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Philo: fiche technique 2 - faire une introduction - Lyce Ren Cassin
Argumentative Essay on Immigration. Illegal immigration has been a problem for the United States for a long time. Pour! This phenomena is not new and personal statement for uc, thousands of illegal immigrants have come into US through either the Mexico border, the Pacific Ocean, or through many other ways. Some people have entered the country legally through a visit visa, but then have stayed illegally and are working in various places. Illegal immigration is a double edged sword; on the one hand it provide the local economy with cost benefits as the illegal immigrants are not paid so much, while they are more productive. On the other hand, these illegal immigrants do not pay taxes and their employers also do not pay their taxes. There are both pros and cons of illegal immigration and introduction une dissertation en philosophie, this paper shall take a look at some facts pertinent to illegal immigration in the United States. “Every day thousands of illegals stream across the personal statement for uc, 2,500 miles of introduction pour une dissertation en philosophie, border with Mexico. According to the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service, or INS, the total number of illegals in writing process, America from this source increases by 275,000 annually. Introduction Pour Une Dissertation! Already the United States is host to an illegal population of fiction writing, 7 to 12 million, of introduction une dissertation en philosophie, whom the conserving nature, vast majority are Mexican or Hispanic in origin.
These illegal and introduction une dissertation, uninvited guests help themselves to jobs, education, welfare and unemployment compensation. The many whose wages are paid under the purpose, table pay little or no taxes. And they are easy prey for en philosophie, unscrupulous employers and politicians” (Hayes 2000) The U.S. population primarily is growing as a result of births in the minority and immigrant communities. Purpose 2 Dissertation! We do not like to think about it--as it is pour a political correctness problem--but there is stratification of labor, mostly along education lines, where the tough jobs in agriculture, manufacturing, and services are taken by those without recourse into the white-collar world of employment. Especially when these low paying jobs do not require language ability, immigrants historically have jumped at these opportunities as a way to fiction, get their foot in the door. The U.S.-born unemployed do not think first about having just any job to introduction une dissertation en philosophie, help plant their feet.
They first think about what their wages will be. If you are here illegally, you clearly have a competitive advantage (Howell 2006). Most of the Americans and the American officials are of the opinion that illegal immigration is bad for the country and conserving essay, it should be stopped completely. The Immigration Reform and pour, Control Act (IRCA) is fiction writing a law in en philosophie, the United States of America that pertains to the policies and regulations regarding employment. This law was enacted in 1986 for various reasons, which includes the fact that many illegal employees work in the United States.
The two main requirements of the IRCA include: “(1) to hire only persons authorized to work in the United States and (2) to not discriminate on the basis of citizenship status or national origin” (LMD 1992). In order to be eligible to work in list of business plans, the United States, the workers must complete an I-9 form and must be able to prove their authorization to introduction pour en philosophie, work in fiction, the United States to pour en philosophie, their employers. “Employers may not refuse to consider all qualified persons with work authorization, whether citizen or non-citizen. Employers must accept any document listed in the INS Handbook for Employers, and may not arbitrarily specify an INS document, or require additional documents. Employers may not refuse to of business plans, hire a qualified worker whose employment authorization expires at a later date. IRCA imposes back pay and severe penalties on employers who commit immigration-related employment discrimination” (LMD 1992).
I am for this immigration reform as I believe that illegal employment is a drain on the economy of the United States. There are more than 10 million undocumented workers (excluding their families) in the United States (White). Most of these illegal workers are concentrated in California and Texas, although their presence can be felt all over introduction en philosophie, the country. About three quarters of these illegal immigrants come to the United States after crossing the US/Mexico border. Many of these illegal immigrants are hired by US employers as undocumented workers and this is done because they can be hired at a pay less than minimum wage. Most of these workers are hired to work in the agricultural, manufacturing, and construction industries, or in backroom jobs.
These workers are not given any kind of health care or any other benefits (White). Personal Statement! These jobs are mostly opened illegally by US employers in order to save up on taxes and also save up on their costs by paying the workers less than minimum wage. It is for this reason that I believe it important for une dissertation, the immigration reform to essay, be in place as it makes it harder for introduction une dissertation, the employers to cheat the government out of the taxes etc. One other benefit that can be derived from the IRCA is that of the personal statement, social costs related with illegal immigration into introduction une dissertation en philosophie, the United States. When the illegal immigrants enter America, they do so without any papers or any authorization. This means that there is no record of where they come from or what sort of a background they have.
They might be infected with a hundred diseases, such as polio, tuberculosis, etc. These diseases can spread and cause a lot of problems for for uc, the American citizens. Other than that, there are more costs that are added for pour en philosophie, a state as it has to pay for the education etc for these illegal immigrants. “In an already under funded programs they give these services a more heavy burden to deal with. Republicans have reached agreement among themselves on conserving nature, legislation designed to en philosophie, combat illegal immigration (Carney 1996). But with their package facing delaying tactics from Senate Democrats and paper, a veto from the pour, president, they finished the week of Sept. 2 uncertain of their next move” (Website). It would be useful to consider the downside of implementing strict immigration laws. If the labor market were not being filled by illegal immigrants crossing the Mexican border, these positions would have to be filled by someone else.
If we were to writing, bring more agricultural and service workers into the U.S. through a regularized process, the resulting body of en philosophie, immigrants would be less Mexican and more Arab, Muslim, South Asian, and African. Nature Essay! For those who want an idea of how this would impact American society, take a look at Europe. This is an issue of culture, language, and introduction pour une dissertation en philosophie, religion. Author Samuel Huntington (Who Are We?) and others have argued that Mexican culture is not readily compatible with the Anglo-Protestant culture under which the U.S. Purpose! has prospered. This may be true. but it certainly is more compatible than Iraqi culture (Howell 2006). If the Mexicans were not coming in illegally, we would have to process--and keep track of--all of them. What would the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Service (USCIS, the successor agency to the Immigration and Naturalization service under the new Department of Homeland Security) have to look like to process the une dissertation en philosophie, 500 workers who are sneaking into the country illegally on a daily basis? What would it cost?
There roughly are 11,000,000,000 illegal immigrants in the U.S. By any process other than deporting them all, there will be a substantial increase in the size of the government agencies designed to monitor them (Howell 2006). By making such an issue of illegal immigrants from Mexico, we are discouraging all immigrants about life in the U.S., including those that we need desperately. The issue is plugging up the immigration system for applicants who have math and science skills. Many claim that the education system is being overburdened by plans, the children of illegal immigrants.
Yet, such skills have not--at least over the last 20 years--been produced by that same system, forcing us to import our technological capability from pour en philosophie India, East Asia, and elsewhere (Howell 2006). One might argue that the immigrants are people after all and that they should not be discriminated against even if they come illegally into the country. A lot of science fiction, public controversy has been sparked on the discourse of affirmative action, which is about the pour en philosophie, discrimination of the immigrants in the workplace. This started as a period of science technology essays, “passionate debate that began around 1972 and tapered off after 1980, and the second indicating a resurgence of debate in the 1990s leading up to the Supreme Court's decision in the summer of 2003 upholding certain kinds of affirmative action” (Fullinwider 2005). Other than this, there have been two paths that the development, defense, and contestation of preferential affirmative action have taken. Introduction En Philosophie! “One has been legal and list, administrative as courts, legislatures, and executive departments of government have made and applied rules requiring affirmative action. The other has been the une dissertation en philosophie, path of public debate, where the practice of personal for uc, preferential treatment has spawned a vast literature, pro introduction une dissertation, and con” (Fullinwider 2005).
Many people argue that the personal for uc, immigrants are usually skilled labor and en philosophie, they help increase the local production of the United States. Others also argue that when the businesses pay them lower than minimum wage, their costs go down, which means that the costs of production as well as the prices goes down, and these help the citizens of the United States. It is also argued that the purpose 2 dissertation, immigrants tend to send their US dollars outside America to their families, and this strengthens the value of the dollar, making it more valuable, thereby making the economy of US stronger. Yet, we find that these benefits are far outweighed by the costs that the illegal immigrants bear on the US. Many immigrants have felt that they are being discriminated against in the workplace for one or more of the various kinds of discriminatory practices that occur within various organizations. Pour Une Dissertation! Many of these employees are women who believe that they have been discriminated based on their sex.
The Revised Order of 1972 affected a change that included women among the chapter, “protected classes” whose “underutilization” demanded the setting of une dissertation en philosophie, “goals” and “timetables” for “full utilization” (Graham 1990). There are some theories that are presented in Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of list of business, 1964 that pertain to discrimination in introduction une dissertation, employment, even if the employee is an illegal immigrant. The IRCA changes all that. An illegal immigrant cannot be considered an employee under the IRCA, which automatically takes care of the discrimination problem. Paper Writing! It can be concluded that the immigration reforms are a good practice for both the immigrants, and more importantly, for the US. The illegal immigrants pose many problems for our country and they should not be allowed to enter in the first place. But since it is very hard to implement total security, steps should be taken to reduce the pour une dissertation en philosophie, illegal immigrant inflow into our country and the first step is to implement immigration reform. Much of what these people earn in conserving nature essay, the US is sent to their homes in their own countries and introduction pour, the US economy is deprived of their taxes. Research! By staying in the US, they are spending each second doing an illegal act as just their presence inside the US borders is an illegal act.
Many people tend to think that eradicating illegal immigration is introduction une dissertation en philosophie impossible and that it can never work. This is not true. Illegal immigration can be repealed if the government takes the proper measures. While there is no painless magic answer, illegal migration can be significantly reduced with a few effective measures. Some of those measures require money; some require political will; many can be accomplished by the President without new legislation. Adopted as part of a comprehensive approach, these measures will be effective. Adopted selectively, they will fail.
As a first step, however, current law and regulations must be clarified. Employers are caught between competing legal mandates when hiring non-citizens; aliens with only a tenuous claim to presence in the U.S. Writing! remain here for years under the color of law; and some government officials do not know whether they are obliged to report information to or withhold it from the INS. Congress and the regulators must simplify legal requirements so that the average person, citizen or alien, can know what the rules are (Lempres 1994). Interdiction can be effective because of the introduction pour en philosophie, nature of the research paper writing process, flow of illegal migration. Une Dissertation! Over 95 per cent of illegal border crossers come through Mexico, where the terrain funnels traffic into several crossing points. List Plans! By far the busiest crossing point in the nearly 6,000 miles of land border is the 13 miles near San Diego. Over 40 per en philosophie, cent of the Border Patrol's total interdictions occur in that 13-mile strip of science technology, land.
Moreover, the Border Patrol estimates that over 90 per une dissertation, cent of its total apprehensions occur in just 100 miles of border segments. The concentration of illegal traffic means that interdiction efforts can be focused for greater effectiveness. Physical structures such as lights, fences, and anti-automobile barriers can be placed along the high-traffic crossing points. Without new legislation, the Administration can build these structures and science, add Border Patrol officers at introduction en philosophie, the hot spots (Lempres 1994). Other than that, there has been a lot of prosecutions regarding illegal immigration over the past few years. But the government is not merely prosecuting illegal immigrants for immigration offenses; it is reinvigorating its investigation and personal statement for uc, prosecutorial efforts against corporate America as well. Various corporate scenarios in the United States show that corporate America currently faces in confronting federal prosecutions. Congress first deputized corporate America into introduction pour une dissertation en philosophie, controlling the flow of illegal immigration at our nation's borders in 1986--by making it illegal for employers to knowingly hire, or knowingly retain after hiring, illegal immigrants, as well as to fail to comply with the employment verification requirements--and then subjecting employers to stiff civil and criminal penalties for noncompliance. Congress further deputized corporate America in 1996, and subjected corporate America to even higher financial stakes, when it made certain immigration offenses predicate offenses in RICO, and thereby opened the doors to suits from plaintiffs' lawyers for treble damages for having knowingly hired at least ten undocumented workers in a twelve-month period. Nature! Given the introduction une dissertation en philosophie, increasingly high stakes for employers, it is imperative that they expend the resources now to take the preventive measures outlined in personal statement, this article.
To do less will only perpetuate exposure to unnecessary and costly risk (Ciobanu and Green 2006). Carney, Dan, (1996). Social Policy Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, 54, (36): 2531. Ciobanu, Ileana M. and Thomas C. Green. (2006). “Deputizing - and Then Prosecuting - America's Businesses in the Fight against Illegal Immigration,” American Criminal Law Review, 43, (3): 1203+. Fullinwider, Robert, (2005). “Affirmative Action”, The Stanford Encyclopedia of introduction pour une dissertation, Philosophy (Spring 2005 Edition), Edward N. Paper! Zalta (ed.), http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2005/entries/affirmative-action/ Graham, Hugh Davis, (1990), The Civil Rights Era: Origins and Development of National Policy 1960-1972 (New York: Oxford University Press): 413.
Hayes, Ted, (September 25, 2000 ). Introduction Pour Une Dissertation En Philosophie! “Illegal Immigration Threatens U.S. List Plans! Sovereignty, Economy and Culture,” Insight on the News, 16, (36): 46. Howell, Llewellyn d. (July 2006). “Ironies of introduction en philosophie, Illegal Immigration,” USA Today, 135, (2734): 19. Lempres, Michael T. (1994). “Getting Serious about Illegal Immigration,” National Review, 46, (3): 52+ LMD, (Summer 1992). “How to Avoid Immigration-Related Employment Discrimination,” Labor Management Decisions, 2, (2)
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Philo: fiche technique 2 - faire une introduction - Lyce Ren Cassin
Songs and Rhymes in Teaching English at introduction pour en philosophie Primary Schools. Term Paper (Advanced seminar) 2001 20 Pages. 2. The importance of using songs and rhymes in teaching Englis. 2.1. Fiction. Familiar way for en philosophie language acquisition. 2.2. The holistic approach. 2.3.
Motivation by research writing songs and rhymes. 2.4. Provision of une dissertation en philosophie meaningful vocabulary. 2.5. Support for phonetic development. 2.6. List Plans. The cultural aspect. 3. How to teach songs and pour une dissertation en philosophie, rhymes. 3.1. Guidelines for teaching rhymes and chants. 3.2.
Guidelines for teaching song. 4. List Of Business. Types of songs and rhymes. 4.1. Types of songs. 4.2. Types of rhymes. 5. Pour Une Dissertation En Philosophie. Exploiting songs and rhymes. 5.1. Song or rhyme pictures. 5.2. Find the word. 5.3. Mixed-up lines or words. 5.4. Song and rhyme contest.
1. Examples for types of songs. 2. Examples for types of rhymes. Poetry and music are elements of each human society. They show many aspects of its culture - the technology and society relationship to the past and the ancestors, the faith, the fun and the anxieties of its people, the hopes and introduction pour une dissertation, the view of the science writing future. Music and poetry have immanent powers, for example they give people energy who had none before or they can change people’s mood. They occur in all phases of one’s life from birth to death. So they play an important role in the process of learning and using the mother tongue.
Music and poetry are also an essential part of foreign language learning for young learners (see Phillips 1993: 100). In this paper we describe the importance of une dissertation using songs and rhymes in teaching English as a foreign language in the primary school. Beside these theoretical points we give practical advices how to teach songs and rhymes. Statement For Uc. After a classification we describe some possibilities to exploit songs and rhymes in lessons and say something about possible problems with using these language forms. There are a lot of en philosophie song and conserving nature, rhyme collections in public libraries or in our personal ones. Therefore we do not work out another collection but list only a few that we tried out in our lessons and which are appended to this paper.
2. The importance of introduction en philosophie using songs and list of business, rhymes in teaching English. There are many reasons for introduction en philosophie using songs and rhymes in teaching English as a foreign language in primary schools. Naturally, “children really enjoy learning and singing songs” (Phillips 1993: 100) and have fun doing rhythmic activities while reciting rhymes. But there are deeper psychological, cultural and linguistic aspects. 2.1. A familiar way of language acquisition. Children grow up with songs and rhymes and develop their first language by fiction them. En Philosophie. Apart from being the most important spoken language, songs and rhymes are the first experienced parts of communication in the children’s mother tongue.
They listen and react to nursery rhymes and finger games spoken and often acted by their parents. They go to sleep with lullabies sung by their closest care-givers or try to imitate little songs by science babbling. Introduction. So songs and rhymes give them an nature, intimate feeling, a special connection with their human environment and influence the acquisition of their first language in an important way. Analogous to the development of the mother tongue, the following points also support foreign language acquisition : - music, rhythm and rhymes produce a positive live feeling. - they motivate to learn and to be active. - children do not understand all words but do not feel inhibited. - rhythm supports vocabulary and introduction, structure learning. Songs and rhymes are both means and content of foreign language acquisition.
There is no gap between the language used in lessons and that used in for uc real-life situations. Each understanding and each reacting are progresses in language learning. Songs and rhymes stimulate the hemispherical interaction. Busy with songs and rhymes the left hemisphere (vocabulary, structure of the language) and the right hemisphere (rhythm, feelings, mimic, gesture, senso-motoric etc.) work together and make learning more effective. So it is small wonder how quick students are at introduction pour en philosophie learning songs and rhymes. The holistic approach also means that rhymes and songs are connected with other learning and living areas like sport, literature, music and art. 2.3. Motivation by songs and rhymes.
Pupils’ motivation to conserving nature, learn “largely depends on the teaching methods and the teacher’s personality” (seminar script from 24/04/01: 2). If the teacher skillfully uses songs and rhymes the pour pupils usually are highly motivated. Songs and rhymes are relaxing, they vary the lesson’s progress, they provide fun and action “and encourage harmony within oneself and within a group” (Murphey 1992: 8). So the science pupils are learning with fun and more effectively than without these forms. Even shy or slow learning children are given encouragment by singing or speaking in choir and so they feel able to speak in a foreign language. 2.4. Provision of meaningful vocabulary. Songs and pour en philosophie, rhymes present a lot of linguistic material in a natural linguistic context . So they support the monolingual and contextual approach in teaching a foreign language. Words in songs and rhymes are meaningful to the learner, which influences the acquisition in conserving essay a positive way. Introduction En Philosophie. “In general they use simple conversational language with a lot of repetition” (Murphey 1992: 7). Therefore songs and rhymes stick in the learner’s mind and the words and expressions used are memorized more easily.
Besides, songs and rhymes provide many possibilities for constant repetition and revising as important mechanisms of the language acquisition. 2.5. Support for phonetic development. “Poems, rhymes, chants and songs could be used to give a feeling for the rhythm of the list of business plans spoken language. Introduction. Many well-known rhymes make use of the iambic pentameter, the technology and society essays natural rhythm of the English language” (Straeter-Lietz 1999: 9).
Practising intonation through reciting rhymes and poems is mostly funny and very effective. To vary the sometimes boring pronunciation teaching it is a proven remedy using rhymes and rhythmic chants, e.g. with minimal pairs. Songs and introduction pour, Poems are important elements of each culture. Learning this authentic material pupils get to know parts of a foreign culture. It satisfies children’s natural curiosity about technology and society essays, everything new. Being familiar with songs and rhymes in a foreign language pupils feel closer to the foreign culture and its language. If the pupils hear the introduction une dissertation same melodies or similar rhymes they are astonished at the parallels between their own culture and the foreign one. So the foreign cultures aren’t alarming and frightening but interesting and worth being discovered. It’s an personal for uc, important contribution to the development of tolerance and open-mindedness. The following guidelines are not meant to be dogmas.
According to the specific situations they could be varied by the teacher. 3.1. Guidelines for teaching rhymes and chants. For presentation rhymes or chants should be played from a CD or spoken by introduction pour the teacher and the actions should be demonstrated. Then the teacher should check if the students understood the content. It is not necessary to translate word by word but the conserving nature students should know what the rhyme or chant means.
This step can be supported by visual aids. Now the students learn the text step by step. In the literature are to be found two tried and tested methods: the introduction pour une dissertation snowball principle and the echo principle . The snowball principle means that the teacher says a sequence becoming longer and longer. Science Fiction. After each saying the students repeat that sequence in introduction une dissertation en philosophie chorus. For example (from Here we go round the mulberry bush ) Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten. The echo principle (see Schmid-Schonbein 2001: 120, 121) means that the students as a group imagine they are an echo in a mountain wood, a valley etc. The teacher shouts a sequence and the students repeat the teachers sequence. It is expedient to build up a longer structure from its end. Research Paper Writing. For example (from The wheels of the bus ) Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten. Both methods can also be supported by introduction pour en philosophie visual aids. Nature. If there are any actions they should be done by the students while learning the text because it is easier to learn them together.
Longer texts can be learned verse by verse in the following lessons. Pour. Now the children say the whole rhyme in chorus, in groups or alone and do the actions. The order and the way of teaching songs is similar to teaching rhymes and chants. At first the song should be sung by the teacher or played from a CD once or twice while the conserving nature essay students only listen. Une Dissertation En Philosophie. They begin to 2 dissertation, understand and to absorb the tune and the rhythm. During the next playing or singing the students can clap the rhythm or hum the tune. Before learning the text step by step (see 3.1.) the teacher should check the understanding and explain the une dissertation words the children did not understand. Then the students sing the song several times, at first supported by the teacher’s voice, later without the teacher’s support. There are a lot of statement different types of song and introduction pour une dissertation, rhyme with special characteristics. But not all are useful for primary school students. The teacher has to check the suitability according to chapter 2 dissertation, the size of the text, the vocabulary, the structure and his didactic intention.
The following types of songs and rhymes are each linked with an example of which the texts are to be found in the appendix. Finger play songs. The content of these songs can be illustrated by the children’s finger movement. They support the pour une dissertation acquisition of gesture meaning and the use of nonverbal expressions. Nature Essay. They also develop the children’s senso-motoric abilities. Pour Une Dissertation. Example: Hickory dickory dock. These songs support the learning of conserving nature essay numbers and are often connected with using fingers. Une Dissertation En Philosophie. Most of them train the numbers from list of business, one to ten. Example: Ten little Indians. They are useful to train the sounds of the introduction pour en philosophie English alphabet. The separate letters mostly sound different from their pronunciation in words.
Therefore the pupils need help for learning the individual letter sound. Example: Farmer Brown has got a dog. The biggest group of songs aims at associating words with movements of their body. They also “internalize the sounds and rhythms of English, … develop a sense of science rhythm [and] … give the children a chance ‘to let off steam’.” (Phillips 1993: 101) Example: If you ’ re happy. Songs for special occasions. These songs are suitable for deepening the introduction une dissertation special vocabulary and for celebrating these occasions in science writing the school. They emphasize the cultural aspect of songs. Example: Black and gold (for Halloween) Spirituals are religious songs. They are connected with the Christian culture and. often very traditional.
Singing simple spirituals the children enjoy the sound and introduction une dissertation en philosophie, the special rhythm of gospels. Example: Kumbaya, my Lord. These songs train the children’s concentration. They are often combined with actions instead of the dropped words. Drop-a-word songs “encourage internalisation of language” (Murphey 1992: 130).
Example: My hat it has three corners. This type of song “contextualize vocabulary and make the transfer from singing to meaningful referents.” (Murphey 1992: 129) They use the children’s love for writing stories and introduction, role playing. Example: There was a princess long ago. Many songs support the acquisition of vocabulary according to a special topic like “The days of the week”, “The weather” or “The family”. If they do not fit in nature with other categories they are called “topic songs”. Example: Look outside (for the topic “The weather”)
Rhymes are taught “to practise the sounds, rhythms and stress patterns of English and in some cases to pour, practise a structure” (Phillips 1993: 108). The didactic background of some types of rhymes is similar to the types of science and society songs described. Above therefore we list the types of rhymes without detailed descriptions unless there is not a corresponding type of songs. Finger play rhymes. Example: Incy Wincy Spider. Example: One two - I see you. Choosing rhymes (counting-out rhymes) Sometimes a little trick is necessary to choose one from among the children without causing a squabble. Introduction Une Dissertation En Philosophie. Choosing rhymes are very useful for that. Purpose Chapter. They connect random selection with rhythmic speaking and train the vocabulary. Example: Apples, peaches.
Example: Jumping Jack. Jump rope rhymes. The children like rope skipping. This rhythmic activity is often connected with these simple poems. Jump rope rhymes support the acquisition of en philosophie numbers or simple sentence structures.
Example: Bread and butter. Rhymes for special occasions Example: Hey-ho for personal statement Halloween. The reciting of these very rhythmic rhymes is supported by hand clapping. Each clapping rhyme has its own pattern how to clap hands with a partner standing opposite. Introduction Pour En Philosophie. These rhymes support the development of fiction a feeling for rhythm for the language and, moreover, they train the right pronunciation of vocabulary. Example: A sailor went to sea, sea, sea.
Ball bouncing rhymes. They train the feeling for rhythm and the concentration both on reciting and ball bouncing. Example: Number one, touch your tongue. Example: Take a snowball (about the topic “Winter”) “A chant is a like a song without music or a poem with a very marked rhythm.” (Phillips 1993: 100) All types of short rhythmic texts or even word groups are suitable to transfer into a chant. The speaking can be supported by finger snapping, feet stamping or the use of rhythmic instruments. Words or texts spoken as chants are more memorable and motivating than normal speaking.
For instance, minimal pairs can be spoken as chants to introduction une dissertation en philosophie, train the differences between the pronunciation of word pairs. Short dialogues in the form of a chant support the memorization of common expressions and structures. Songs and rhymes can be exploited by other activities after learning and often use. Conserving. The aim is to enjoy the increase of knowledge but also to pour une dissertation, practise listening skills and the vocabulary. The following ideas are taken from Phillips (1993: 112,113). The teacher shows the list plans children pictures that illustrate the content of a song or a rhyme - some with gaps or mistakes. After listening, singing or reciting the children should find the mistakes or complete the pictures.
If a song or a rhyme tells a story, the illustrating pictures could be cut out and mixed. The children listen to the song or rhyme and put the pictures in the right order. It can be done at the blackboard or on a handout. Before playing or singing a song or reciting a rhyme the pour une dissertation teacher asks the children to statement for uc, listen for a certain word. Then they write down the introduction pour number of times this word occurs. To train the fiction writing listening skills another possibility is to sing or recite wrong words in the texts. The children compare with their own knowledge and write down the number of mistakes.
To promote reading skills and knowledge about sentence structure the une dissertation teacher can copy the text from textbooks or other sources, cut it out and technology and society, mix the order of introduction pour une dissertation en philosophie words or lines. Statement. The children listen and put the lines or words in the correct order again. The English teacher organises a contest where the children recite their favourite rhymes or sing their favourite songs. They can perform it alone or in groups. Introduction Pour Une Dissertation En Philosophie. A jury choose the best performer but all children involved should get an science fiction writing, appreciation to keep up their motivation. It is also possible to celebrate a “Day of the English language” where the children can show their knowledge in songs, rhymes and plays. There are no limits for the teacher’s ideas.
Beside the many advantages there are also problems in using songs and une dissertation, rhymes for English teaching. Not all teachers are able to read notes and to work out new songs. Therefore songs should be an personal statement, important element in further vocational teacher training. Besides, the department of education should provide enough money for CDs and appropriate equipment for introduction une dissertation English lessons. A good help for quite unmusical teachers is to transfer new texts into well-known melodies. Some authentic rhymes or songs contain old expressions or dialectal or distorted linguistic material. Therefore teachers should check their collected material for process useful and introduction pour une dissertation en philosophie, suitable content. Songs and rhymes have an nature essay, important function in teaching English as a foreign language in primary schools. Beside games and visual aids they support by une dissertation virtue of their typical characteristics the language acquisition for younger learners. Songs and rhymes combine important didactic claims like the science writing holistic, the monolingual and introduction pour en philosophie, the contextual approach with fun, activity and motivation.
Almost incidentally the research paper writing children become familiar with parts of the foreign culture and pour une dissertation en philosophie, see them as enrichment for their own life. According to the guidelines for teaching songs and rhymes and depending on the concrete situation the teacher can vary the science fiction way of introduction en philosophie teaching these forms. It should not be forgotten to back up the basic vocabulary before introducing a song or rhyme or making sure that the content is understandable. The teacher should provide different possibilities for the students to comprehend the text. The English teacher can choose from among a lot of types of songs and rhymes with special characteristics and personal for uc, different actions. Each teacher should collect useful songs and rhymes on which he can fall back.
If he or she knows the possibilities to exploit these orms the teacher should be able to use songs and rhymes successfully in English lessons. We know from our experience that children love English songs and rhymes. All teachers should see this big advantage and use songs and rhymes as an permanent part of their English lessons not only in pour en philosophie primary school. We as teachers also enjoy singing, dancing and reciting with our children in for uc class because it gives us the chance to influence the children’s development in a positive way and to intensify relationship to pour une dissertation, our children. Gompf, G. Fromm, R. Writing. (1991): Here we go Teil 1, Lehrerhandbuch . Leipzig, Stuttgart, Munchen: Ernst Klett Verlag. Lehmann, H. (1998): „We sing and play I II” in Grundschulunterricht 1/1998 4/1998 . Berlin: Cornelsen Verlag. Murphey, T. (1992): Music and introduction pour une dissertation, Song . Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Phillips, S. (1993): Young Learners . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Piepho, H.-E. Personal For Uc. (1998): “Was soll im Fremdsprachenunterricht erfolgreich vermittelt werden?” in Fremdsprachenfr u hbeginn 1/1998 : 5 -10.Berlin. Schmid-Schonbein, G. (2001). Didaktik: Grundschulenglisch . Introduction En Philosophie. Berlin: Cornelsen Verlag. Straeter-Lietz, C. (1999). „First experiences“ in Fremdsprachenfr u hbeginn 5/1999 : 8 - 12. Munchen.
Bumblebee 3 4, Lehrerhandbuch . Purpose Chapter 2 Dissertation. Hannover: Schroedel Verlag. Fun Action 1, Arbeitsheft . Leipzig, Stuttgart, Dusseldorf: Ernst Klett Grundschulverlag. Kooky 1 2, Lehrerhandbuch . Berlin: Cornelsen Verlag. 1. Examples for en philosophie types of songs. Finger play songs: Hickory dickory dock Hickory, dickory, dock, The mouse ran up the clock. The clock struck one (in the next verses two, three …), The mouse ran down, Hickory, dickory, dock. While singing the song the fingers of the right hand play the mouse on the left arm.
When the clock struck, the children clap the number of strikes and count. Counting songs: Ten little Indians. One little, two, little, three little Indians. For little, five little, six little Indians. Seven little, eight little, nine little Indians, Ten little Indian boys (in the second verse - girls). While singing the song the children show the numbers with their fingers. Spelling songs: Farmer Brown has got a dog.
Farmer Brown has got a dog and Rover is his name, sir. Farmer Brown has got a dog and Rover is his name. R-O-V-E-R, R-O-V-E-R, R-O-V-E-R, and Rover is his name. Instead of “dog” and “Rover” in the next verses stand: cat - Pussy - P-U-S-S-Y. Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten. Action songs: If you ’ re happy. 1. If you’re happy and you know it, clap your hands. If you’re happy and you know it, clap your hands. Research Process. If you’re happy and you know it and you really want to show it, If you’re happy and introduction en philosophie, you know it, clap your hands.
2. If you’re happy and you know it, stamp your feet… 3. If you’re happy and you know it, sing a song, tra-la- la… 4. If you’re happy and you know it, shout “HOORAY”… 5. Science. If you’re happy and pour une dissertation en philosophie, you know it, do it all: clap your hands, stamp your feet, sing a song, shout. Songs for special occasions: Black and gold. 1. Black and gold, black and gold. It’s Halloween tonight. Personal Statement For Uc. Black and gold, black and gold. It’s Halloween tonight. Brooms and cats and pitch-black hats and a pitch-black night. Brooms and cats and pitch-black hats and a pitch-black night.
Spirituals: Kumbaya, my Lord. Kumbaya, my Lord, kumbaya. Kumbaya, my Lord, kumbaya. Kumbaya, my Lord, kumbaya, oh, Lord, kumbaya. Drop-a-word songs: My hat it has three corners. Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten. Role-play songs: There was a princess long ago. 1. There was a Princess long ago, long ago, long ago There was a Princess long ago, long long ago. 2. And she lived in a big high tower, a big high tower, a big high tower, And she lived in a big high tower, long long ago.
3. A wicked fairy waved her wand, waved her wand, waved her wand, A wicked fairy waved her wand, long long ago. 4. The Princess slept for a hundred years, a hundred years, a h. y., The Princess slept for a hundred years, long long ago. 5. A great big forest grew around, grew around, grew around, A great big forest grew around, long long ago. 6. A handsome Prince came riding by, riding by, riding by, A handsome Prince came riding by, long long ago. 7. He chopped the introduction pour une dissertation en philosophie trees down one by one, one by one, one by one, He chopped the trees down one by one, long long ago. 8. He woke the Princess with a kiss, with a kiss, with a kiss, He woke the personal for uc Princess with a kiss, long long ago. 9. So everybody’s happy now, happy now, happy now, So everybody’s happy now long long ago. Topic songs: Look outside Look outside, look outside, it’s sunny out today. It’s sunny outside, it’s sunny outside, it’s sunny out une dissertation en philosophie today. According to the real weather can be sung instead of “sunny”: cloudy windy rainy foggy snowy.
2. Examples for types of rhymes. Finger play rhymes: Incy Wincy Spider. Incy Wincy Spider climbed up a water spout. Down came the rain and washed the spider out. Out came the sunshine and dried up all the purpose rain. Introduction Pour En Philosophie. And Incy Wincy Spider climbed up the spout again.
While saying the rhyme the fingers play the spider, an arm is the water spout. The fingers show the rain. The sun is shown by a big arm wave. Counting rhymes: One two - I see you. Abbildung in list of business plans dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten.
Choosing rhymes: Apples, peaches. Apples, peaches, pears and plums, Tell me when your birthday comes! While saying a game leader point at a child at each syllable. The last child tells its month of birth, e.g. “March” The next children say the month beginning from January. January, February, March. The last child is the chosen one.
Action rhymes: Jumping Jack. Jumping Jack, jumping Jack, Clap your hands - clap, clap, clap. While saying this rhyme the children jump like a jumping Jack. Jump rope rhymes: Bread and butter. Bread and butter, sugar and spice, How many boys/girls think I’m nice? Now the jumping child or others count the jumps. Rhymes for special occasions: Hey-ho for Halloween. Hey-ho for introduction une dissertation en philosophie Halloween. All the witches to be seen.
Some black and some green. Hey-ho for Halloween. This rhyme can be spoken like a witch, a ghost, a cat etc. Clapping rhymes: A sailor went to sea, sea, sea. A sailor went to sea, sea, sea, To see what he could see, see, see, But all that he could see, see, see, Was the bottom of the science fiction writing deep blue sea, sea, sea. The children stand in pairs facing each other and clap in time to the rhythm of the words. Ball bouncing rhymes: Number one, touch your tongue. Number one, touch your tongue.
Number two, touch your shoe. Number three, touch your knee. Introduction Pour Une Dissertation En Philosophie. Number four, touch the floor. Number five, learn to fiction, jive. Introduction. Number six, pick up sticks. Number seven, go to personal statement, heaven. Number eight, over the gate Number nine, touch your spine. Number ten - do it again. While saying this rhyme the child bounce its ball and une dissertation, tries to do the described action.
Topic rhymes: Take a snowball. Take a snowball, put it on the ground, push it, roll it, make it big and round. Look, your snowman is research paper process, big and introduction, tall but has no eyes, no nose at all. Two stones will do and science technology and society essays, a carrot, too. Now, Mister Snowman, how are you?
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Writing the A2 Art Personal Study: examples, help and guidance. February 8, 2017 by Amiria Gale. This article has been written for CIE A Level Art students who are working on introduction une dissertation en philosophie their A2 Art Personal Study. It focuses purely on how to write the text of the Study; a previous article outlines how to come up with a good topic; a future article will address the illustrations and presentation methods. The Personal Study is an area of uncertainty for many A Level Art students. It differs from projects that are usually completed within high school Art programmes, as it involves a substantial written component (maximum 3,500 words) – something which can intimidate students, especially if they are unfamiliar with how to list of business critically analyse an artwork, make informed judgements and write personal evaluations. With few examples of quality Personal Studies available, it can be difficult to know what is expected and how to begin. This article aims to ease this uncertainty and to make the Personal Study a more easily understood Component. This is the cover page of an A* Personal Study by Nikau Hindin, exploring the une dissertation, topic: ‘Identity, Consumerism, Popular Culture: How Composition Conveys a Message’.
The project analyses artwork by New Zealand artist Kelsy Taratoa. The Personal Study should be comprised of informed personal views – that is, views that are supported and shaped by an in-depth understanding of the issues discussed. Before starting the project, students should conduct thorough background research, selecting and recording information from research paper process, second-hand sources (such as books, websites and other publications) and first-hand sources (interviews with artists, studio visits / gallery visits etc). Interviews with artists should be planned thoroughly, after preliminary second-hand research has been completed (as findings from research will suggest important issues to discuss with the artist). Students are often uncertain about how to phrase questions, so sample questions have been included below (the exact questions asked will depend on the topic and focus of the study): Please talk me through the process you follow when designing your paintings. Do you work instinctively, directly onto the canvas, or are your works pre-planned, using sketches and photographs? What influences your choice of pour une dissertation, colour? I am interested particularly in the colours used in [insert name of painting/s]. Could you explain your thought process behind the 2 dissertation, use of colour in une dissertation en philosophie, this work, particularly the [give example]?
I notice that your work has been described as [insert relevant comment from second-hand sources]. Do you agree with this statement? How do you respond to this? I notice that [insert an aesthetic feature of their artwork i.e. ‘angular line’ or ‘organic form’] is a dominant feature of your work. Is this strongly connected to the ideas that you are exploring? Have you used these elements deliberately? Can you show me work in progress or semi-complete artwork? I would love to understand the and society, process you go through and how you apply media at different stages. Are there any tips you would give to someone who was attempting to emulate your painting style?
Which artists have influenced your work? In what way has your work been shaped by others people, events or situations? 2. Evaluate and interpret research findings. Conducting research is critical for introduction pour une dissertation en philosophie, creating an excellent Personal Study, however, it should be noted that submitting research on its own will not gain a student any marks. Photocopying, cutting and pasting or transcribing information from and society essays, other sources is not acceptable. Examiners do not want to read long lists of facts or chronological sequences of events.
They do not want long-winded technical processes or the inclusion of broad periods of art history; nor entire interviews with artists (interviews can be submitted as part of an appendix if necessary). Students should not include an extensive artist biography (only brief and relevant details are needed) nor include vast passages of text that have been regurgitated from pour une dissertation en philosophie, other sources. Instead, students must select the information which is relevant and analyse this in detail, evaluating and interpreting findings in relation to the focus of their study . Research should be used to help form intelligent, knowledgeable, personal responses : to explain, justify or support the viewpoints, judgements and conclusions that are presented. Evidence of research might be demonstrated, for example, through the use of carefully chosen quotes (to support or contrast the student’s own ideas) or through the inclusion of technology essays, correct terminology and background knowledge to introduction pour une dissertation en philosophie communicate an in-depth understanding of relevant issues. Evidence might also be indicated photographically, with images depicting first-hand meetings between the student and artist/s. This Personal Study by CIE A2 Level Art and Design student Alice Ham, from ACG Parnell College, shows a cleverly selected quote alongside images by statement New Zealand charcoal artist Liam Gerrard. Alice was awarded full marks (100%) for this component (99% overall for A Level). A carefully composed Personal Study page for 9704 CIE Art and Design.
3. Structure the introduction pour en philosophie, Personal Study in a logical and clear manner. Before writing the Personal Study, students should plan the content, order and structure of conserving nature, their study thoroughly (often in conjunction with planning the layout of their project – this will discussed in more detail in a subsequent post). This should include headings and subheadings of material discussed and introduction pour en philosophie, rough diagrams indicating how this will be supported by images. The proposed structure should then be checked and approved by a teacher, with recommendations and clear guidance given. While the structure of each Personal Study will differ, depending on the topic chosen, every study should follow the basic format outlined below: Introduction . This is where students outline the purpose, focus or mission of their study. This may include question/s they are going to research paper writing answer; themes they are going to explore; issues they hope to address etc. It should set the scene for the project and introduction, may include reasons for selecting a topic and an indication of how / why the plans, topic is introduction une dissertation, of personal relevance or interest to the student. It is important that the intentions of the project are clearly set out in this section, so that the of business plans, remainder of the project can be structured accordingly. Body . This is the main part of the introduction pour en philosophie, Personal Study and will need careful thought.
It is usually organised into separate sections (which may be formal chapters, or simply different areas of research paper writing, a visual study), usually with individual headings and sometimes sub-headings. (I recommend wording headings so that they sum up the material contained – i.e. ‘ Analysis of Composition: [artwork title] ’ rather than ‘ Chapter 3 ’. This means that the examiner is able to see immediately that the student has covered a range of appropriate areas). The sections should be ordered logically and address the une dissertation en philosophie, focus of the project; they should NOT ramble haphazardly from one issue to the next. High school Art students have a tendency to personal statement for uc write without any preconceived order or structure, discussing issues spontaneously as they think of them. While this can be a suitable approach for more creative writing tasks – and can pulled off by certain students – this strategy runs the risk of une dissertation, creating a muddled and incoherent Personal Study. List Plans. Conclusion . Introduction Une Dissertation. This is process, where students summarise key points from the pour, project, arrive at final conclusions and make considered personal judgements about conserving nature essay, what has been learnt. This is one of the concluding paragraphs in a Personal Study by pour une dissertation Nikau Hindin (who achieved 98% for CIE A Level Art while studying at ACG Parnell College), entitled ‘ Identity, Consumerism Popular Culture: How composition conveys a message ‘. Purpose Chapter. The project was focused upon the analysis of artwork by New Zealand artist Kelcy Taratoa, with comparisons made with the work of une dissertation, American artist Bill Barminski: Taratoa’s use of composition helps convey his message concerning identity construction. Science Fiction. The arrangement of elements is symbolic of an unconscious hierarchy within his paintings that forces the viewer to question and analyse them. The contents of the paintings can be identified, as they reflect New Zealand society. Taratoa’s use of introduction en philosophie, colour is vibrant and modern, echoing the purpose chapter 2 dissertation, technological era we live in. Barminski has a more dynamic and humorous approach to introduction conveying his message.
He mocks consumerism with his witty and blunt slogans and replications of consumer products. Science Technology And Society. While these two artists are very different, they both communicate their own attitudes about society. Introduction Pour En Philosophie. Making a political statement through your paintings forces an list of business, audience to engage. Ultimately we want our art to be remembered and admired and I think if the pour, message of a painting is clear then the viewer is more likely to go away and nature, think about pour, it. Paintings are a powerful tool to communicate a meaning that is deeper than the science and society, 2mm of paint on introduction en philosophie a canvas. Paintings are an artist’s voice.
Bibliography / References / Acknowledgements . This should list any resources that students have used in their project, including books, websites, articles and essays, videos. It might also include sources of first-hand information, such as museums, galleries or websites, as well as acknowledgements, thanking the artist for their time. While examiners are sympathetic towards a student whose first language is not English, a similar sympathy does not extend towards those who submit sloppy, poorly edited material. Just as it is expected that a Coursework project should contain beautiful well-composed artwork, a Personal Study is introduction pour en philosophie, expected to contain well-structured, well-edited material. List. Even if a student has chosen to introduction pour produce a largely visual project, submitting a sequence of annotated images, the text should communicate with intention and essay, the writing quality should match that achieved by an A Level English student. Poor grammar, spelling errors and ‘txt’ speak are inexcusable. As with any important written project, drafts should be rewritten and refined several times: chapters re-arranged; paragraphs and annotation reorganised; repetitive material, waffle and unnecessary regurgitation eliminated. Teachers, parents and friends can all be recruited to read through drafts, highlighting spelling errors and identifying areas where the writing is muddled.
While the work must of introduction une dissertation, course remain entirely that of the student, feedback from a fresh set of statement, eyes is invaluable. A Personal Study should include an introduction une dissertation en philosophie, appropriate range of Art related terms and vocabulary. And Society Essays. While the exact words used will be dependent upon the nature and pour une dissertation, focus of the study, there are a number of general Art-specific terms which students should be familiar with (these will be listed, with their definitions, in an upcoming article). Use of appropriate vocabulary helps to fulfil the ‘Knowledge and critical understanding’ assessment criteria. As the chapter, title indicates, a Personal Study must communicate distinctly personal opinions, insights, judgements and introduction une dissertation en philosophie, responses, demonstrating a clear engagement with the artwork studied. This excerpt from an 100% OCR A Level Art Personal Study by Yantra Scott entitled ‘ An investigation into plans gender roles in contemporary art ‘ illustrates this: I first encountered Sarah Lucas whist briskly strolling through the crowded rooms of the Tate.
Amongst oils and finely crafted sculpture my eyes were transfixed in a two-way glare with a slightly butch, totally intense woman, with eggs for t*ts. Ever since then I’ve been hooked. It is en philosophie, evident that Yantra not only visited and viewed artwork in the flesh, but had a strong personal reaction to it. It could never be assumed that this segment had been reworded from a textbook: it is absolutely the words of a passionate high school Art student. Although Yantra uses coarse language within her study (something which should be emulated with caution) this project is an exceptional example of an intelligent and personal response to a topic. (More of Yantra’s work, as well as the 2 dissertation, entire text of her study, can be read in full on the great Julia Stubbs’ website). Similarly, this quote from an 88% OCR A2 Art Personal Study (one of the examples given in the OCR A2 Art Exemplar Work – Personal Study document) shows a personal response integrated within the introduction une dissertation en philosophie, analysis of Damien Hurst’s work, illustrated below. The glass is purpose chapter 2 dissertation, thick, so thick that it is intimidating. It is introduction pour une dissertation en philosophie, as if it is holding something terrible back. It makes you question the formaldehyde and essay, query, what if the tank did break? The formaldehyde is not clear as I expected but is quite strongly coloured by a blue and green pigment.
This colour is very clinical and has the connotations of a hospital… The musings about the tank breaking and introduction pour une dissertation en philosophie, the formaldehyde differing from expectations are clearly the individual thoughts of a high school art student. Some Comfort Gained from the Acceptance of the Inherent Lies in Everything 2006, Damien Hurst. Within the personal, Personal Study, students must demonstrate an understanding of cultural context – an pour une dissertation en philosophie, understanding that an artist does not create work in isolation, but rather creates work that is shaped and influenced by the circumstance/s they finds themselves in. This might mean that discussion of the influence of natural, social, political or cultural environments is appropriate, or that – as is more common – the influence of chapter, other artists is discussed, with comparisons made between artwork that has been created in similar or differing contexts. ‘One night in Mong Kok’ by Akif Hakan Celebi. The excerpt below is from a CIE A Level Art and Design Personal Study by Tirion Jenkins, of YMCA of Hong Kong Christian College. Titled ‘Alternative Fashion Photography’, her Personal Study was awarded Best in Hong Kong (2012) and includes analysis of ‘One night in introduction pour, Mong Kok’ by photographer Akif Hakan Celebi. Research Writing Process. Tirion demonstrates a clear understanding of the interrelationship between a photographer’s work and pour en philosophie, the setting in which it was created. The setting itself creates an intoxicating atmosphere with the rows of fluorescent light bulbs and layers of luminous signs that form an endless maze of gaudy colours.
However, the setting does not overwhelm the two models who draw my eyes despite the signs above them. They create the focal point of the image through the use of the rule of thirds as they are placed off-centre and through their quirky appearance which magnetises the eye towards them. Science And Society. They seem to belong to une dissertation a different world to and society the passersby behind them with their flare of red hair and audacious choice of feathered flittered clothes. Akif has further crafted the image through the use of makeup as their chalk white faces further segregates and emphasises their surreal doll-like appearances. …Akif’s pictures are reminiscent of Japanese cinema which he says he is so influenced by. “I like…its writhed and pour une dissertation en philosophie, crazy stories; I feel very close to that way of science fiction writing, looking at the world.” This photograph is une dissertation, particularly mystical due to the vibrant and decorative bokeh of Hong Kong’s street lights in purpose, the background. The core of the A2 Art Personal Study is the in-depth analysis of pour une dissertation, selected artist works. Some of these artworks must be viewed in person, however it is common (and completely acceptable) for students to essays analyse work from a combination of primary and introduction pour, secondary sources. In the best studies, artworks are chosen specifically to facilitate the technology, discussion of issues which are relevant to the study. The advice in this section is particularly important and should be read closely by students who are hoping to achieve a high grade for their Personal Study. When analysing artwork, it is en philosophie, helpful to analyse the work in terms of composition, format, structure and visual elements (such as shape, line, texture, colour, space, tone) . Students might de-construct an artwork and view it in terms of a single visual element and/or discuss how the visual elements interact, relate, contrast, balance and connect with one another. Descriptions of important terms have been included below to aid this process:
Composition is the placement or organisation of visual elements within an artwork – the way these have been composed, combined or ‘put together’. Composition may be instinctual or the result of elaborate planning (or a combination of both). Science And Society Essays. A ‘compositional device’ is an introduction, aspect of a composition which has a certain effect (such as the use of frames within frames, which might help create a sense of distance or space within an artwork). Format is the overall shape, size and of business plans, orientation (portrait or landscape) of an introduction pour en philosophie, artwork, i.e. whether a work is science writing, painted on a long, horizontal oblong canvas, or upon introduction, a vertically orientated A4 portrait board. Format can be influenced by practical considerations (i.e. the process, nature and shape of the object or scene depicted) as well as being an active decision by the artist to help communicate a particular meaning or idea. The structure of an artwork is the organisation of basic forms within a composition (this will be illustrated in introduction, more detail in the subsequent post focusing on research paper writing process imagery). Lines are a visual element that can direct a viewer’s gaze and pour une dissertation en philosophie, create a visual path. List Plans. These can direct attention to a focal point and une dissertation, create depth through perspective or horizon lines. Different lines can create different effects: hard angular lines provoke a different response than soft, organic lines, for example.
Repetition of lines can create a sense of movement or rhythm. Shape is chapter, a visual element that is created by introduction pour une dissertation the junction of lines or changes in tone: the perceived boundaries of form. Larger shapes can become dominant focal points within an artwork; similar shapes can be repeated to create balance and research, create unity / visual harmony. Shapes can be symbolic, i.e. they can represent more complex forms and carry meaning. As with lines, the types of shapes used can communicate certain feelings – rigorous ordered shapes tend to create a different mood than irregular, free-flowing shapes. Shapes might also be used to introduction pour create borders / frames and boundaries that connect, overlap or intersect, perhaps helping to personal statement draw viewers from the une dissertation, foreground / middle-ground to background. Space – the absence of form – is an conserving essay, often overlooked visual element. Described as being either positive (the space contained within the boundary of an object) or negative (the background space in and around an object), space can determine how busy and cluttered a painting is. Pour. A busy composition can overwhelm a viewer; a simple and sparse composition may appear boring.
Careful integration of space is fundamental to any artwork. Form is a visual element that is usually discussed more easily in relation to three dimensional objects (as three-dimensional forms are usually described within two dimensional works in terms of shape, tone and line). And Society. Colour (or hue) is a visual element that is often discussed in combination with tone(how light or dark a colour appears). Colour can affect the mood of an artwork due to colour associations – i.e. blue might indicate sadness. Tone can help to communicate a sense of distance (items that are further away generally appear lighter – due to ‘atmospheric perspective’). Both tone and colour can be used to create contrast within an artwork, attracting the viewer’s attention and helping to pour en philosophie create focal areas. Writing Process. Alternatively, both tone and colour can be used to create harmonious, peaceful non-contrasting areas. Use of light and shadow or warm and pour en philosophie, cool might also be an important area to list discuss.
Texture can be real (the result of brush strokes, irregularities in materials, and the application of a range of introduction une dissertation en philosophie, materials) or implied…i.e. a surface that is made to looktextured. As with the other visual elements, texture should be integrated so that it balances and becomes an of business, aesthetically pleasing addition to an artwork. Pour Une Dissertation. Surface qualities – along with other detailed areas and intricate patterns – are only list, able to be appreciated fully when viewed in introduction pour une dissertation en philosophie, person. It should be noted here that students should not submit reams of text explaining how certain visual elements affect artworks in general, but rather use this knowledge to write informed analysis about the artworks in question. Here is another example by Nikau Hindin, discussing the use of science technology essays, line in paintings by Kelcy Taratoa.
This text was accompanied by diagrams illustrating the linear elements in the artwork. …Taratoa uses strong angular forms that create diagonal perspective lines. These lines are called ‘leading lines’ and direct us to the focal point of this painting, which is a portrait of Taratoa. They also lead our eyes past him and make us look at introduction une dissertation the background. This helps to list plans convey Taratoa’s message that one’s identity is linked to social circumstance, upbringing (background) and introduction pour une dissertation, popular culture. Street markings form white lines and also draw our attention to the focal point.
Street markings represent paths and therefore they may be paths to finding and constructing ones identity. They create a sense of movement and purpose, highlight the direction one’s eyes should travel within the painting. The street markings in ‘Episode 007’ are curvaceous which creates movement. The curvy lines mirror the organic forms of the introduction pour, superhero’s muscular body, creating a visual link. In ‘Episode 0010’ the repetition of line of the science technology essays, zebra crossing creates a sense of rhythm and leads us to the portrait of Taratoa in the left corner. Pour Une Dissertation En Philosophie. Horizontal lines are repeated in the background of the painting to chapter 2 dissertation unite separate parts of the painting. As well as the introduction pour, aesthetic qualities discussed above, most students also include sections where they analyse artwork in terms of materials, processes, stylistic influences, techniques (use of media) . For some, this is the primary focus of the Personal Study. This might include analysis of the way an conserving nature, artist has applied paint to a canvas (mark-making, brush strokes), the sequence of building up layers of paint over a prepared ground, or the une dissertation, sequence of events involved in creating a graphic design: from conceptual sketches, development of ideas, construction in Photoshop, through to proofing, paper selection and science technology and society, final printing. It might involve discussion about the way a composition is planned and designed and then the various processes that are undertaken in its completion. Une Dissertation En Philosophie. It might include cultural contexts and stylistic influences from other artists.
In any sections of the Personal Study which are dedicated to conserving nature essay process and technique, it is important to note (as mentioned above) that the examiners do not want the regurgitation of long, technical processes, but rather would like to see personal observations about how processes effect and influence the artwork that has been created. In all analysis of artwork, whether this involves discussion of composition, aesthetic qualities, cultural contexts, use of media, or approach to a theme, it is important that students move beyond simple observations and add perceptive, personal insight. For example, if a student notices that colour has been used to create strong contrast in certain areas of an introduction pour une dissertation, artwork, they might follow this with a detailed and thoughtful assumption about why this is the case: for list of business plans, example, perhaps the contrast was created deliberately to draw attention to pour en philosophie a focal point in the artwork, helping the artist to help convey thematic ideas. These personal insights could be backed up by earlier research, confirmed or suggested by the artist, or might be educated assumptions made by nature essay the student, based upon their own responses and personal interaction with the artwork. Some final recommendations are included below: ‘Analysis of introduction pour une dissertation en philosophie, artwork’ does not mean ‘description of chapter 2 dissertation, artwork’ . En Philosophie. Analysis means taking an artwork apart (thinking about it in terms of individual elements, such as line, or colour or technique), analysing these individually and/or in terms of how they relate to one another, and statement, making personal observations and introduction pour en philosophie, judgements, connecting this to the theme or focus of the assignment.
Saying “I like this” or “I don’t like this” without any further explanation or justification is not analysis . Writing should be carefully integrated with the images , so that it is clear which text relates to which images (this will be discussed more in science fiction writing, the subsequent post). Alice Ham, a Year 13 student at ACG Parnell College (awarded 100% for her Personal Study) has produced some excellent analysis of artwork by Liam Gerrard: In most works (the exception usually applies to those done in commission) the focus of the piece is centred, surrounded by empty space and never grounded through shadow or the like. This is another way in which Gerrard plays with commonly held opinions. Typically, a most aesthetically pleasing composition will follow the rule of thirds – a well known ‘rule’ that correlates to the focus of artworks being offset within the composition, and the entire image being visually divided into 3 sections. Liam has little care for this standardised rule, yet his compositions are visually pleasing all the introduction, same.
I believe this could be because of the negative space, there is no overcrowding and it allows the viewer to research writing process focus on introduction en philosophie the subject. I also think this space is list of business plans, played upon in the display of the pour, artwork. Galleries in general will have white or very light coloured walls so as not to distract from what is on science fiction writing display. Introduction Pour En Philosophie. By placing these white canvases on the white walls, hung without obvious framing, the artwork is allowed to ‘flow’ into list of business the viewer’s world, there is no line of separation. This forces the viewer to introduction pour study Gerrard’s pieces, and perhaps consider the personal message they address for science writing, the viewer in everyday life. Analysis of artwork within an A Level Art Personal Study by une dissertation Alice Ham. Some of the text above has been reproduced here to aid ease of reading:
The expression on research the pig’s face is perhaps what would draw the viewer into this picture the most. It directly contradicts the gruesome depiction of decapitation and appears almost to be laughing. This work like most of Gerrard’s others is a single object centred on a stark white background. The amount of empty space in this picture is very eye catching and introduction une dissertation en philosophie, directs the research process, viewer’s vision inwards, there is no chance of distraction by details in a menial part of the work. Once again Gerrard uses charcoal in his personal style, leaving the artwork in black and white. This lack of introduction pour une dissertation, colour is cold, it presents the reality of the grisly scene without the embellishment of list plans, colours. This does not allow the audience to be caught up in what is ‘pretty’ but forces them to take in every details in it’s highly realistic, and perhaps disturbing, state.
The shock factor of this piece is emphasised ten- fold by the sheer size. Introduction. It cannot be realised until you view this piece in reality, but being dwarfed looking up into a pig’s head captured mid laugh brings upon science writing, you a bizarre sense of fascination. 9. Explain the relationship to Coursework (if appropriate) As explained in introduction en philosophie, the previous post about topic selection, it is conserving nature essay, no longer necessary that the Personal Study relate to introduction pour une dissertation a student’s Coursework project. If there is a strong relationship, however, students may wish to include a section in their Personal Study where relevant comparisons are made with their Coursework project. The maximum word count for CIE Art Design Personal Studies is 3,500 words. This is a maximum and personal for uc, fewer words is more than appropriate (especially in primarily visual studies).
If a student is slightly over the word count, this is unlikely to be an issue (it is rare that examiners would know your exact word count, as no-one is likely to count every word in a project from start to finish); however, if a student is significantly over introduction pour, the word limit, this is obvious and a problem, running the risk that the examiners will run out of time (or enthusiasm) to read your project in its entirety. Almost all cases of word count breaches come from plans, students who have attempted to bulk up their study with unnecessary information from une dissertation en philosophie, second-hand sources. 2 Dissertation. If you are encroaching the word limit, you should immediately ensure that you have not included supplementary research material or unnecessary information summarised from textbooks. If you are still battling with the word count and inclusion of material from second-hand sources is not an issue, you should re-edit your project, eliminating waffle, and ensuring you communicate succinctly. I encourage teachers to locate and print the excerpts from Personal Studies that are included in introduction une dissertation en philosophie, the 9704 Standards booklet on the CIE Teachers’ password protected site, which can be downloaded as a PDF document from the A Level Art Design page. This document is invaluable. Finally, we are actively looking for more examples of high achieving Personal Studies to share on the Student Art Guide. If you or someone you know someone who excelled in this Component, please read our submission guidelines for more information. If you found this information helpful, you may wish to read the previous article in this series: How to select a great A2 Art Personal Study Topic or our overview of the chapter, CIE A Level Art: Personal Study. This article was written by Amiria Gale. Amiria has been a teacher of Art Design and a Curriculum Co-ordinator for seven years, responsible for the course design and assessment of Art and Design work in two high-achieving Auckland schools.
Amiria has a Bachelor of Architectural Studies, Bachelor of Architecture (First Class Honours) and a Graduate Diploma of une dissertation, Teaching. She is a CIE Accredited Art Design Coursework Assessor. Nature. Follow Student Art Guide on Pinterest. Join over introduction une dissertation, 15,000 people who receive our free newsletter. You will be notified first when free resources are available: new art project ideas, teaching handouts, printable lesson plans, tips and writing process, advice from experienced teachers.
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100 Easy Causal Analysis Essay Topics. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for pour une dissertation en philosophie over 20 years. Purpose 2 Dissertation. She specializes in introduction une dissertation en philosophie, helping people write essays faster and research writing process, easier. Causal analysis essays answer the question, Why? Many times, answer to this question can't be proved absolutely, so sometimes this essay is called a speculating about causes essay. Une Dissertation. To write it, you will describe what happens and then state your answer (aka thesis) about the cause, providing support for your answer with reasons and evidence. Science Fiction Writing. • Why do people do that? • Why does this happen? • Why is this a trend? • Why does it occur? What causes people to develop phobias?
Why do some people become addicted to gambling when others can gamble and not become addicted? What causes people to rise above a disadvantaged background such as poverty, a single-parent household, or abusive parents? What are the chemical causes of falling in love? What causes feeling of romantic attraction to fade? What causes love at introduction une dissertation en philosophie, first sight? Why do people lose their memories as they get older? Why do people need to sleep? Why do we develop muscle memory for some repetitive actions? Why do people experience nightmares? Why do some marriages last for a lifetime? Why do we have short and research paper writing, long term memory?
Why do people get dyslexia? Why do we respond physically to fear? Why do we yawn (or hiccup, or stretch)? Why can people, who have their eyes closed, sense objects they are approaching but not yet touching? What makes some people introverts and others extroverts? Why is methamphetamine so addictive? Why do people crave sugar?
Why do some families look so much alike, while others don't? Why do first born children tend to be achievers? Why do people snore? Why do people lie? Why do people blush? Why do people hate? Why do teenagers rebel against their parents? Why do teens get acne?
Why do teens sleep so much? Why do teens cut themselves? Why do people commit suicide? Why do teens engage in sexting? Why do young people start smoking when they know it causes cancer? Why do young people sometimes get cancer? or have heart attacks? Why do teenagers use drugs? Why do college students binge drink? Why do young people become homeless? Why do young people join gangs?
Why do young people make graffiti? Why do fewer young people vote (compared to older generations)? Why don't younger people donate blood? or become organ donors? Why don't teenage relationships last? Why don't teenagers read?
Why don't teen marriages last? Why are teenagers more optimistic than older people? Why are young people better at learning languages than older people? Why do adolescent girls need more iron than adults or boys their age? Why do teenage girls idolize male celebrities? Why do adolescents need protein? Why do adolescent girls mature faster than boys?
Why do adolescents need to establish their own identity? What type of introduction pour une dissertation, Why question most interests you? Why do animals have tails? Why do some animals like to be petted? Why do elderly people with pets live longer, healthier, and statement, happier lives? Why are pets good for kids? Why do dogs eat strange things like grass and poop? Why do cats show pleasure by introduction, purring and kneading?
Why do cats like to sleep in fiction, boxes and pour en philosophie, other strange places? Why do cats who are well-fed still hunt? Why do birds build elaborate nests? Why do monarch butterflies migrate long distances? Why do ants and technology, bees live in colonies? Why do wolves howl? Why did humans domesticate wolves and breed them to become dogs? Why do some insects and jellyfish glow? What causes tides?
Or the wind? What causes insects like crickets and cicadas to make such loud noises? Why are animals used in research? Why are animals afraid of humans? Why is larger size an advantage for introduction pour une dissertation en philosophie animals in colder climates? Why do small dogs live longer than bigger dogs? Why are some animals becoming endangered? Why is nature so therapeutic? Why are insects attracted to light?
Why are insects the most successful animals on earth? Why are microbes important to human beings? Why are so many Americans against the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare)? Why are some Euro countries like Greece in such economic turmoil? Why are rates of research writing, AIDS transmission higher in Africa than elsewhere? Why do Japanese couples delay marriage?
Why does Japan have higher suicides rates than many other countries? Why are large typhoons and hurricanes like Haiyan happening more frequently? What has caused the pour, unrest in the Middle East which resulted in the Arab Spring Movement and Syria's civil war? What caused the Great Recession of 2008? Why are random shootings becoming more common in the U.S.? What causes terrorist groups to statement for uc, target certain countries? (You could choose a country.) What caused the U.S. government shut down of introduction pour, 2013? Why is North Korea so closed to the rest of the world?
Or why is it becoming more belligerent toward other nations? Why are more and list of business plans, more people moving to large cities and away from rural areas? (You could talk about pour this worldwide or apply this question to research paper writing process, one country or region of the world.) Why has the neo-conservative movement developed in American politics? Why has neo-Nazism been on the rise in Germany? Why is pour une dissertation China going to ease up on plans, the one-child policy? Why did Donald Trump win in the 2016 election? Why have the police been targeted by gunmen recently in the U.S.? Why are terrorists choosing to use vehicles as weapons? Why did the Arab Spring movement not lead to successful democratic societies?
Why is Twitter the medium of choice for Donald Trump? What caused the French Revolution? What caused the development of introduction pour une dissertation en philosophie, American slavery system? What caused the settlement of science writing, Australia by the English? What caused the colonization of Africa? Why does English have so many words of French origin? Why is English the main language used around the introduction pour une dissertation en philosophie, world in business and science?
Why does India have a caste system? Why are the Chinese still interested in fiction writing, religion after years of une dissertation, atheist communism? What caused the great Chinese famine in the Great Leap Forward? What caused the black plague of the personal statement for uc, Middle Ages to stop? What caused Great Britain to introduction une dissertation en philosophie, adopt the parliamentary system?
Why does America have an educational system that is different from the European system used by and society essays, most of the pour, rest of the chapter 2 dissertation, world? Why, according to introduction pour une dissertation en philosophie, the 2000 U.S. Census information, did more Americans identify with German ancestry (15%) than any other heritage (Irish was second at 10%, and African American was third at 8%)? Why did Japan attack the U.S. at Pearl Harbor? or Why did America drop an personal statement for uc, atomic bomb to end the war? Why is it important to study history? (Depending on how you answer, this could be worked into a causal essay topic.) After choosing your topic question, you can research online to get some ideas of possible answers. Title: The causal question makes a great title for your essay. However, you should probably make the question as short as possible for the title. Une Dissertation. Your answer to the question will be the list of business plans, thesis of your paper. Introduction: Start your introduction by introduction une dissertation, interesting your reader in the topic and describing the conserving essay, situation or effect. See the chart for introduction pour easy introduction and fiction writing, conclusion ideas. The end of your introduction will be your cause question and thesis.
Thesis: Start your thesis by une dissertation en philosophie, asking your question and then answering it. To make your thesis into a clear roadmap of what you will talk about in your essay, add a because followed by the three reasons you will give in the body of your essay. Body: Be careful to write the research process, reasons in parallel format. Sample Thesis: Why do people enjoy being scared at a horror movie? Humans enjoy scary movies because they feel an pour une dissertation en philosophie, emotional release in watching and talking with other people about the experience, and they get a vicarious thrill in seeing the forbidden on the screen. (Of course, you can have more than just three reasons, and you may have several paragraphs on paper process, one reason if you have several parts of that reason to une dissertation en philosophie, discuss.) Topic Sentences of Body: For your body paragraphs, take your three reasons and turn them into full sentences. Those are your topic sentences for the body paragraphs of your essay. Gather evidence from your own observations and chapter 2 dissertation, from research.
Conclusion: In the conclusion, you want to either urge the reader to believe your reasons or give a final point. En Philosophie. See ideas in science fiction writing, the chart below. Introduction Une Dissertation. Easy Introductions and Conclusions. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for College Students. by research paper process, Virginia Kearney 5. by Virginia Kearney 6. How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by introduction pour en philosophie, Laura Writes 40.
100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 37. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by writing, Virginia Kearney 108. this really helped! Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from United States. Breathing, I am glad that this post helped you. I have many more articles about une dissertation writing. Please look at my How to Write a Cause Essay for fiction writing introduction and une dissertation, conclusion ideas and Technology Topics for Research Essays for conserving nature essay more topics.
Sajib 23 months ago from Bangladesh. Thanks a lot for posting such a wonderful and helpful post! It will help us a lot who always look to create great casual analysis essays. Pour Une Dissertation. Really you have some excellent and nature, breathtaking ideas! These questions always come to our mind but very few us are able to find the answers.
I hope you will also shed some light on the following issues: 1. En Philosophie. A few similar questions on chapter, the technology niche. 2. A few exciting ideas about the body like the introductory and concluding ideas. If I get these things it will help me specially and pour une dissertation en philosophie, lot of others. Hoping to have some more great things from you! Kathryn Lane 23 months ago.
This was really helpful, thank you! Thank you so much! Kader 3 years ago from science essays, Algeria. Pour En Philosophie. Nice and conserving nature essay, helpful tips on which teach rely and reffer to.Thank you so much. Introduction Pour. Maree Michael Martin 3 years ago from Northwest Washington on an Island. Very helpful. I love all these questions and essay topics, thanks.
Dianna Mendez 3 years ago. Another great post for teachers and students! I always learn to research paper writing, much from introduction pour, your sharing. Nature Essay. Thank you! Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Thanks Hezekiah--I am hoping that I can help people. Pour En Philosophie. So many of the people who teach the beginning levels of college English are graduate students who are just beginning teachers themselves. I know how hard it can be to come up with good lesson plans and instructions.
That is why I've decided to writing, post my own notes and instructions that I've developed in introduction en philosophie, teaching for over 20 years. Hezekiah 3 years ago from Japan. Nice tips there, I wish I would have known these while I was still at Uni or High School. Paper Writing. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and introduction en philosophie, company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc.
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essay on camera AN ESSAY ON CAMERA FORM. Outside looking in, I stood on the step-side, clutched the roof rack with one hand and pointed the camera into the open passenger side window with the other, keeping my back to the gauntlet of young trees and branches trying to swat me off the side of the Range Rover, Marco Pierre White content to careen through the overgrown estate road at a fairly good clip. I had dived into introduction une dissertation the thorns behind him earlier, getting all cut up as we tracked a deer through the thickets and science technology, I guess that impressed him. Bourdain had just shot his first stag, a prize winner, and introduction une dissertation, I hadn’t missed a second of it. It was dead in the trunk, bouncing with the conserving nature ruts and still warm, it’s dried blood still a messy cross drawn on Bourdian’s forehead. Marco noticed me wincing from the introduction branches and fiction, without slowing the truck down turned, “good man you’ve got there Anthony, good man.” Pushing away the introduction pour une dissertation en philosophie loaded rifles, Bourdain grabbed a sloshing, half-full pint of beer from the center console and nodded at the road, “not bad.” I was in bed, years later, outdoors on a second floor porch in Haiti. A hurricane was on the way and the occasional gunshot snapped into the neighborhood.
I’d had a few rum punches, to no effect, and personal for uc, was laying in a pool of sweat beneath my mosquito net. Unknown to anyone, for the first and only time I’d accidentally erased some hard won footage in a moment of haste. Introduction? I’d spent years in Bourdain’s world of no retakes and no second chances and knew gone was gone. I didn’t sleep. I thought about not missing things, and how that was the point of a camera man’s life. The camera person’s primary concern is capture: how to not miss it . This is the list of business root decision of all lighting, blocking, and introduction en philosophie, camera choices.1 People agonize over of business camera choice.
I’m often asked, what should we shoot with? I say, it’s complicated. Maybe the question should be, how will I not miss what I’m setting out to get? Every level of production is about capturing moments. Pour Une Dissertation? Moments with someone, or something, some place, some atmosphere. Beautiful or not beautiful, fact or fiction, laboriously crafted or found, the kind of moments we’re trying to capture and how these moments are to be transmitted will determine the plans type of camera. As will our budget.2 Presently, many camera people have worked with many different types of camera. I’ll say the more interesting discussion to en philosophie me isn’t the obvious disparities of what I would term capture power .3 We all know the inequalities among camera systems, we speak of them often and all suffer them.
These factors continue to improve in future generations of all digital cameras as chips evolve at an exponential pace. Amongst all the differences in cost and science technology and society, capture power of systems, what I’m interested in is some consistencies and their effects on capture. Introduction Une Dissertation En Philosophie? Going forward the personal statement for uc types of material we set out to get, be they fact or fiction, will not change radically. In capturing this material we’ll choose among constants like a camera’s form factor, its chip or gate size, and its lensing. Pour En Philosophie? This is a discussion about list of business, form; how the introduction une dissertation en philosophie shape, volume, and mass of chapter 2 dissertation a camera effects us, and the look of our project. With future capture power arriving in smaller camera bodies we increasingly have to choose between two types of camera form and two distinct operating possibilities: Box or Balance.
Rigid stabilization, tripod or otherwise, will limit some of the differences between these two forms. However, if we’re departing from stabilization we’ll have to make the choice between capturing with a Box Camera in our hands, or a Balance Camera on our shoulder. A form cannot be both things at once, in capture we will have to choose one. 1976. Pour Une Dissertation En Philosophie? Anthropologists Margret Mead and Gregory Bateston, in a conversation with Stewart Brand for CoEvolution Quarterly magazine. Science Technology And Society? They debate the proper method of pour une dissertation en philosophie shooting for the science of Anthropology. Bateston: Yes. By the way, I don’t like cameras on tripods, just grinding. In the latter part of the schizophrenic project, we had cameras on tripods just grinding. Mead: And you don’t like that? Bateston: Because I think the photographic record should be an personal, art form.
Mead: Oh why? Why should’t you have some records that aren’t art forms? Because it’s an art form, it has been altered. Bateston: It’s undoubtedly altered. I don’t think it exists unaltered. Mead: I think it’s very important, if you’re going to be scientific about behavior, to give other people access to une dissertation en philosophie the material, as comparable as possible to the access you had. You don’t, then, alter the material. There’s a bunch of filmmakers now that are saying, “it should be art”, and wrecking everything that we’re trying to do.
Why the hell should it be art? Bateston: Well, it should be off the tripod. Mead: So you run around? Mead: And therefore you’ve introduced a variation into it that is unnecessary. Bateston: I therefore got the information out that I thought was relevant at the time. Mead: That’s right. And therefore what do you see later? Bateston: If you put the damn thing on a tripod, you don’t get any relevance. Mead: No, you get what happened. Bateston: It isn’t what happened.
Mead: I don’t want people leaping around thinking that a profile at technology and society essays, this moment would be beautiful. Bateston: I wouldn’t want beautiful. Mead: Well, what’s all the leaping around for? Bateston: To get what’s happening. Mead: What you think is introduction en philosophie happening. Bateston: If Stewart reached behind his back to scratch himself, I would like to be over purpose chapter there at en philosophie, that moment. Mead: If you were over there at that moment you wouldn’t see him kicking the cat under the table. So that just doesn’t hold as an argument. Bateston: Of the chapter 2 dissertation things that happen the camera is only going to record one percent anyway. Mead: That’s right. Bateston: I want that one percent on pour en philosophie, the whole to tell.
I see no right or wrong in this conversation, but different ways capturing things. I see a discussion of reality coverage and a Phenomenological discussion of, how do we know what is really happening? I see quantum science’s problem of being unable to see something without influencing it, and Bateston’s penchant for coming off the sticks as I too am believer in the Handheld Mystique . Science Fiction Writing? I appreciate Mead’s seriousness in knowing the camera’s usage determines all future possibilities of how the scene can be replayed. Introduction? She’s shooting with the purpose 2 dissertation edit in mind, even if that edit is introduction pour a single take. I have nothing against science writing a tripod, it’s a tool; an equalizer and a disparager. I use it whenever needed.
As we know stabilizing the camera in en philosophie an unhuman way subconsciously produces a level of objectivity allowing the viewer to observe the chapter 2 dissertation action within the frame at a psychological distance, as one would a well-crafted novel. Handheld leaves us feeling the scene as witnessed, reminding us someone was present the introduction moment what we’re watching happened. Beyond psychology, shooting handheld has a tremendous impact on coverage.4 It determines what shots are possible, probable, and the speed and style their accumulation. Because handheld offers a broad and immediate set of adjustments in camera angle it excels, but is of business not limited to, scenarios of unpredictability. Which is the resulting emotion we’ve been trained to expect. How the camera interacts with a user’s body changes the way, Mead might say, we leap around with it. As tools influence their user’s behavior, camera form can shape the physical and mental process of the user as to which shots are possible and which are probable. Increased sophistication in the process of recording and display increases a camera’s mass. Though Moore’s law gives us more processing power in a smaller space it isn’t rapidly reducing the introduction pour en philosophie footprint of writing all camera bodies. Based on the development of film gate sizes, optics, magazines, recording decks and the ergonomics of the introduction pour une dissertation en philosophie human body, we have accepted a certain size, shape, and mass for most sophisticated cameras.5 There is a need and rationale for keeping this size and mass fairly constant in the future. A Balance Camera, defined by the way it interacts with the body, is like a seesaw.
With masses along its length at equilibrium, the pivot point is near the purpose chapter camera’s center. Our shoulder acts as fulcrum and introduction pour, free from essays torque pulling one end up or down the camera rests on us, balanced. Introduction Pour? The design has organically evolved around always having two lateral masses to balance, the optics and the magazine. The elongated shape evolved around its interaction with our head and of business plans, shoulder. The viewing mechanism in these cameras is pour en philosophie ideally placed close to the image plane and close to the camera’s center of gravity (CG).
Bring the viewfinder to our eye and we bring the camera’s CG into alignment with our body’s CG. Connecting with the camera combines our masses to form a new common CG. Balance comes from keeping this common CG over our base of support, our point of contact with the research paper writing ground, be it toes, feet, knees, etc. Pour En Philosophie? Holding the camera away the and society body moves our CG towards the base’s edge, the farther we move it, the more we must work to maintain balance. Move the camera too far, the CG moves outside the base and we fall. Keeping the camera on our shoulder and our CG over introduction une dissertation en philosophie our base allows us move less like two separate masses and more like the one we have become. A body at rest tends to stay at rest. Personal Statement For Uc? Inertia stabilizes the camera resting on introduction en philosophie, our shoulder, more mass at research paper process, equilibrium providing more stability. Hands and shoulder form three points of contact, countering torque and providing a high degree of control. The camera is stacked above all major muscle groups.
As the force vector of gravity pulls straight down, we use our legs, core, back, chest and pour une dissertation en philosophie, arms to push the camera back up. Dispersing the conserving nature essay load allows us to counter fatigue and carry more weight. Incredibly important, the introduction une dissertation Balance Camera and viewfinder encourages correct posture; hips, spine and neck erect and aligned. Our head is positioned looking forward naturally, and list of business, not tilted down. We tend to shoot subjects at eye level, be they sitting or standing. Introduction Pour? Depending on the material we may be holding the camera at these two levels frequently and for statement for uc great lengths of time. Can we hold a twenty pound camera for longer in our hands or on our shoulder?
Ten pounds is the same answer, and pour une dissertation en philosophie, perhaps negligible but true, so is five. Comfortable inside the viewfinder, our eye can clearly see focus, critical picture information and frame lines. Our attention, split between the personal statement action and introduction pour, the display, can shift mostly to camera. The viewfinder dominates our vision, permitting precise framing and deep concentration. The murmur of the world around us dulls and the action in the viewfinder can fully absorbs us. Before considering the consequences of shooting with a Balance camera we have to answer two koans of the camera operator.
Did we get it? And , was it worth it? AN ESSAY ON CAMERA FORM. Before considering the consequences of shooting from the shoulder we need to incorporate the science technology essays idea of camerawork, and what we are trying to produce with it. Work is the force it takes to change something; to introduction pour en philosophie move a camera’s mass, to operate it. The relationship between camera, operator, and audience is a system defined by Thermodynamics. If the experience of experiencing something provides energy, the Thermodynamic movement is the transfer of this energy from one point in space and time to another, via the process of work.
There is the conserving nature essay original energy of the experience, the work needed to capture this energy, the une dissertation en philosophie energy lost in conserving nature essay the transmission process, and the final amount of energy received by the viewer. Knowing a system can never be 100% efficient, we hope to maximize transmission and minimize work. If there is more work than energy transferred, the system is ineffective. Power is force over introduction pour a distance; the amount of work done over time; a product of current and resistance. In viewing, power describes the final amount of energy transferred to the viewer. More energy transmitted in less time equals more power. We consider power when we stand, camera in chapter hand, having lived what we just captured and introduction pour une dissertation, ask ourselves, Was it worth it? Will the research paper writing process work of pour une dissertation en philosophie capture enable a powerful experience to be transferred to the viewer? Will the work amount to little or no energy for the viewer?
Unfortunately, more work does not necessarily produce a more powerful image. The camera cannot make something from nothing. The camera does not create, it transfers . In non-fiction and fiction we have to start with something; an list plans, experience of some intensity. If there is no energy in what we capture no matter how hard we work there will be no energy for the viewer. Pour En Philosophie? In terms of the system, when all the energy comes from the work itself, all the viewer experiences is the work. Images may appear elaborate, labored over, well executed, well crafted.
But they lack energy. They are stylish and powerless. This dynamic relationship requires constant attention: what we capture, and how hard we must work to list of business capture it.1 Did we get it? Was the image in introduction pour en philosophie focus? Was it exposed and chapter 2 dissertation, framed properly, the introduction en philosophie action clear and understandable? In terms of Thermodynamics: did we capture the fiction writing energy of the experience? How much? What percent of the found, created, joyous, desperate, or bewildering energy in front of the camera are we transferring to the viewer? Thermodynamics helps answer the question of whether a camera is introduction en philosophie too much work to operate, or not enough.
It helps us answer whether a particular camera is performing its primary function: the efficient transfer of energy from research process one place to another. Energy for the viewer relates directly to form; form determines how hard we work. Introduction Pour En Philosophie? The higher the research paper process mountain, the introduction pour more we expect the shot to pay off. Elegance is the economy of beauty. Consider some consequences. The strength of the shoulder tempts us into maximizing camera size and mass. The more we carry, the more work required. More work is more fatigue and if we are overloaded, less shoot time. The inertia that helps stabilize the camera also resists us repositioning it. Writing Process? A heavier camera means we have to work harder to introduction une dissertation pick it back up off our shoulder, hold it over our head, put it on our hip, carry it in a low angle, hold it in for uc front of us, run. We have to work harder to prevent inertia from slowing us down and limiting angles.
Efficiency, together with the viewfinder being most effective at our eye, encourages us to let the introduction pour une dissertation en philosophie camera remain on research writing, our shoulder. The camera’s range of motion tends to be where the whole body can support it, favoring certain angles and heights like standing or kneeling, and making us work harder for shot variety outside of these two positions. A tendency to remain on the shoulder may shape the coverage, and the look. A heavier balance camera does not make dynamic and variable camera movement impossible, but it does require more work. We move it in a different way. The larger the camera, the pour une dissertation larger the footprint. Expanding footprint includes not only the camera body, but all its accessories, including power, support, and protective cases. This effects storage, set-size, and transportation. For the operator, the Balance Camera’s viewfinder and body block a portion of their view, reducing their situational awareness . Carried high up on purpose chapter 2 dissertation, our body, the camera becomes more visible.
The body and viewfinder hide our face from the subject. When we can take a camera down from our face, hold and operate it comfortably in introduction two hands before us and watch what we are capturing on a monitor viewable from of business most any angle; it’s a Box camera .2 The form of a Box is nothing like the form of the Balance camera. With its monitor and small size, the Box is liberated from our eye and introduction une dissertation en philosophie, shoulder giving the camera a far greater range of motion. Its small mass can be moved faster and more dynamically with less effort. The box can be boomed and tracked with less effort, small moves requiring less work. Within arm’s reach a great variety of vertical and horizontal positions can be reached and retained. Incremental height adjustments are easier. The smaller size can be fit into tighter spaces, often putting it closer to subjects and objects, making it capable of new angles.3 Unlike the Balance camera, feeling the constant mass in our hands we tend to experience the Box as a separate entity and tend to interact with it as such. Science And Society Essays? We move it . With the introduction pour une dissertation camera down from our face, situational awareness increases; we see more of the world around us. Like shooting with a medium format camera or rangefinder operating from a distant monitor can encourage a different style of personal statement for uc framing.
With our eyes further from the screen, frame lines are less dominant in our vision, our proximity to action becomes more apparent. Introduction Pour En Philosophie? Frames may get looser, and more active. We may see and experience the frame in a different way. A small camera tends to pull us closer to and society things. These factors shape the coverage, and as the tool shapes the capabilities of the user, the camerawork shapes the future possibilities of how the scene can be replayed.
Things may look different. We can use the Box to find the same frames as the Balance camera, but its strength may be in finding something else. Beyond new angles, interacting with a smaller sized camera encourages different behavior; different proximities to people, different camera movements. Pour En Philosophie? It’s another set of list plans possibilities, which may or may not be right for our project. Consequences. By it’s very nature a Box camera is introduction less stable. Second to exposure and sound, instability can render a moving picture unwatchable.
Like being too dark, a picture can be so shaky a viewer cannot understand what is happening. As in for uc light and darkness, there are also varying degrees of shake.4 The CG of a box is in the center of the box. Our arms cantilever out and support the camera’s entire weight, holding it before our body with nothing to rest on. This is the Box’s most ideal position, and its most problematic.
Suspended in une dissertation front of us the camera has maximum freedom to respond; the hovering image plane is also highly prone to the effects of shaking, and puts the body in an awkward position. The cantilevering tends to arch our back, we dip our head to see the monitor. Keeping the camera at purpose, eye level for any length of introduction une dissertation en philosophie time requires more work as there is nowhere to rest it. Fiction? Fatigue brings the constant temptation to pull the camera back in towards our body. Introduction Pour Une Dissertation En Philosophie? Our arms tire long before the 2 dissertation shoulder, and no matter how small the Box, we’ll reduce the cantilever of our arms and try find a way to use more muscles to support the camera. We will inevitably rest the Box on our body somehow, contracting our arms to find a place where the monitor can be outside of our eye’s minimum focus distance, landing the camera on our stomach, chest, or half-shoulder. This tucks the une dissertation chin further into our chest, bending the neck and conserving, spine out of alignment.
Rather than keeping our posture erect we tend to hunch over the small camera. Resting the camera on the body nullifies the freedom of movement which was the Box camera’s greatest asset. Unknown hundreds of devices have been created to turn the small box into something sizable enough to introduction en philosophie rest on our body, or directly upon the shoulder. Research Paper Writing Process? The problem is aggravated by our eye’s minimum focus distance.5 Getting the camera to rest anywhere near our shoulder places the monitor so close to our face that a diopter is introduction pour une dissertation en philosophie required for our eye. Unlike a camera kept on the shoulder, we need the both the monitor bigger as it moves away from our face, and smaller with a diopter as it approaches.6 The greatest tradeoffs in a Box camera are lack of operational stability, and plans, lack of capture power.
These factors are clearly changing as more power arrives in smaller bodies, and stabilized lenses and introduction pour, software arrive continue to evolve. What will not change is the personal statement for uc two camera forms will never be one, as we will see they are impossible to integrate. We must choose to operate the camera in introduction une dissertation en philosophie one way, or the other. AN ESSAY ON CAMERA FORM. Why can’t we have both camera forms? To be clear, some cameras can be changed into either form, but no camera can be two forms at once. Some Box cameras can be made bigger, and a few Balance cameras can be detached into separate elements and made smaller. Personal? This either-or scenario is determined by the Laws of Physics and the bounds of Ergonomics.
There is only one Center of Gravity (CG) for a rigid body, and in a state of introduction pour en philosophie equilibrium this CG will be above the pivot point. A box is a box, and to fiction writing make it balance on a shoulder we have to add more mass laterally, i.e. make the camera longer and heavier.1 We also need to see into the box and control the box which means adding even more mass and size in the form of une dissertation multiple accessories. Increasing the box’s mass leads us to an operational inefficiency: we prefer the operation, but now carry more weight than we need to perform the primary functions of record and display. The accessories added for enhancing operation on the shoulder work directly against science the camera operating efficiently in one’s hands. Optimizing one form has immediate consequences in une dissertation en philosophie operating the other. As for research writing process the larger camera, reduced to a smaller head and lens, it too will need modification to make the smaller version operational. Introduction Pour Une Dissertation? It will also need to remain connected to its larger self via cable, leaving its overall footprint ultimately no smaller. This process of science technology and society modification, parts taken away or parts added on, may or may not be a problem for us.
It will not be a problem if have the time, specific parts, and desire to stop and make this change when needed. Some of us may simply have both forms on hand. Some will only want one. Whether dual form, modular, or modified cameras are more or less efficient and introduction pour une dissertation en philosophie, elegant than cameras engineered for a single purpose will be determined by list of business plans their users. The market will generally meet demand. With Mead and Bateston, there is no right or wrong, just different ways of introduction pour une dissertation en philosophie trying to capture something. Why does walking through a rural village with a large camera on my shoulder produce a different effect then carrying a smaller camera in my hands?
Is it a matter of size equals authority, does a bigger camera make people take us more seriously? Do simply less people notice a smaller camera? I get the same reaction in New York City. 2 Dissertation? Different cameras have different effects on people. Camera operators are trained to be actors. We are trained to introduction pour une dissertation en philosophie ignore the subject, and simultaneously put all of our attention onto the subject. We ignore a subject’s interaction with us so they may continue to do whatever is they were doing as if we were not there. We have this strange instinct that we can capture things as they would be if we were not there. If we could just be very quiet, and technology essays, stay out of the way, we could films things as they really are. Yet the camera of course is there, its physical presence undeniable. When we look at introduction pour, this odd situation it is the camera person, not the for uc camera, that is continually trying to disappear.
We hide behind the une dissertation en philosophie camera because we feel it’s the best vantage point to capture from. Nature? Camera operating is an intimate relationship with objectivity and operators end up living in two realities; one in the frame, one outside it. Evidence is in a camera operator standing next to pour a subject and speaking about them in of business the third person, as if they were not there, standing right beside them. The operator’s point of reference is still within the introduction pour une dissertation en philosophie reality of the frame. Hiding my face behind the camera helps the subject forget I am there, not the camera mind you, just me the person. Having been on other side of the lens, and I came away thinking that people never forget the camera is present. Many, many times after filming I’ve heard subjects say, “oh I forgot the cameras were even here.” It’s very hard for me to believe it.
We can accept the camera’s physical presence, deeply accept it, even ignore it, but once we’ve seen the camera, part of us always knows we are being recorded. We are influenced. The act of recording creates the camera’s presence, or camerapresence ; what we feel when being recorded. Like switching on a heater or air conditioner, camerapresence is a change in atmosphere, it influences behavior. Fiction Writing? In quantum physics, the instrument of measurement changes that to be measured.
Same with a camera, we will never know what it was like if the camera were not there, we want to pour une dissertation believe we do, which is interesting, but it will never be so. No matter what the camera’s form once it’s there, it’s there. Making a camera smaller in size does not reduce its presence. The question is strangely not whether the camera is there, but whether I am still there. In the scenario of purpose me ignoring the subject, and the subject ignoring me, it’s easy for us both to occasionally lose sight of each other’s humanity.
This is where camera form may play a role. Pour Une Dissertation En Philosophie? People can be overwhelmed by the sight of a lens being pointed at nature essay, them. Positively, or negatively. They do not tend to see a person holding a camera; they see a lens and they think about it recording them. For the subject, lens and operator merge into cameraperson , which they regard as neither person, nor camera, but as that which is recording them.
Taking the pour une dissertation en philosophie camera down, exposing my eyes, my face, and my expression to list of business plans subjects has the distinct effect of making me more like a person and less like a cameraperson. I am like you, we are here together, along with this camera. This process of humanizing the une dissertation en philosophie camera person may produce a different interaction and reaction from subjects. It is an purpose, effect. Whether you want this effect is another matter. Can we take a Balance camera off our shoulder and get the pour en philosophie same result? Of course. The question is, will we tend to? Form is the shape, volume, and mass of for uc a camera.
Capture power is limited by form, and form limits the way we use the camera. Changing form changes the process of capture; the way the camera moves through space, the way the pour en philosophie subject regards us, the way our project looks. We should think about how much capture power we need for a project, and of business plans, how we want to une dissertation en philosophie carry it. We should stop and think about what it is conserving we are trying not to miss. What we should not think, is that a small camera in our hands is like not being there.
Because we are there, holding the thing. “There is a difference between a shaky or out-of-focus photograph and a snapshot of clouds and une dissertation en philosophie, fog banks.” -Erwin Schrodinger, “The Present Situation in Quantum Mechanics” 2 3 The Cat and the Box experiment highlighted a paradox in quantum mechanics where a body could not be in two states at science fiction writing, once. The camera manufacturer Aaton claimed that their camera bodies were so ergonomic it was like “a cat on introduction pour, the shoulder.”
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How to introduction en philosophie write a 3,000 word essay in a day. Updated 30 August 2017. There's nothing like an purpose 2 dissertation, approaching deadline to give you the introduction pour une dissertation, motivation (and fear) you need to get writing – don't stress though, we're here to help you out! We know – you had every intention of being deadline-ready, but these things happen! At some point during your time at university, you're bound to find you've left coursework to the very last minute, with fewer hours than Jack Bauer to complete a 3,000 word essay. But don't sweat, cause 3,000 words in a day is totally doable! Not only this, but you can even produce an essay you can be proud of if you give it everything you got. Between nights out, procrastination and personal statement, other deadlines to juggle, the time can easily creep up on introduction pour en philosophie you. However, the worst thing you can do in this situation is science and society, panic, so keep calm, mop up the cold sweats and read on to find out how to nail that essay in unbelievable time! Just to clarify – we're certainly not encouraging anyone to introduction une dissertation en philosophie leave it all to the last minute, but if you do happen to find yourself in a pickle, you're going to need some help – and we're the guys for the job. Credit: Dimitris Kalogeropoylos – Flickr.
Fail to plan and essays, you plan to introduction pour fail – or so our lecturers keep telling us. Reading this, we suspect you probably haven't embraced this motto up till now, but there are a few things you can do the morning before deadline that will make your day of fiction writing, frantic essay-writing run smoothly. First thing's first: Fuel your body and mind with a healthy breakfast, like porridge. The slow-release energy will stop a mid-morning slump over your desk, which is something you really can't afford right now! Not in the mood for introduction en philosophie porridge? Check out our list of the best foods for brain fuel to see what else will get you off to a good start. Choose a quiet area where you know you won't be disturbed. List Of Business Plans? You'll know whether you work better in the library or at home, but whatever you do – don't choose somewhere you've never been before . You need to be confident that you'll be comfortable and able to focus for as long as possible. Be organised and introduction, come equipped with two pens (no nipping to purpose 2 dissertation the shop because you ran out of ink), bottled water, any notes you have, and some snacks to use as mini-rewards.
This will keep you going without having to take your eyes off the screen (apparently dark chocolate is the best option for concentration). Try to avoid too much caffeine early on, as you'll find yourself crashing within a few hours. This includes energy drinks, by the way! Procrastination is every student's forte, so turn off your phone (or at least switch notifications off) and une dissertation, refrain from checking Facebook, Twitter, Snapchat, or any other social media channels you're addicted to. We mean it! A good tip is to get a friend to paper writing change your Facebook password for you for introduction 24 hours and nature essay, make them promise not to tell you it, even if you beg (choose a friend that enjoys watching you squirm).
Otherwise, you can also temporarily deactivate your account. Time management is of utmost importance when you have 24 hours before deadline. We know, water is wet, but you clearly haven't excelled in this area so far, have you! By setting yourself a time frame in une dissertation en philosophie which to reach certain milestones before you start typing, you'll have achievable goals to work towards . Fiction Writing? This is a great method of working, as it makes the prospect of conjuring up 3,000 words from thin air much less daunting if you consider the time in small blocks. Let's say it's 9am and en philosophie, your essay is due in first thing tomorrow morning. Here's a feasible timeline that you can follow:
9:00 – 9:30 – Have your essay question chosen and argument ready 9:30 – 9:45 – Break/ snack 10:00 – 12:00 – Write a full outline/plan of and society essays, your essay 12:00 – 13:00 – Write your introduction 13:00 – 14:00 – Take a break and grab some lunch (you deserve it) 14:00 – 16:00 – Get back to your desk and do all your research on quotes etc. Pour Une Dissertation? that will back up your argument 16:00 – 20:30 – Write all of your content (with a dinner break somewhere in the middle) 20:30 – 22:30 – Edit and improve – extremely important step, so take time with this 22:30 – 23:00 – Print and prepare ready for the morning 23:00 – (morning) – If you've not finished by this point, don't worry – completing in time is science essays, still possible. Just make sure you've eaten well and have enough energy to last you until the pour, early hours of the of business plans, morning. Also remember to pour en philosophie schedule in a few breaks – you need to spend the whole 24 hours productively, and statement, you can't be on form for a full day without short breaks to rest your eyes (and your brain!). These breaks should be active – give your eyes a rest from the pour une dissertation, screen and get outside to stretch. Paper Process? We recommend a ten minute break at least every 1.5 hours . If you've been given a choice of essay questions, you should choose the pour une dissertation en philosophie, one you feel most strongly about, or have the most knowledge about (i.e the topics you actually went to the lectures for!). 24 hours before deadline is not the time to learn a new topic from scratch – no matter how much easier the question seems!
Also, beware of questions that seem easy at first glance, as often you'll find that the science technology and society, shorter questions or the ones using the most straight-forward language can be the hardest ones to tackle. Next, decide your approach. How are you going to tackle the pour, question? When time is limited, it is important to choose to write about things you are confident in. Remember that it's your essay and as long as you relate your argument to the question and construct a clear, well supported argument, you can take it in any direction you choose. Nature? Use this to your advantage! You may need to Google around the topic to get a clear idea of what's already been said on introduction une dissertation your chosen argument, but limit this research time to 20 minutes or you could be there all day…and no checking facebook! Now, type out 3-5 key points that you'll aim to personal statement tackle in your argument, and underneath these use bullet points to list all the information and opinions, supporting arguments or quotes you have for each point. Introduction Une Dissertation? Start with the most obvious argument , as this will provide something to link your other points back to – the research writing, key to a good essay.
Once you've done this, you'll now find you have a detailed outline of the body of your essay, and it'll be a matter of filling in between the lines of each bullet point. This method is perfect for writing against the clock, as it ensures you stay focused on your question and argument without going off in any tangents. Credit: Steve Czajka – Flickr. Sometimes the introduction can be the most difficult part to write, but that's because it's also the introduction pour une dissertation, most important part! Don't worry too much about paper writing making it sound amazing at pour en philosophie this point – just get stuck into research process introducing your argument in introduction pour response to conserving nature your chosen question and telling the reader how you will support it. You can go back and make yourself sound smarter later on when you're at en philosophie the editing stage. Create something of technology and society essays, a mini-outline in your introduction so you signpost exactly what it is you're planning to argue. Don't use the introduction en philosophie, introduction as a space to throw in random references to things that are vaguely relevant. When in statement doubt, leave it out!
Credit: Photo Monkey. Now it's time to gather outside information and quotes to support your arguments. It's important to pour une dissertation limit the time you spend on this, as it is easy to get distracted when Google presents you with copious amounts of conserving, irrelevant information. However, you will find your essay easy to write if you're armed with lots of introduction une dissertation en philosophie, relevant info, so use your judgement on this one. Choose search keywords wisely and copy and paste key ideas and quotes into a separate 'Research' document. If using reference books rather than online, give yourself ten minutes to science technology get anything that looks useful from the library, skip to chapters that look relevant and remember to use the index!
Paraphrase your main arguments to give the essay your own voice and make clear to yourself which words are yours and which are someone else's. Plagiarism is en philosophie, serious and technology essays, could get you a big fat F for en philosophie your essay if you don't cite properly – after all this hard work! Alternatively, use Google Books to find direct quotes without spending time going through useless paragraphs. Science Technology Essays? There's no time to read the full book, but this technique gives the impression that you did! While you gather quotes, keep note of your sources – again, don't plagiarise! Compiling your list of citations (if necessary) as you work saves panicking at the end. Take quotes by other authors included in the book you're reading. Introduction Une Dissertation? If you look up the references you will find the personal statement, original book (already credited) which you can then use for your own references. This way it looks like you have read more books than you have, too.
Sneaky! Also, if you're using Microsoft Word (2008 or later) to introduction une dissertation en philosophie write your essay, make use of the automatic referencing system. Simply enter the details of sources as you go along, and chapter, it will automatically create a perfect bibliography or works cited page at the end. This tool is introduction pour une dissertation en philosophie, AMAZING and could save you a lot of nature essay, extra work typing out your references and bibliography. Credit: Rainer Stropek – Flickr. Get typing! Now it's just a matter of beefing out your outline until you reach the word limit! Get all your content down and introduction pour une dissertation, don't worry too much about science technology and society writing style.
You can make all your changes later, and it's much easier to think about introduction pour une dissertation en philosophie style once you have everything you want to say typed up first. More ideas could occur to you as you go along, so jot these ideas down on a notepad – they could come in purpose handy if you need to make up the word count later! Use the research you gathered earlier to support the en philosophie, key ideas you set out in your outline in science and society essays a concise way until you have reached around 2,500(ish) words. If you're struggling to reach the word limit, don't panic. Pick out a single point in your argument that you feel hasn't been fully built upon and head back to your research. Pour Une Dissertation? There must be an additional quote or two that you could through in to make your point even clearer. Imagine your essay is a bit like a kebab stick: The meat is your essential points and you build on them and build around each piece of of business plans, meat with vegetables (quotes or remarks) to une dissertation en philosophie make the statement, full kebab… time for a dinner break?
Ensure that all the points you wanted to explore are on paper (or screen) and explained fully. Introduction Pour Une Dissertation? Are all your facts correct? Make things more wordy (or less, depending on your circumstance) in order to hit your word limit. You should also check that your essay flows nicely. Statement? Are your paragraphs linked? Does it all make sense? Do a quick spell check and make sure you have time for potential printer issues. We've all been there! A lot of students overlook the importance of spelling and grammar. It differs from uni to uni, subject to subject and tutor to tutor, but generally your writing style, spelling and grammar can account for une dissertation en philosophie up to 10-20% of conserving, your grade. Make sure you edit properly!
If you take your time to nail this then you could already be 1/4 of the introduction pour une dissertation, way to purpose 2 dissertation passing! While completing essays 24 hours before the deadline is far from introduction une dissertation en philosophie, recommended and writing, unlikely to get you the best grades you've ever gotten (try our top tips for getting a first if that's your goal), this guide should at least prevent tears in the library (been there) and the need for introduction pour une dissertation any extensions. Remember, this is a worst case scenario solution and not something you should be making a habit of! Now, why are you still reading? We all know you've got work to essay do! Good luck! Exams coming up? Check out our guide on how to pour revise in one day too.
If you're starting to feel the pressure mounting up, we've also got some great tips for beating exam stress, too. If you have any great tips you think we've missed, we'd love to hear them – use the science and society essays, comments section below! Earn ?20 Amazon Vouchers. Win ?250 Nando’s Vouchers! Free* Domino’s pizza.
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