changes cannot be stopped. Society is harvard business school thesis, subject to continuous change. Here it grows and easy book reports, decays, there it finds renewal, accommodates itself to various changing conditions.
Society is a system of social relationship. But these social relationships are never permanent. They are subject to change. Society cannot be preserved in a museum to save it from the ravages of time. From the dawn of history, down to this day, society has been in flux. Social change manifests itself in different stages of human history.
In ancient times when life was confined to caves (Stone Age), the social system was different from that of the computer age today. There is no fixity in school thesis, human relationships. Circumstances bring about many a change in the behaviour patterns. 5. Social Change Involves No-Value Judgement: Social change does not attach any value judgement. It is neither moral nor immoral, it is amoral. Book Reports? The question of “what ought to be” is beyond the nature of social change. The study of social change involves no-value judgement.
It is ethically neutral. Harvard Business Thesis? A correct decision on what is empirically true is not the same as correct decision on what ought to be. 6. Social Change is easy book reports, Bound by Time Factors: Social change is temporal. Business Thesis? It happens through time, because society exists only as a time-sequences. We know its meaning fully only by understanding it through time factors. For example, the caste system which was a pillar of stability in traditional Indian society, is help on a essay, now undergoing considerable changes in the modern India. There was less industrialisation in India during 50s. But in 90s, India has become more industrialized. Thus, the speed of social change differs from age to age.
The reason is that the factors which cause social change do not remain uniform with the changes in harvard business, time. 7. Rate and Tempo of Social Change is Uneven: Though social change is a must for each and every society, the reports, rate, tempo, speed and extent of change is not uniform. It differs from society to society. Business School Thesis? In some societies, its speed is help on a essay, rapid; in another it may be slow. And in some other societies it occurs so slowly that it may not be noticed by those who live in them.
For example, in the modern, industrial urban society the speed and extent of change is faster than traditional, agricultural and rural society. 8. Definite Prediction of Social Change is Impossible: It is business school, very much difficult to make out any prediction on the exact forms of social change. A thousand years ago in Asia, Europe and help on a essay, Latin America the face of school thesis society was vastly different from help on a essay that what exists today. But what the society will be in thousand years from harvard business thesis now, no one can tell. But a change there will be. For example, industrialisation and urbanisation has brought about a series of interrelated changes in our family and marriage system. But we cannot predict the exact forms which social relationships will assume in future. Similarly, what shall be our ideas, attitudes and value in future, it is a review essay, unpredictable. 9. Social Change Shows Chain-Reaction Sequences:
Society is a dynamic system of interrelated parts. Changes in one aspect of life may induce a series of changes in other aspects. For example, with the emancipation of women, educated young women find the traditional type of family and marriage not quite fit to their liking. They find it difficult to live with their parents-in-law, obeying the mother-in-law at every point. They desire separate homes. The stability of marriages can no longer be taken for granted. The changing values of women force men to change their values also. Therefore, society is harvard business school, a system of interrelated parts. Change in its one aspect may lead to a series of easy book reports changes in other aspects of the society. 10. Social Change takes place due to Multi-Number of Factors:
Social change is the consequence of a number of factors. A special factor may trigger a change but it is always associated with other factors that make the triggering possible. Social change cannot be explained in terms of one or two factors only and that various factors actually combine and harvard business, become the ’cause’ of the change. M. Ginsberg observes: “A cause is an assemblage of factors which, in interaction with each other, undergo a change”. There is no single master key by which we can unlock all the doors leading to easy social change. As a matter of fact, social change is the harvard business school thesis, consequence of a number of factors. 11. Social Changes are Chiefly those of Modifications or of Replacement: Social changes may be considered as modifications or replacements. It may be modification of physical goods or social relationships. For example, the form of our breakfast food has changed.
Though we eat the same basic materials such as meats, eggs corn etc. which we ate earlier, their form has been changed. Ready-to-eat cornflakes, breads, omelets are substituted for the form in which these same materials were consumed in earlier years. Further, there may be modifications of movie social relationships. For example, the old authoritarian family has become the small equalitarian family. Our attitudes towards women’s status and school, rights, religion, co-education etc. stand modified today. 12. Social Change may be Small-scale or Large-scale: A line of distinction is book reports, drawn between small-scale and large scale social change. Small-scale change refers to harvard thesis changes within groups and organizations rather than societies, culture or civilization. According W.E. Moore, by small-scale changes we shall mean changes in the characteristics of social structures that though comprised within the general system identifiable as a society, do not have any immediate and major consequences for the generalised structure (society) as such.
13. Short-term and Long-term Change: The conceptualization of the magnitude of change involves the next attribute of change, the time span. That is to help on a essay say, a change that may be classified as ‘small-scale from a short-term perspective may turn out to have large-scale consequences when viewed over a long period of time, as the decreasing death rate since the harvard, 1960 in India exemplifies. 14. Social Change may be Peaceful or Violent:
At times, the attribute ‘peaceful’ has been considered as practically synonymous with ‘gradual’ and ‘violent’ with ‘rapid’. The term ‘violence’ frequently refers to the threat or use of physical force involved in attaining a given change. Plan? In certain sense, rapid change may ‘violently’ affect the emotions, values and expectations of those involved. According to business W.E. Moore, “A ‘true’ revolution, a rapid and fundamental alternation in essay, the institutions or normative codes of society and of its power distribution, is business school, rapid and member essay, continuous by definition and is likely to be violent, but may well be orderly as opposed to erratic”. ‘Peaceful’ has to do with the changes that take place by consent, acceptance or acquisition and that are enforced by the normative restraints of society. 15. Social Change may be Planned or Unplanned:
Social change may occur in the natural course or it is done by man deliberately. Unplanned change refers to harvard school change resulting from natural calamities, such as famines and floods, earthquakes and plan dissertation bac francais, volcanic eruption etc. So social change is called as the unchangeable law of nature. The nature is school thesis, never at rest. Planned social change occurs when social changes are conditioned by human engineering. Plans, programmes and projects are made by man in order to determine and control the plan bac francais, direction of social change. Besides that by harvard school nature human beings desire change. The curiosity of a man never rests; nothing checks his desire to know. There is always a curiosity about unknown. Easy? The needs of human beings are changing day by harvard business school day.
So to four essay satisfy these needs they desire change. 16. Social Change may be Endogenous or Exogenous: Endogenous social change refers to the change caused by the factors that are generated by society or a given subsystem of society. Conflict, communication, regionalism etc. are some of the examples of endogenous social change. On the other hand, exogenous sources of social change generally view society as a basically stable, well-integrated system that is disrupted or altered only by the impact of forces external to the system (e.g., world situation, wars, famine) or by new factors introduced into the system from other societies. For example, technological transfer and brain drain, political and cultural imperialism may lead to the diffusion of harvard business cultural traits beyond the limits of single societies. 17.
Change Within and Change of the System: The distinction between kinds of help on a essay change has been developed by Talcott Parsons in harvard thesis, his analysis of change ‘within’ and change ‘of the system, i.e., the orderly process of ongoing change within the boundaries of a system, as opposed to the process resulting in changes of the structure of the system under consideration. Conflict theorists draw our attention to help on a essay the fact that the harvard business school, cumulative effect of change ‘within’ the system may result in a change ‘of’ the system. To conclude, some of the attributes most frequently used in describing change are: magnitude of change (small-scale, large-scale changes), time pan, direction, rate of change, amount of violence involved. These dimensions should not be taken as either/or attributes but rather as varying along a continuum from one extreme to another (e.g., revolutionary vs evolutionary). Other categorization that have been devised involve division of changes on the basis of such characteristics as continuous vs spasmodic, orderly vs erratic and the number of people (or roles) affected by or involved in change.
Although no hard and essay hyderabad, fast categories have yet been developed into which we can fit different types of harvard thesis change, the use of the foregoing distinctions, may be helpful in clarifying one’s conceptualization of any type of change or at least, they can help one to understand the complexities involved in developing a definition of the subject of goals essay social change. In explaining the concept of social change, sociologists from time to time used words and expressions like evolution, growth, progress, development, revolution, adaptation etc. discarding one in preference to the other. Though the concept of evolution was known to the generation preceding the publication of Darwin’s “Origin of business Species”, the notion of social evolution was taken directly from the theories of biological evolution. Evolution in biological science means the developing of an organism. It is a process by which a thing continuously adopts itself to its environment and manifests its own nature. Consequently it is a change which permeates the whole character of the object.
Many social theorists from help on a essay Herbert Spencer to Sumner applied this conception of harvard business school thesis ‘organic evolution’ in various ways to the explanation of social change. The term ‘evolution’ is borrowed from biological sciences to book Sociology. The term ‘organic evolution’ is replaced by ‘social evolution’ in harvard business, sociology. Whereas the term ‘organic evolution’ is used to denote the evolution of organism, the expression of easy reports ‘social evolution is used to explain the evolution of human society. It was hoped that the theory of social evolution would explain the origin and development of man. Anthropologists and thesis, Sociologists wanted to find a satisfactory and significant explanation of how our society evolved. They were very much impressed by the idea of organic evolution which explain how one species evolves into another, and wanted to apply the same to the social world. Hence, the concept of social evolution is quite popular in sociological discussion.
Sociologists adopted the fear, word ‘evolution’ to convey the sense of growth and change in social institutions. Social institutions are the result of evolution. They began to work to trace the harvard school thesis, origin of the ideas, institutions and of the book, developments. The term ‘evolution’ is derived from the Latin word ‘evolvere’ which means to ‘develop’ or ‘to unfold’. It is equivalent to the Sanskrit word ‘Vikas’.
Evolution literally means gradually ‘unfolding’ or ‘unrolling’. It indicates changes from ‘within’ and not from ‘without’. The concept of evolution applies more precisely to the internal growth of an organism. Evolution means more than growth. The word ‘growth’ connotes a direction of change but only of quantitative character e.g., we say population grows, town grows etc. But evolution involves something more intrinsic; change not merely in size but also in structure. According to Maclver and Page, “Evolution involves something more intrinsic, a change not merely in size but at least in harvard business, structure also”. Ogburn and four goals of psychology, Nimkoff write, “Evolution is merely a change in a given direction”. Ginsberg says, “Evolution is defined as a process of business thesis change which results in the production of something new but revealing “an orderly continuity in transition”.
That is to essay movie tickets say, we have evolution when” the series of changes that occur during a period of harvard school time appear to be, not a mere succession of changes, but a ‘continuous process’, through which a clear ‘thread of identity runs’. Evolution describes a series of interrelated changes in a system of some kind. It is a process in essay tickets, which hidden or latent characters of harvard business school a thing reveal themselves. It is a principle of internal growth. It shows not merely what happens to a thing but also what happens within it. Book Reports? “What is latent becomes manifest in it and what is potential is made actual.” Evolution is an order to change which unfolds the variety of aspects belonging to the nature of changing object. We cannot speak of harvard business thesis evolution when an object or system is changed by forces acting upon it from plan 2009 without. The change must occur within the changing unity.
Characteristics of Social Evolution : According to Spencer, “Evolution is the integration of matter and concomitant dissipation of motion during which matter passes from an indefinite, incoherent homogeneity to a definite, coherent heterogeneity.” Society, according to his view, is also subject to a similar process of evolution; that is, changing from a state of ‘incoherent homogeneity’ to a state of ‘coherent heterogeneity.’ Evolution is, thus, a gradual growth or development from simple to harvard school thesis complex existence. The laws of evolution which were initially fashioned after the findings of charters. Darwin, came to be known as social Darwinism during the nineteenth century. Spencer’s point of view can best be illustrated by an example.
In the beginning, the most primitive stage, every individual lived an individualistic life, trying to know and do things about himself alone. Every man was more or less similar, in so far as his ignorance about organized social life was concerned. In this sense, the people were homogenous. At that stage, neither they were able to organize their social life, nor could they work together. There was no system; nothing definite, expect their incoherent or loose-group-formations. Thus, they formed “an indefinite, incoherent homogeneity,” But gradually, their experiences, realizations and dissertation bac francais, knowledge increased. They learnt to live and to work together.
The task of harvard business school social organisation was taken on, division of labour was elaborated; and plan dissertation 2009, each found a particular type of work which he could do best. All worked in an organized and definite way towards a definite goal. Harvard? Thus, a state of “definite, coherent heterogeneity” was reached. Herbert Spencer has prescribed four important principles of evolution. These principles are: 1. Of Psychology? Social evolution is on cultural or human aspect of the harvard business school thesis, law of and contemporary history change of cosmic evolution. 2. Hence, social evolution take place in harvard school, the same way at all places and progress through some definite and inevitable stages. 3. Essay Movie Tickets Hyderabad? Social evolution is gradual.
4. Social evolution is progressive. In addition to this characteristics, other features of harvard school thesis social evolution are clearly evident which are discussed below. Evolution is a Process of Differentiation and Integration: The concept of evolution as a process of differentiation cum-integration was first developed by the German Sociologists Von Baer and subsequently by Spencer and many others. (i) In order to understand this statement, i.e. evolution takes place through differentiation and Integration; we have to study the history of a society over a long, period of time.
Then we shall find that its associations, institutions, etc” are constantly evolving or developing. In social evolution, new and ever newer circumstances and problems are constantly appearing. In order to cope with them, new associations and institutions are evolved. Help On A Essay? For example, a community in harvard business thesis, a town previously. When the town had been a small community, its management was the responsibility of a Panchayat or a town area committee. Now that the fear and contemporary essay, town has become a big commercial centre, its management is in the hands of a dozer different committees. One of harvard school them looks after the educational facilities, another looks after the sanitation, a third is deputed to look after the octroi, while a fourth manages the markets and so on. In this way, this differentiation increases with the evolution of the town. (ii) But without Integration, this differentiation cannot take one anywhere. Hence, synthesis along with differentiation is necessary.
In urban areas one can find various sectarian associations such as Khandayat Kshatriya Mahasabha, Kayastha society, Brahman Samiti, Napita associations etc. At the same time, one also can find institutions: ‘Arya Samaj’,” etc. which synthesize and compromise associations based on various caste and class distinctions. Movie Tickets Hyderabad? Today, while new nations are coming into thesis being in the human society, equally strong efforts are being made to create a world society by compromising these nations. (iii) By virtue of this double processes of a family differentiation and integration, the harvard business school thesis, efficiency of the society is book, being constantly increased. Division of labour is the magic word of modern economic evolution. By an increase in the number of associations and institutions in society, work in various spheres is performed more successfully.
And because of the process of synthesis, various spheres take advantage of each other’s efficiency also. Maclver points it out in a very systematic manner. Business Thesis? According to him, evolution or differentiation manifests itself in society by (a) a greater division of society by labour, so that thereby a more elaborate system of cooperation, because the energy of more individuals is concentrated on more specific tasks, a more intricate nexus of functional relationships, is sustained within the group; (b) an increase in the number and the variety of functional associations and essay movie tickets hyderabad, institutions, so that each is more defined or more limited in the range or character of its service; and (c) a greater diversity and refinement in the instruments of social communication, perhaps above all in the medium of language. Various sociologists have laid stress on one or another of these aspect of evolution. Thus, Emile Durkheim has insisted on harvard business thesis the preeminent importance of the social division of labour as a criterion of social development. Other writers have taken the various aspects together and sought to goals of psychology show that society passes through a definite series of evolutionary stages. Social Evolution does not always proceed by Differentiation: Morris Ginsberg writes, “The notion that evolution is a movement from the simple to the complex can be and has been seriously disputed.” In every field where we find the forces of differentiation at work, there the opposite trends are also manifested.
For example in the development of languages, where the harvard business thesis, process of differentiation has been stressed, we have many disconnecting facts. The modern languages derived from interviewing Sanskrit Like Bengali, Gujarati, Telugu and Tamil cannot be compared in their structure with the richness and harvard business thesis, diversity of their origin. Here the process is not towards differentiation but towards simplification. In the development of religion too, the transition from tickets fusion to differentiation is difficult to see. On the whole we find that social evolution does not always proceed by differentiation. However in spite of the various difficulties, the concept of evolution still retains its usefulness. Harvard School? Maclver has strongly supported the principle of social evolution. He has criticised the help on a essay, practice of believing social evolution to be imaginary. Social evolution is a reality. Maclver has given some arguments in favour of the reality of social evolution.
He emphasizes, if we open the pages of History, we find that in the beginning there was no differentiation of institutions within human society or the performance of diverse functions. But latter on, as culture and civilization progressed, differentiation increased and it is even now increasing. This historical fact is an evidence of the extent and element of reality in the principle of social evolution. Social Evolution and Organic Evolution : Though ‘social evolution’ is borrowed from the biological concept of ‘organic evolution’, still then these two terms are not one and the same. There are some basic differences between the two which are as follows: Firstly, organic evolution implies the differentiation in the bodily structure, which is generally in the form of new organs to use for different purpose. But social evolution does not imply this. Man is the centre of social evolution. He need not have to develop new organ to adjust himself with changed conditions of life.
Because man has the capacity of business inventing tools, making instruments and devising techniques to control the forces of nature and to adjust himself with the natural conditions. He can look before and after. Secondly, in organic evolution, the transmission of qualities takes place through biological heredity, i.e. Help On A Essay? through ‘genes’. But social evolution takes place through ideas, discoveries, inventions and harvard business thesis, experiences. Here the of psychology, changes are transmitted mostly through the mental ability and genius of business school man. Thirdly, in case of organic evolution only the descending generation is affected by the structural modification, alterations. Fear And Contemporary? But in social evolution even the business school thesis, old as well as the new generations are affected by it. Interviewing Member Essay? For example, invention of new techniques and devices is influencing the present as well as the harvard thesis, future generations. Lastly, the organic evolution is reports, continuous.
There can be no break in it. Harvard School? It is continuous because of the irresistible pressure within the organisation and of environment or natural forces. But such a continuity may not be observed in the case of social evolution. It is subject to disruption. It is an intermittent.
It lacks continuity. Social Change and Social Evolution : Social change is an ever-present phenomenon everywhere. When we speak of social change, we suggest so far no law, no theory, no direction, even no continuity. Social change occurs in all societies and at all times. No society remains completely static. The term ‘social change’ itself is help on a essay, wholly neutral, implying nothing but differences that take place in human interactions and interrelations. In explaining this concept of social change, modern sociologists from time to harvard time used different words and fear essay, expressions. Evolution is one of them. Many social theorists form Herbert Spencer to Sumner applied this conception of evolution in harvard business school thesis, various ways to the interpretation of social change.
But many modern theorists, particularly American, have abandoned the four goals essay, idea that social change takes place by evolutionary stages. Evolution describes a series of interrelated changes in a system of some kind. It is a process in which hidden or latent characters of a thing reveal themselves. It shows not merely what happens to a thing but also what happens within it. Evolution is an order of change which unfolds the variety of school aspects belonging to the nature of changing object. We cannot speak of evolution when an object or system is changed by forces acting upon it from without. The change must occur within the changing unity.
Evolution is a process involving a changing adaptation of the object to its environment and a further manifestation of its own nature. Consequently, it is a change permeating the a review, whole character of the object, a sequence in which the equilibrium of its entire structure undergoes modification. According to Maclver, evolution is not mere change. It is an business school immanent process resulting in help on a essay, increased complexity and business school thesis, differentiation. He writes, “the Kernel of organic evolution is differentiation, a process in which latent or rudimentary characters take a distinct and variable form within the unity of the organism.”
Maclver further says, evolution or differentiation manifests itself in society by (a) a greater division of labour resulting in great specialization (b) an increase in the number and variety of functional associations, (c) a greater diversity and refinement in the means of movie hyderabad social communication. “When these changes are proceeding, society is evolving”, concludes Maclver. The concept of school progress found notable expression in the writings of the help on a essay, French Philosophers such as Turgot, Condorcent and business school, Fancis Bacon of the 18th century and a family member, has been a dynamic agent in the social activity of harvard modern man. Sociologists such as Saint Simon, Auguste Comte and Herbert Spencer were the earlier exponents of the idea of progress. According Comte, it was the intellectual elite who could bring about an era of reports progress. Etymologically, the word progress means “moving forward.” But moving forward or backward, progress or regress are relative terms. If it be remarked that such and such country has progressed, no meaningful information can be extracted from such a statement unless the direction towards which progress has been made be known. In this way, progress is not mere change.
It is a change in particular direction. The word progress cannot be appended to change in every direction. For example, if the harvard business thesis, condition of agriculture in a particular country worsens and a famine results, it is easy, undeniably a change, but it will not be called progress. Progress means moving forward in school, the direction of achievement of some aim. Different thinkers have defined progress in different ways. The important definitions are as follows: Maclver writes, “By progress we imply not merely direction, but direction towards some final goal, some destination determined ideally not simply by the objective consideration at work. Lumely defines, “Progress is a change, but it is book, a change in business, a desired or approved direction, not in any direction.” Ginsberg defines progress as “A development or evolution in a direction which satisfies rational criterion of value”. According to Ogburn, “Progress is a movement towards an history essay objective thought to be desirable by the general group for the visible future. Burgess writes, “Any change or adoption to an existent environment that makes it easier for a person or group of persons or other organized from of life to live may be said to represent progress”.
Progress means an advance towards some ideally desirable end. Since progress means change for the better it definitely implies a value judgement of highly subjective character. For value, like taste, has no measuring rod. A particular social change may seem to be progressive to one person to another it may seem retrogression, because they have different values. The concept of social progress is, therefore, subjective but it has reference to an objective condition. It is difficult to explain the criteria of progress which are relative to harvard their temporal context.
Social values determine progress. Whether any change will be considered as progress or not depends upon the social values. Social values change with time and place. The criteria of progress change with the change of social values. Hence, it is difficult to formulate a universally acceptable criterion of essay movie progress. However, the following can be tentatively suggested. Health and Longevity of Life: Average length of life is one index of progress whether the harvard business thesis, world is growing better. But it does not necessarily follow from goals essay this that a longer life must be more pleasurable and better. In the opinion of some persons, wealth or economic progress is a criterion of progress.
Some people are of the view that an increase in population is a sign of progress. But over-population cannot be a sign of progress. According to some thinkers, moral conduct is the criterion of harvard business thesis progress. Since life has many facets, it is book, not possible to formulate any one criterion of progress. But is harvard business, stated that the integrated development of society is the criterion of progress. Tickets? Integrated development comprehends all mental, physical and spiritual aspects including above criteria. By analysing above definitions, we find that progress is a change, a change for harvard business thesis, the better. When we speak of history a review progress, we simply not merely direction, but direction towards some final goal.
The nature of the progress depends upon two factors, the nature of the end and the distance of harvard business school which we are from easy it. The modern writers today speak of social progress though they do not have a single satisfactory explanation of the concept. In order to have a better understanding of the meaning of progress, we have to analyse the following attributes. 1. Progress is Dependent upon Social Values: Progress dependent upon and is harvard school thesis, determined by social values. It means that progress does not have precisely the same meaning at interviewing all times and places, because values change from time to business school thesis time. There is no object which can uniformly or eternally be considered valuable irrespective of time and place. Due to this reason, Maclver and Page have written, “The concept of progress is a chameleon that take on the colour of the environment when we feel adjusted to that environment, and some contrasting colour when we feel maladjusted. 2. There is a Change in Progress: Change is one of movie tickets hyderabad its essential attributes.
The concept of progress presupposes the presence of change. Harvard School? Without change, there can be no progress. 3. In Progress the Desired End is Achieved: The progress is not mere change. Goals Of Psychology? It is a change in a particular direction. Broadly speaking, progress means an advance towards some ideally desirable end. It always refers to the changes that leads to human happiness. Harvard Business? Not all changes imply progress. Progress from its ethical point of view, may be personal but from the sociological point of view, is communal since sociology is that science of society. And Contemporary History A Review? In it, the individual is taken into consideration only as a part of society. Only that change, whose influence can be felt on entire community or society for its betterment or welfare, can be called social progress.
5. Progress is Volitional: Progress does not come about business school through inactivity. Desire and volition are needed for plan, progress. Efforts have to be made and when these efforts are successful it is called progress. It is an uphill task. It must be remembered that every effort is not progressive.
The concept of progress varies from society to society, place to place and from time to time. It does not remain constant in all times and of all places. That which is today considered as the symbol or progress may tomorrow be considered and treated as a sign of regress. For example, in India, free mixing of young boys and business, girls may be interpreted as an indication of regress, whereas the same may symbolise progress in the Western Countries. 7. Criteria of Progress are Variable:
As stated earlier criteria of progress are relative to their temporal context. Social values determine progress. But social values change with time and place. Therefore, criteria of progress vary from place to place. Further, different scholars have prescribed different criteria of progress. For example, health and longevity have been considered as criteria of help on a essay progress by some, while other have taken economic security, moral conduct as the criteria of progress. 8. Progress does not have a Measuring Rod: The term progress is harvard thesis, very much subjective and dissertation 2009, value-loaded. It is not demonstrable with a degree of certainty. We cannot show it to others unless they first accept our evaluations. We may or may not agree that there is progress, but we cannot prove it.
Progress is a reality which is immeasurable and school thesis, undemonstrable. Anything that cannot be demonstrated and measured scientifically cannot be rejected socially. It is especially true in the case of progress. To conclude, progress conveys the sense of something better and improved. The advancement in technology was opposed to contribute to progress.
But, these developments did not carry the reports, sense of progress. It was advancement only in a particular direction. The comprehensiveness of progress was missing. The extremes of poverty and health, of ignorance and enlightenment had continued to business coexist as ever before. Help On A Essay? Progress as conceived over the ages past, is business school thesis, now considered to be illusive. The end of progress, it has come to be accepted, cannot be determined. The ‘progress’ in the West did not meet all its ends. It did not bring the fulfillment, that was taken to be its true aim.
For this, the use of the term progress was considered inappropriate. The application of the term fell into disfavour. More so, the growing belief that sociology should be value-free also discouraged the use of this expression. Social Change and Social Progress : Change is the basic content of both evolution and progress. But the term change is wholly neutral, only bac francais 2009, suggesting variation in a phenomena over, a period of time.
The moment the specifications like direction, desirability, and value-judgement are added to change, another terminology ‘progress’ becomes necessary to describe the process of change. Progress is not mere change. It is a change in thesis, particular direction. It cannot be appended to help on a essay change in every direction. Harvard School? The word progress means moving forward in book, the direction and achievement of some desired goal. It is thesis, certainly a change, a change for the better not for the worse.
The concept of progress always involves and implies value judgement. It is not possible to speak of progress without reference to standards. Not all changes imply progress. But social change is a generic term, an objective term describing one of the fundamental processes. There is no value-judgement attached to it. It is true that some changes are beneficial to essay movie hyderabad mankind and some are harmful. But social change is neither moral nor immoral, but amoral. The study of social change involves no value-judgement, while the concept of thesis social progress implies values judgement. Social progress means improvement, betterment, moving to a higher level from a lower level. Social Evolution and Social Progress : In the earlier theories of biological evolution, the concept of social evolution was intimately connected with social progress.
For the social evolutionists of the nineteenth century from Auguste Comte to Herbert Spencer and Lester F. Ward, social evolution was, in effect, social progress. Modern sociologists, particularly Americans, do not hold this proposition. They point out that evolution does not mean progress, because when a society is more evolved it does not necessarily follow that it is more progressive. If it would have been progressive, Maclver and Page remark that people in the more evolved society are better or better fitted to survive or more moral or more healthy than those we call primitive. Even if the opposite were true, it would not refute the fact that their society is more evolved.”
Social evolution should also be distinguished from social progress. Firstly L.T. Hobhouse says, evolution means a sort of growth while .social progress means the growth of social life in respect of those qualities to which human beings attach or can rationally attach value. The relation between the two is thus a ‘genus-species’ relation. Social progress is interviewing member essay, only one among many possibilities of harvard business social evolution; any or every form of social evolution is not a form of social progress. For example, caste system in help on a essay, India is business thesis, a product of social evolution.
But it does not signify progress. Hobhouse concludes, “that it is good, the fact that society has evolved is no proof that it progressed. Secondly, evolution is merely change in a given direction. It describes a series of interrelated changes in a system of some kind. It refers to an objective condition which is not evaluated as good or bad. On the contrary, progress means change in interviewing a family essay, a direction determined ideally. In other words, it can be said, progress means change for the better not for the worse. It implies a value-judgement. The evolutionary process may move in accordance with our notion of desirable change, but there is no logical necessity that it should.
The concept of progress necessarily involves a concept of end. And the business school, concept of end varies with the mentality and experience of the book reports, individual and the group. The affirmation of evolution “depends on harvard business thesis our perception of help on a essay objective evidences, whereas the affirmation or denial of progress depends on our ideals.” It follows that evolution is a scientific concept and business, progress is an movie hyderabad ethical concept. Evolution is a demonstrable reality; out the term progress is very much subjective and value-loaded and harvard business, is not demonstrable with a degree of certainty. While social evolution is help on a essay, clearly distinguished from social progress, we must not loose sight of thesis their relationships. Ethical valuations or ideas (Progress) are socially determined and hence determine the objective phenomena (Evolution) of society. They have always been powerful in shaping and moving the world. In some manner they are active in every process of social change. Plan Dissertation Bac Francais? “All social change has this double character.” From the above analysis we find, though the above three concepts, social change, social evolution and harvard, social progress share many common reference points, they have different intellectual framework. They all articulate same consequential effects. In all the three processes, one cause produces a number of effects, the interviewing a family essay, effect and cause get intermixed to school thesis produce other new effects, again new connections between cause and book reports, effect are established and harvard school thesis, so on goes the fear and contemporary a review essay, process.
Factors of Social Change : A sociological explanation of change refers not only to the structure that changes but also the factors that effect such a change. Social change has occurred in all societies and in all periods of thesis time. We should, therefore, know what the factors are that produce change. Of course there is help on a essay, little consensus among the representatives of theoretical proposition on the sources. Besides, the linear as well as the cyclical theorists paid little attention to the determinations of thesis factors involved in social change. Morris Ginsberg has made a systematic analysis of the factors which have been invoked by different writers to explain social change.
Here, our analysis is confined to sociological implantation of the origins and causes of help on a essay change. Cause will be defined here as set of related factors which, taken together, are both sufficient and harvard school, necessary for the production of a certain effect. Attempt has been made to take up each factors of social change by itself and find out the way in history a review, which it effects social change. These factors are treated independently, purely for purpose of understanding and we are not of the view that they can influence social change independent of other factors. Technological factor constitute one important source of social change. Technology, an invention, is a great agent of social change.
It either initiates or encourages social change. Technology alone holds the key to harvard change. When the scientific knowledge is applied to the problems of life, it becomes technology. In order to satisfy his desires, to fulfill his needs and to make his life more comfortable, man builds civilisation. The dawn of this new civilization is the dissertation bac francais 2009, single most explosive fact of our lifetimes. It is the central event, the key to the understanding of the years immediately ahead. We have already crossed the first wave (agricultural revolution).
We are now the children of the next transformation i.e. the third wave. We go forward to describe the full power and reach of this extraordinary change. Some speak of a “Looming Space Age”, “Information Age”, “Electronic Era”, or “Global ‘ Village”. Brezezinski has told us, we face a “Technetronic Age”. Sociologist Daniel Bell describes the coming of school a “Post-Industrial Society”.
Soviet futurists speak of the STR-‘The Scientific-Technological Revolution”. Alvin Toffler has written extensively about the arrival of a “Super Industrial Society”. Technology is fast growing. Every technological advance makes it possible for us to attain certain results with less effort, at less cost and at fear and contemporary history essay less time. It also provides new opportunities and establishes new conditions of life.
The social effects of technology are far-reaching. In the words of W.F. Ogburn, “technology changes society by harvard business school changing our environment to which we in turn adapt. This change is usually in the material environment and the adjustment that we make with these changes often modifies our customs and social institutions”. Ogburn and Nimkoff have pointed that a single invention may have innumerable social effects. According to them, radio, for example, has influenced our entertainment, education, politics, sports, literature, knowledge, business, occupation and our modes of a family member organisation. They have given a list consisting of 150 effects of radio in U.S.A. The pace of change in the modern era is easily demonstrated by school reference to rates of technological development.
The technological revolution enabled human kind to a family member essay shift from hunting and gathering to sedentary agriculture and later to develop civilizations. Technological revolutions enabled societies to industrialize urbanize, specialize, bureaucratize, and take on characteristics that are considered central aspects of modern society. “Modern technology,” remarks the economic historian David Landes, “produces not only business thesis, more, faster; it turns out objects that could not have been produced under any circumstances by the craft methods of yesterday. Most important, modern technology has created things that could scarcely have been conceived in the pre-industrial era the camera, the motor car, the aeroplane, the whole array of electronic devices from the radio to the high speed computer, the nuclear power plant, and so on almost adinfinitum…. The result has been an enormous increase in the output and variety of goods and services, and this alone has changed man’s way of life more than anything since the discovery of fire…” Every technological revolution has brought about increase in the world population. Interviewing A Family Member Essay? Development and advancement of agriculture resulted in the increase of population in the agricultural communities; rise of commerce gave birth to the populous towns, international trade and international contact and the industrial revolution set the human society on the new pedestal. Technological changes have influenced attitudes, beliefs and traditions. The factory system and industrialization, urbanization and the rise of working class, fast transport and communication have demolished old prejudices, dispelled superstitions, weakened casteism, and has given rise to the class based society.
Ogborn even goes to the extent of harvard business school thesis suggesting that the starter in motor car had something to do with the emancipation of women in the America and Western Europe. Development in transport and communication has changed the outlook of the people. Railways in India have played tremendous role in bringing about social mixing of the people. It has helped people to move out of their local environments and take up jobs in distant corners of the country. Movement of people from East to West and North to bac francais 2009 South has broken social and regional barriers.
There have come into existence new vocations and trades. People have begun to give up their traditional occupations and are taking to work in the factories and in the offices-commercial as well as Government. This has also made possible the vertical mobility. A person can now aspire to take up an occupation with higher status than he could have ever thought of in the pre-technological days. Technology has brought about Green Revolution with abundance and harvard business thesis, variety for the rich. The rapid changes of every modern society are inextricably interwoven or connected with and somehow dependent upon the development of new techniques, new inventions, new modes of reports production and new standards of living. Technology thus is a great bliss. It has made living worthwhile for the conveniences and business, comfort it provides, and has created numerous vocations, trades and professions. While, giving individual his rightful place, it has made the collectivity supreme. Technologies are changing and their social consequences are profound. Fundamental changes brought by technology in social structure are discussed as under:
1. Birth of Factory System: The introduction of machines in the industry has replaced the system of individual production by the factory or mill system. It has led to the creation of huge factories which employ thousands of people and where most of the work is performed automatically. The birth of easy book reports gigantic factories led to urbanisation and big cities came into existence. Many labourers, who were out of employment in rural areas migrated to the sites to work and settled around it. As the cities grew, so did the community of ‘labourers and thesis, with it was felt the easy book reports, need for all civic amenities which are essential for society. Their needs were fulfilled by establishing market centers, schools, colleges, hospitals, and recreation clubs.
The area further developed when new business came to thesis it with the formation of large business houses. 3. Development of New Agricultural Techniques: The introduction of machinery into the industry led to the development of new techniques in agriculture. Agricultural production was increased due to the use of new chemical manure. Plan Dissertation? The quality was also improved by the use of superior seeds. All these factors resulted in increase of business school thesis production. In India, the effect of technology is four goals of psychology essay, most apparent in this direction because India is preeminently an school thesis agricultural country.
4. Development of Means of Transportation and Communication: With the development of easy book technology, means of transportation and communication progressed at a surprising rate. These means led to the mutual exchanges between the various cultures. Newspapers, radios, televisions etc. helped to bring news from every corner of the world right into the household. The development of the car, rail, ship and aeroplane made transportation of commodities much easier. Business Thesis? As a result national and international trade made unprecedented progress.
5. Evolution of New Classes: Industrialisation and urbanisation gave birth to the emergence of new classes in of psychology essay, modern society. Class struggle arises due to division of society into classes having opposite-interests. 6. New Conceptions and Movements: The invention of mechanism has also culminated in the generation of new currents in the prevalent thinking. ‘Trade Union’ movements, ‘Lockouts’, ‘Strikes”, “Hartals’, ‘Processions’, ‘Pen down’ became the stocks-in-trade of harvard thesis those who want to promote class interest. These concepts and movements become regular features of economic activity. The effects of technology on major social institution may be summed up in the following manner: Technology has radically changed the family organisation and movie tickets hyderabad, relation in several ways.
Firstly, small equalitarian nuclear family system based on business school love, equality, liberty and freedom is replacing the old, authoritarian joint family system. Due to invention of birth, control method, the size of family reduced. Secondly, Industrialisation destroying the domestic system of production has brought women from home to the factories and office. The employment of women meant their independence from the bondage of man. If brought a change in their attitudes and ideas. It meant a new social life for women. It consequently affected every part of the family life. Thirdly due to technology, marriage has lost its sanctity. It is now regarded as civil contract rather than a religious sacrament.
Romantic marriage, inter-caste marriage and late marriages are the effects of technology. Instances of divorce, desertion, separation and broken families are increasing. Lastly, though technology has elevated the status of women, it has also contributed to the stresses and strains in the relations between men and women at home. It has lessened the importance of family in the process of socialisation of its members. Technology has effected wide range of changes in our religious life. Many religious practices and help on a essay, ceremonies which once marked the individual and social life, have now been abandoned by them. With the growth of scientific knowledge and modern education, the faith of the people in several old religious beliefs and activities have shaken. The most striking change due to technological advance, is the change in economic organisation. School Thesis? Industry has been taken away from the household and new types of book reports economic organisation like factories, stores, banks, joint stock companies, stock-exchanges, and corporation have been setup. It has given birth to capitalism with all its attendant evils.
Division of labour, specialization of function, differentiation and integration all the thesis, products of technology. Though it has brought in higher standard of living, still then by easy book reports creating much more middle classes, it has caused economic depression, unemployment, poverty, industrial disputes and harvard business school thesis, infectious diseases. Effects on State: Technology has affected the State in several ways. The functions of the State has been widened. A large number of functions of family, such as educative, recreation, health functions have been transferred to the State. The idea of social welfare State is an offshoot of technology. Fear History? Transportation and communication are leading to a shift of functions from local Government to the Central Government.
The modern Government which rule through the bureaucracy have further impersonalised the harvard business school thesis, human relations. Technological innovations have changed the whole gamut of social and fear history essay, cultural life. The technological conditions of the modern factory system tend to weaken the harvard business thesis, rigidity of the caste system and strengthen industrializations. Movie Hyderabad? It has changed the basis of harvard thesis social stratification from birth to wealth. Urbanization, a consequence of technological advance, produces greater emotional tension and mental strain, instability and economic insecurity. There is masking of one’s true feelings. Socially, the four goals, urbanites are poor in the midst of school plenty. “They feel lonely in the crowd”. On all sides, one is essay, confronted with “human machines which possess motion but not sincerity, life but not emotion, heart but not feelings”. Harvard Business? Technology has grown the sense of individualism. Help On A Essay? It has substituted the ‘handi work’ with ‘head work’.
It is clear from the above explanation that technology has profoundly altered our modes of life and also thought. It is capable of bringing about vast changes in society. But is should not be considered as a sole factor of social change. Man is the harvard thesis, master as well as a servant of the machine. He has the ability to essay movie alter the circumstances which have been the creation of his own inventions or technology. Cultural Factor of Social Change : Among all the factors, cultural factor is the most important which works as a major cause of social change. Culture is not something static. It is always in flux.
Culture is school, not merely responsive to changing techniques, but also it itself is a force directing social change. Culture is the internal life forces of society. It creates itself and a family, develops by thesis itself. It is men who plan, strive and act. The social heritage is never a script that is followed slavishly by people. A culture gives cues and direction to social behaviour. Technology and material inventions may influence social change but direction and four of psychology, degree of business thesis this depends upon the cultural situation as a whole. “Culture is the realm of final valuation”. Men interpret the whole world. He is the master as well as the servant of his own inventions or technology. To employ Maclver’s simile, technological means may be represented by a ship which can set sail to various ports. The port we sail to remains a cultural choice.
Without the ship we could not sail at all. According to the character of the ship we sail fast of ‘slow, take longer or shorter voyages. Our lives are also accommodated to the conditions on ship board and our experiences vary accordingly. But the bac francais 2009, direction in which we travel is harvard business school thesis, not predestinated by the design of the ship. The port to which we sail, the direction in which we travel, remains totally of interviewing essay a cultural choice. It should be noted that technology alone cannot bring vast changes in society. In order to be effective “The technology must have favourable cultural support”.
When the cultural factor responds to technological change, it also reacts on it so as to business school thesis influence the a review, direction and character of social change. It may be noted that culture not only influences our relationship and values but also influences the business, direction and character of technological change. For example, different countries like Great Britain, Soviet Union, U.S.A. and India may adopt the same technology, but in so far as their prevalent outlook on and contemporary history a review life differs, they will apply it in different directions and to different ends. The atomic energy can be used for munition of war and for production purposes. The industrial plant can turn out armaments or necessaries of life. Steel and iron can be used for building purposes and for warships.
Fire can be used for constructive and destructive purposes. For a better understanding of the relationship between culture and technology, let us analyse here the concept of “cultural lag”. The concept of ‘cultural lag’, has become a favourite one with sociologists, it is an expression that has a particular appeal in thesis, an age in fear, which inventions discoveries and innovations of many kinds are constantly disturbing and harvard, threatening older ways of living. In this context, it will serve also to goals introduce the business thesis, principle that cultural conditions are themselves important agencies in the process of social change. The concept of ‘cultural lag’ was first explicitly formulated by W.F. Ogburn in his treaties entitled ‘Social Change’. Lag means crippled movement. Hence, ‘cultural lag’ means the phases of essay movie tickets culture which fall behind other phases that keep on moving ahead.
Ogburn’s idea of ‘cultural lag’ is perhaps one of the most important concept influencing the fact of discussion regarding technology and social change. Ogburn distinguishes between “material” and ‘non-material’ culture. By ‘material culture’ he means things which are ‘tangible’, visible, seen or touched like goods, tools, utensils, furniture, machine. But the harvard school, ‘non-material’ culture includes things which cannot be touched or tangible such as family, religion, skill, talent. Government and education etc. According to Ogburn, when changes occur in ‘material culture’, those in turn stimulate changes in of psychology, ‘non-material’ culture, particularly in what he terms the ‘adaptive’ culture. According to Ogburn, material culture changes by a process which is harvard school, different in pace from changes in dissertation bac francais 2009, non-material culture. The larger the technological knowledge of a society, the greater the possibility of a new combinations and innovations. Thus, material culture tends to grow exponentially.
Because society cannot develop methods of controlling and harvard business thesis, utilizing new technology before the plan dissertation 2009, technology is accepted and harvard business school thesis, used. There exists a “cultural lag” in creating controls and altering social relationship related to new conditions brought about by new technology. Cultural lag is due to man’s psychological dogmatism. He is wedded to and contemporary certain ideologies regarding sex, education and harvard, religion. On account of his dogmatic beliefs and ideologies, he is not prepared to change his social institutions. The failure to adopt social institutions to the changes in the material culture leads to cultural lag. But Maclver points out that “unfortunately it is often adopted without adequate analysis and consequently it has not been developed in a clear and help on a essay, effective manner. According to him, the distinction is not a workable one. Nor again should be assumed that, it is always the ‘material’ or that the main problem is school thesis, one of adapting the ‘non-material’ to the ‘material’ culture.
Maclver also observes that the term ‘lag’ is easy reports, not properly applicable to relations between technological factors and the cultural patterns or between the various components of the cultural pattern itself. He has used different words like, ‘technological lag’, ‘technological restraint’, for the resulting imbalance in the different parts of culture. Kingsley Davis, in his ‘Human Society’ holds that the harvard, aspect of culture cannot be divided into material and non-material and that this distinction in no way helps us to understand the nature of technology. Help On A Essay? Other sociologists, Sutherland, Wood Ward and Maxwell, in their book ‘Introductory Sociology’ point out that Ogburn is guilty of over simplifying the processes of harvard thesis social change. Social change is a complex phenomenon. The rate, speed and direction of social change is not the same everywhere. So it cannot be explained by simply saying that change first takes place in material culture and and contemporary history essay, thereafter in non-material culture. Ogburn has taken an over simple materialistic view of society. In spite of various shortcomings, Ogburn’s theory of cultural lag has been proved to be beneficial for the understanding of the business, cultural factor in goals of psychology essay, bringing about social change. It has been acknowledged by all that there is an intimate connections between the technological advance and our cultural values. Hence, we may note here that our culture, our thoughts, values, habits are the consequences of technological changes; the latter also is the consequences of harvard business school thesis changes of the former.
Both technology and cultural factors are the four of psychology essay, two important sources of business school social change. The two are not only interdependent but also interactive. Movie Hyderabad? Man does not simply want a thing but he wants a thing which may also be beautiful and appealing to his senses. Dowson and Gettys, in introduction to harvard Sociology’, rightly remark, “Culture tends to give direction and momentum to social change to set limits beyond which social change cannot occur. It is the culture which has kept the social relationship intact. It makes people think not of their own but also of the others.
Any change in reports, cultural valuation will have wider repercussion on the personality of the individual and the structure of the group. Every technological invention, innovation, new industrial civilization or new factor disturbs an school old adjustment. The disturbance created by mechanism was so great that it seemed to be the enemy of culture, as indeed all revolutions seem. The wealth-bringing machine brought also, ugliness, shoddiness, haste, standardization. It brought new hazards, new diseases, and industrial fatigue. That was not the fault of the machines and power plants. It was due to the ruthlessness and greed of those who controlled these great inventions.
But human values or cultural values reasserted themselves against economic exploitation. Movie Hyderabad? Culture began, at first very slowly, to business thesis redirect the new civilization. It made the new means of living at easy book reports length more tractable to the uses of personality and new arts blossomed on the ruins of the old. To conclude, social systems are directly or indirectly the creation of harvard business cultural values. So eminent sociologist Robert Bierstedt has rightly remarked, “What people think, in short, determines in every measure… what they do and four goals, what they want”. Thus, there a definite relation is harvard business school, a definite relation between changing beliefs and attitudes and changing social institutions. So Hobhouse says, there is “a broad correlation between the system of institutions and mentally behind them”.
Demographic Factor of Social Change: The demographic factor plays the most decisive role in a family, causing social change. The quantitative view of demography takes into business school thesis account the movie hyderabad, factors that determine the population: its size, numbers, composition, density and the local distribution etc. The population of business school every community is always changing both in numbers and in easy book, composition. The changes in population have a far-reaching effect on society. During the 19th century, the population of most countries of Western Europe fell down.
During the same time also, the death rate of these countries declined. This double phenomenon is unprecedented in the history of man. Population changes have occurred all through human history. It is business thesis, due to various reasons such as migration, invasion, and war, pestilence, changing food supply and changing mores. There was depopulation and overpopulation in times past. The swift and steady decline of both the birth rate and death in the past 70 years or so witnesses to a great social transformation. In a society where the interviewing essay, size or number of female children is greater than the number of male children, we will find a different system of courtship, marriage and family disorganisation from that where the case is reverse. Women command less respect in that community where their numbers are more. It has always been recognised that there exists a reciprocal relation between population and business thesis, social structure.
The social structure influences population changes and is affected by them. It is beyond doubt that economic conditions and population rates are interdependent. Increasing 254 Social Change interaction results from an increase in the size and density of population. Increase in population also leads to an increase of social differentiation and a division of labour. With the changes in size, number and density of population, changes take place in composition. The most important reasons for book, the contemporary population explosion are the harvard business school, tremendous technological changes on the one hand and a most spectacular advance in controlling the diseases by a family essay science and preventive medicines on the other hand. Advancement in science and business thesis, technology is indirectly boosting the world population by delaying the easy reports, death rate. For example, take the case of ‘Malaria’. This disease was responsible for the death of million of harvard people in India and other countries. But it has now been completely eliminated by destroying the malaria carrying mosquitoes with the use of pesticides.
Surgery too has advanced so much today. The vital organs of human body such as kidney and heart can be transplanted or replaced when worn out. The growth of hyderabad population has given birth to a great variety of social problems such as unemployment, child labour, wars, competition and harvard school thesis, production of synthetic goods. It has led to urbanization with all its attendant evils. Countries with growing population and relatively limited resources have an help on a essay incentive to business school imperialism and to militarism. These attitudes in dissertation bac francais, turn, encourage a further increase of population. Increase in population threatens the standards of living and thus inspires a change of attitude. Due to business unprecedented growth of population in the 19th century, the practice of fear history a review essay birth control took a new development. This practice (use of contraceptive), in turn, had many repercussions on school thesis family relationships and even on attitudes towards marriage. With a change in population, there is also a change in a pattern of ‘consumption’. Societies having large number of help on a essay children are required to spend relatively large amounts of money on food and education.
On the other hand, societies with large proportions of elderly people have to spend relatively more amount on medical care. In some cases, population changes may initiate pressures to change political institutions. For example, changes in the age, sex or ethnic composition of a people of then complicates the political process of country. Besides, there is a close relationship between the growth of harvard school population and the level of physical health and vitality of the people. Because there are many mouths to feed, none gets enough nutritious food to eat, as a result chronic malnutrition and associated diseases become prevalent. These, induce physical incompetence, apathy and lack of help on a essay enterprise. Due to these people’s low level of physical well-being, they are socially backward and unprogressive. They show their indifference to improve their material welfare. An underfed, disease-ridden people are lethargic people. Moreover, if the growth of population is checked, it would mean a higher standard of living, the school, emancipation of women from child-bearing drudgery, better care for the young and consequently a better society. Demographers have shown that variation in the density of population also affects nature of our social relationship.
In a low population density area, the people are said to exhibit a greater degree of primary relationship whereas in the area of high density of population, the relationship between people is said to superficial and secondary. In the opinion of Worth, high density areas witness the growth of mental stress and dissertation bac francais, loneliness of life. The importance of demography as a factor of social change has been realised by harvard business various sociologists and economists. An eminent French sociologist, Emile Durkheim, went on to the extent of developing a new branch of sociology dealing with population which he called “Social Morphology” which not only fear history, analyses the size and quality of population but also examine how population affects the school, quality of social relationships and social groups. Durkheim has pointed out that our modern societies are not only characterised by increasing division of labour but also specialisation of function. The increasing division of labour and specialization of function have a direct correlation with the increasing density of population. He stresses on the fact that in a simple society with comparatively lesser number of people, the necessity of complex division of fear and contemporary history a review essay labour is less felt. This society, according to Durkheim, is based on “mechanical solidarity”. But as the groups grow in business, size and complexity with the increase in population, the “services of the experts” are more required. The society, according to him, moves towards “organic solidarity”. There is, so to say, a drift from mechanical to organic solidarity.
M. David Heer, in his book “Society and help on a essay, Population”, has developed a “theory of school demographic transition”. The theory was popularised just after the end of World War-II. It has provided a comprehensive explanation of the effects of economic development both on fertility and mortality decline. Schneidar and Dornbusch, in essay, their book “Popular Religion”, have pointed that decline in mortality rate evokes several changes in social structure. They have stressed on the point that due to harvard decline in mortality rate in USA since 1875, negative attitude towards religious beliefs have been cultivated by help on a essay the people. They also point out that in a society wherein children die before reaching the age of five, parents may not develop a strong emotional attachment to business school thesis their children and also in and contemporary history, a high mortality society, arranged marriages are common, but in a low mortality society love marriages become the dominant feature. Again when mortality rate is high, individual tends to have a weaker orientation towards the future and stronger orientation towards the present. Thomas Robert Malthus, an English cleargyman, mathematician and economist, was one of the earliest demographers. In his work, “An Essay on the Principles of Population”, published in 1978, he mentioned that under normal conditions, population would grow by geometrical progression, whereas the means of subsistence would grow by arithmetical progression. The imbalance or lag or gap between the two would create a lot of business thesis problems for society.
That is a review, why, Malthus has pleaded for two types of checks which can keep the population down. He spoke of hunger and disease as positive check, and late marriage and enforced celibacy as the preventive check. From the above analysis, we find that demographic factor has been contributing to the great transformations in society’s socioeconomic and political structure throughout human history. Harvard School? For example, most countries in Asia where more than half world population is now living, is easy book reports, characterised by high birth rate. These countries in general and Indian society in particular, are passing through a critical period of great poverty, unemployment and moral degeneration.
The gap between the living standards of harvard school thesis general masses of these countries and that of the developed countries is widening. Help On A Essay? The gap is cruelly frustrating the third world country’s hopes for development. With the current rate of harvard thesis population increase, it is essay tickets, expected that the business thesis, total requirements for future health, education, housing and a family member, many other welfare needs are bound to harvard business school thesis increase. This will certainly bring the drastic changes not only in the microstructures, but also in movie hyderabad, macrostructures of harvard business school Indian society. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.
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