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Term papers on success

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Aphrodite and Single Goddess Aphrodite Essay. Papers! Between the world that have come from essay on donatello long before and the night that turned into papers on success, day. We long to understand where we once come from. Manmade stories that were passed down to our generation. The myths were passed on to our children. And now they’re great legends.

We come from essay child industrial revolution great men and women that took their life for us. Because of her beauty, other gods feared that their rivalry over term on success her would interrupt the peace among them and lead to less is better war, so Zeus married her to Hephaestus, who, because of his ugliness and deformity, was not seen as a threat. Aphrodite had many lovers yet both gods, such as Ares, and term papers men, . She played a role in the Eros and Psyche legend, and later was both Adonis's lover and his surrogate mother. Many lesser was said to thesis search in header be children of Aphrodite. Aphrodite is also known as Cythera and Cyprus, after the two cult sites, Cythera and Cyprus, which claimed to term papers be her place of birth.

Myrtle, doves, sparrows, horses, and swans were said to be sacred to her. The ancient Greeks identified her with the Ancient Egyptian goddess. Aphrodite had many other names, such as Acidalias, Cythera and each used by a different local cult of the goddess in Greece. Essay Child Labor During Industrial! The Greeks recognized all of these names as referring to the single goddess Aphrodite, despite the slight differences in what these local cults believed the goddess demanded of them. Aphrodite is usually said to have been born near the island of term on success, Cyprus, which is why she is sometimes called Cyprian, especially in the poetic works of Sappho. However, other versions of her myth have her born near the island Cythera.

In the most famous version of her myth, her birth was the consequence of a castration: Cronus severed Uranus' genitals and 123 threw them behind him into the sea. By the late 5th century , Certain philosophers had begun to draw a distinction between two separate Aphrodite’s (as opposed to a single Aphrodite whose characteristics varied slightly in different local cults of the term papers goddess) the celestial Aphrodite, born from the essay death penalty sea foam after Cronus castrated Uranus, and Aphrodite , the common Aphrodite of all the folk, born from the union of Zeus and Dione , their Christian interpreters, Aphrodite is. Related Documents: Aphrodite and Single Goddess Aphrodite Essay. . Papers On Success! (Stops.) A Punjabi man answered, said he was sorry … they#x27;d moved. By the essay child labor during revolution time we got back to Moss Side it was dark, the lift wasn#x27;t working - (Stops.) That was the night I phoned Mummy. (Difficult.) Asked her. (Pause.) I tried! I couldn#x27;t do it, Rosie. (Pause.) It doesn#x27;t matter how much you succeed afterwards, if you#x27;ve failed once. (Pause.) After you#x27;d gone … I kept waking in term on success the night to feed you … A week … in the flat … Then I went back to art school. Sandra and Hugh thought I was inhuman. I remember the 123 books hat came out that winter - how to succeed as a single working mother - fairytales! (Pause.) Sandra and Hugh have a family now. Quite a few of my friends do. (Pause.) I could give you everything now. Rosie. Words 420 - Pages 2. Kavya: Parthenon and Greek Goddess Athena Essay.

Parthenon, chief temple of the Greek goddess Athena on term on success the hill of the Acropolis at Athens, Greece. It was built in the mid-5th century bce and is generally considered to be the culmination of the essay on donatello development of the Doric order, the simplest of the three Classical Greek architectural orders. The name Parthenon refers to the cult of Athena Parthenos (“Athena the Virgin”) that was associated with the temple. Directed by the Athenian statesman Pericles, the Parthenon was built by the architects. Words 746 - Pages 3. ? Single Parent Families “Life in the fast lane” (Joe Walsh, Glenn Frey and Don Henley) is an accurate assessment of single parenthood. The life of a single parent consists of being constantly on the go and there is never any rest for the weary. Single parenthood is on success growing at thesis binding university, an alarming rate in the United States and it is having an overall negative impact on term papers our society. There are many types of single parent households and they face numerous problems that two parent families do not. Measures. Words 2344 - Pages 10. Critical Thinking and Single Time Essay. few instances that it must be a fact that is essay child labor true all the time.

However, one must realize that just because something is true a lot of the times doesn#x27;t mean that it is true every single time. We must go further into proving our point. We must also prove that the alternatives are not true and term that this fact is 123 true every single time. We can not “hastily” jump to an invalid “conclusion”. The “begging the question” fallacy is the one that I understand the least and have the hardest time with. Words 368 - Pages 2. Term Papers! Logan Lynch Prof Kean English 121-123 February 4, 2013 Single Parent Mothers A woman is a very strong individual. She has the unfortunate role of 123, having menstrual cycles and bearing the children. Term On Success! Women can also be left alone to search in header raise children on their own.

A woman in on success a single parent situation has to assume all parental roles and responsibilities, and women by their nature are more than capable of meeting these challenges. Women whom are single parents have to less homework is better work twice as hard as a. Words 635 - Pages 3. instance the term human rights legislation. There is a law in England (National service framework for older people), which paved the way for less homework is better, a single assessment process (Department of term papers, Health, 2001). You have to consider the limitations in your care setting whilst making an assessment and 123 using all the other information that is available to papers you. There are many different forms of assessment that you can use to create a bigger picture: 1.Resource led assessment 5. Risk assessment 2. Needs assessment. Words 696 - Pages 3. Essay on VC Visual Analysis Aphrodite of Cnidus and Advertisements. ? Visual Analysis and write persuasive essay death Comparison Figure 1 (see appendices image no 1), Aphrodite of Cnidus, is term papers a Greek marble statue by Praxiteles made around 375-335 BCE. Praxiteles was the first Greek sculpt of Athens who sculpt the nude female form in life-size statues. This work depicts the Greek Goddess of love and beauty called Aphrodite. She is seen as the equivalent of the is better Roman Goddess Venus. The sculpture depicts a female nude in an upright standing position.

The figure is term holding, I suggest, a. Thesis University! Words 1235 - Pages 5. Essay on Learning and Single Parent. Single Parenting Becoming a young single parent has been my motivation thus far. Being a parent means taking care of your child everyday, knowing everyday occurrences, and on success learning about them from essay child their expressions and behavior. Raising a healthy, well rounded, respectful, and intelligent child is every mother’s goal. There is so much personal reward in learning about your child and growing with them. It makes you that much stronger, when mothers do it alone. There are countless times that I. Words 772 - Pages 4. Term On Success! Essay on thesis binding service Of Marriage And Single Life. Princeton Smith Pd 3 Of Marriage and Single Life Melcon To be in love, or to remain a free spirit, that is the question everyone faces every single day of their lives. Term Papers! Each situation provides benefits to essay child labor during revolution the individual as well as negatives to the relationship setting. In Francis Bacon’s ? Of Marriage and Single Life, ? He is constantly battling between settling down and having a family with being single without anyone to care for term papers on success, and no commitment.

Bacon regularly gives advantages and. Less Homework! Words 548 - Pages 3. 64 Team Single Elimination WHAP Bracketology WAR 1812 KOREAN WAR (1 1812 (33 CIVIL WAR VIETNAM WAR (2 (34 (4 (57 (5 (7 (36 (8 Aspirin (61 (9 Julius Caesar (37 Maximilian Napoleon (10 (38 (12 (39 (14 Napoleon Bonaparte (52 (40 Adolf Hitler (28 (29 Wright brothers Leonardo da Vinci Garrett Augustus Morgan Earle Dickson (30 (56 Dr. On Success! Charles Richard Drew Leonardo da Vinci Leonardo da Vinci Genghis Khan Henry W. Seeley Thomas Alva Edison (47 Dr. Charles Richard Drew. Words 335 - Pages 2. * Test names and other trademarks are the property of the respective trademark holders.

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negtive homework Copyright 2002 by Elizabeth Yeow. Included here with permission of the on success author. #9;Every fall excitement fills the air as students arrive at school with new backpacks and school supplies, eager to meet their new teacher. Essay Child During Industrial? Always a new beginning, the papers start of school allows every student to have a fresh beginning and make this year the best year ever. Yet within weeks of the start of school, teachers begin to see a certain pattern emerging: the same students repeatedly neglect to turn in homework. The teacher will then remind, reprimand, take away recess, and binding, threaten to call home and talk to their mom and dad. Term Papers? Occasionally, this will work and the student will miraculously appear with homework in hand, most of the time there are just excuses. More often, the teacher becomes more frustrated and disheartened, the student#146;s grades drop and 123, he or she will feel like a failure.

The repetition of this scenario caused me to really consider the papers on success value and effect of homework. Every year, and this year is no exception, I have at least one student, usually two, who never bring their completed homework back on time. I was puzzled by these students#146; attitudes towards homework. I wanted to understand more about their perceptions of is better, homework and to find out what kind of support they were receiving at home. Perhaps, these students do not understand the term on success homework or maybe their parents are unable to help them. Maybe the instructions were unclear or the essay homework is too difficult for them. I wanted to understand more about papers on success their parents#146; views about school and homework.

I also wanted to know more about other issues that may be going on at home. What are some things that I could do to help them bring their homework back? As I began this study, I had several assumptions. I saw homework is an important part of their schoolwork and is a reinforcement of thesis binding service university, what is learned at school. This extra practice is term, helpful to students and 123, when students do not do their homework it affects how they do in school. Also, lack of finished homework may be an indication of term, their attitude towards school or learning. I teach at Clara Barton Elementary School (pseudonym), a public elementary school in the suburbs of essay labor during industrial revolution, a metropolitan area, about 15 miles outside of Washington, DC. At the beginning of this school year Clara Barton Elementary School switched from a traditional school calendar to a year round calendar.

On the term on success year round calendar school is in session for essay child during nine weeks and then there is a two or three week intersession break. During the intersession remediation and term on success, enrichment classes are offered to students. The cost of attending intersession is five dollars. The community around Clara Barton Elementary School is comprised of single family homes, townhouses, and multifamily dwellings. The majority of the students that attend Clara Barton Elementary School live in the townhouse community directly behind the school. The townhouse community accepts Section 8 housing certificates. Many of the townhouses house more than one family. There is a high transience rate at Clara Barton Elementary School of about 40 percent. Seventy-five percent of the school is composed of ethnic- and language-minority students. More than 22 countries and many different languages are represented at Clara Barton Elementary School. Many of the students that attend Clara Barton Elementary School are from low-income families.

Clara Barton Elementary School receives funding from Title I and many of the students receive free or reduced lunches. The school is organized primarily into self-contained classrooms. The school does not have a formal homework policy, but in the staff handbook there is a recommended amount of time students should spend on homework based on grade level. Write Persuasive Essay Death? Third grade students should have between 30-60 minutes of homework per papers, evening. Thesis Form In Header? The school slogan is Clara Barton Reads and students are encouraged to read 20 minutes at home every night as part of term papers on success, their homework.

This is my fourth year teaching and I have taught third grade at Clara Barton Elementary for less homework is better all four years. I am an Asian female. The students in my class are all in the third grade. On Success? The class is composed of 18 students, 8 boys and 10 girls. Sixteen out essay on donatello of the 18 are ESOL students. Eight of the students speak Spanish at home, 5 speak Vietnamese, and 1 speaks another language. Homework in my classroom is assigned Monday through Thursday evenings and usually includes spelling, reading, and math. When students arrive at school in the morning they take out their homework and stack it on term papers on success, a table at the back of the room. While they are putting their backpacks, books, and jackets away I check in their homework. Any student who does not bring in completed homework has to finish their homework during free activity time. Selecting a Focus Group.

As I looked over my homework grade sheet I noticed that I had three students, all boys, who repeatedly did not bring in binding of manchester, their homework. Term Papers On Success? Two of the boys, Jose and Juan (pseudonyms), are Hispanic and one, Aaron (pseudonym), is African-American. Originally I decided to look at all three students, but then Juan moved mid-year. Thesis In Header? So, I had two students to focus on, but the more I collected data and reflected I realized that I really was focusing more on Jose. Term? Due to time constraints and the inability to contact Aaron#146;s mother I decided to focus this study about Jose. #9;Jose is a third grade, ESOL student.

His primary language is Spanish; however he is very fluent in English. Jose has helped translate a few words for essay on donatello me before. He is the oldest child in papers on success, his family and has one younger sibling who is not old enough yet for school. He lives with his mother, father, grandmother, and younger sister. His father and mother both work full-time. His father often has to work night shifts and sometimes does not get to see Jose much because of his work schedule. Jose has attended Clara Barton Elementary School since kindergarten and lives in homework is better, the townhouse community behind the school.

Jose loves to papers on success, draw during his free moments and will frequently take out a notebook and draw action figures. Essay On Donatello? Jose takes Tae Kwon Doe classes in the evenings and frequently talks about how he enjoys these classes. He is term on success, well-liked at school and has many friends, both boys and girls, in his class. He is reading on grade level, but his writing and math are below grade level. Frequently Jose needs short extensions on 123, in-class assignments. As I considered my puzzlement over papers, students#146; attitudes towards homework I realized there may be many different things contributing to this puzzling situation. Homework Is Better? My own beliefs and values may be contributing to this puzzling situation. Perhaps my expectations for papers completed homework are too high or I am giving too much homework. My expectation that students should have and do homework may be influenced by my experience with homework as a child. #9;In the last thirty years the controversy over the value of homework has come up again and again. Depending on the decade there are either demands for more homework or cries for less homework.

Proponents for homework believe that it can help students retain more, improve study skills, and teach students that learning can take place anywhere. Persuasive? In addition, homework can promote independence and responsibility and it can help parents connect with what their children are learning in school. Opponents of homework believe that homework can hinder children from participating in other beneficial activities, such as sports or scouts. In addition, parental involvement with homework can confuse students if their parents use techniques that are different than their teachers. Homework can also accentuate the disparity between students from low-income homes and students from term papers on success middle-class homes. Students from 123 low-income homes may have more difficulty completing an assignment (Cooper, 2001). It is also possible that there is a cultural mismatch between what is emphasized at home and what is emphasized at school. Papers On Success? My belief that homework is 123, important and should be given Monday through Thursday nights is also emphasized by the administration at my school. Perhaps Jose#146;s parents do not value schoolwork and homework as much as it is emphasized in school.

They may feel that homework is repetitious and unnecessary for on success their child. Persuasive Essay Penalty? Maybe they feel they can provide more authentic learning after school for on success their children by thesis search form in header, providing them with cultural, athletic, or other experiences. Parents may feel that these other activities will benefit their child more and may therefore not stress homework. Papers On Success? It is also possible that parents may not value school and this feeling is conveyed to students. Outside influences may also affect Jose. Perhaps he has seen older friends or relatives who do not do their homework. He may view these older ones as cool or maybe he has seen kids on television or in movies that do not do their homework. Another outside influence might be the economic situation of the family. The family may be struggling to make ends meet and there may be difficulties at essay on donatello home that are a higher priority to term on success, students than homework. #9;These cultural influences are important for me to look at because they could change the essay way I administer homework or the term amount of homework that I give. After considering all of the possible cultural influences, I decided to persuasive essay death penalty, narrow them down to the two that I believe to be the most significant.

The two cultural influences that I thought might be the most applicable to my puzzlement are teacher beliefs (CIP 3.1) and a cultural mismatch between home and school (CIP 3.3.2). My beliefs as the teacher affect my giving of homework, my expectation that it be done, and papers, how much I actually assign to students. I believe that one of the strongest influences on young children is their family and their home. Since young children are still very much under the binding direct charge of papers on success, their parents, if they bring in their homework or not is especially dependent on their parents. Their parents have control over whether or not they are given time after school to homework is better, complete homework. Term Papers On Success? The school culture emphasizes an importance on homework and this may not coincide with parental beliefs or practices. Thesis Form? This discord will ultimately affect how a child is perceived by his/her teacher and how successful he/she is academically.

In order to determine what cultural influences were contributing to my puzzlement I needed to gather information about my beliefs. I chose to look at term on success these by journaling, a technique recommended in the Cultural Inquiry Process (Jacob, 1999). In my journaling I needed to consider why this situation was puzzling to me and why I think this situation is happening. My beliefs, background, and previous experience influence how I look at less is better this puzzling situation and how I approach this situation. If I can identify my beliefs and papers, values then I can see how they might be contributing to the puzzling situation. After reflecting and journaling about my homework beliefs I had the opportunity to discuss the topic of my research with my colleagues at school. Through this discussion I realized that I should ask them what their beliefs were about essay on donatello homework and find out how much homework the other third grade teachers were giving (CIP 4.1). #9;Information also needed to be gathered about a mismatch between the student#146;s home culture and the school curriculum (CIP 4.3.2).

The school or the school district might have a homework policy that I am unaware of. If there is a homework policy then there is on success, not a strong emphasis on it and it does not seem to influence teachers and how often or how much homework they give. Weisenthal, Cooper, Greenblatt Marcus, (1997) found that schools with a strong emphasis on homework influenced how often teachers gave homework. I realized it was important to look at the school culture and then to look at 123 the home culture and see if there was a mismatch. In order to find out on success more information about Jose#146;s home culture I considered visiting his home but I had difficulty contacting his parents. I sent many notes home, called home and tried to binding university of manchester, leave messages. Eventually I was able to term papers, speak to Jose#146;s father. I also interviewed students using a modified version of The Student Survey of Homework Practices (Grajria, M. Binding Service? Salend, S. J., 1995) to term papers on success, try to determine what the home environment and culture was like as well as to find out on donatello what their attitude was toward homework. I looked at Jose#146;s school history and contacted Jose#146;s second grade teacher to see what Jose had been like as a second grader. #9;I grew up in an environment where receiving and doing homework was part of a daily routine. Teachers gave me homework, my parents expected that I would have it done, and if I did not do it I felt horrible.

My parents always made sure that my homework was done when I was in elementary school. Papers? By the is better time I reached middle school and high school I had acquired the habit of doing homework independently. I have always believed that homework helps students learn and term on success, reinforces concepts. 123 The question I have to ask myself in this puzzlement is Do I know for sure that homework benefits students? In order to answer this question I decided to term papers, look at some research that has been done on 123, the benefits or detriments of term papers, homework. The correlation between completing homework and academic achievement has been the subject of much research. Depending on which side of the homework argument one is on, research can have both positive and negative effects on students.

According to Cooper (2001) some positive academic effects of homework include retention and less, understanding of term, material, improved study skills, improved attitudes toward school. Some nonacademic effects of thesis search form in header, homework include promoting independent and on success, responsibility in students and involving parents in what is going on in the classroom. Homework also has some negative effects, such as boredom, denying students leisure time and the benefits of essay child industrial, wholesome learning from scouts or sports. Homework can lead to cheating and can emphasize the disparity between the homes of low-income and middle class students. Students from low-income homes may have to term papers, work after school or may not have a quiet place to study at home. When looking at 50 studies done on homework and student achievement, Cooper (2001) found that homework had little or no effect on write essay death, student achievement at the elementary level. #9;After reading some research on the effects of homework on academic achievement I had to seriously consider how my beliefs fit into this.

I realized that giving homework benefited me as the teacher. These benefits matched the benefits teachers expressed having in the Homework Attitude and Behaviour Inventory for Teachers (Weisenthal et al., 1997). Homework improved my ability to cover the curriculum and acted as a kind of papers on success, bridge between the last lesson and the next one. Although homework benefited me, as the teacher, I found myself reconsidering why I was handing out essay on donatello homework to students. According to Kralovec and Buell (2001), elementary school students show no significant academic gain from doing homework. Papers? So, if homework was not helping students academically then how worthwhile was giving homework?

#9; I found out that the other two third grade teachers, both males, at my school were not giving as much homework as I was. One teacher usually gave only spelling and reading as homework. Every once in a while he would give math homework. Essay? The other third grade teacher usually gave math and reading as homework and rarely gave spelling homework. On Success? I, on the other hand, gave math, spelling, and less homework is better, reading as homework. Why weren#146;t the other teachers giving as much homework as I was? According to Weisenthal et al. (1997) some teachers may go easy on themselves so they have less homework to collect and to grade. I decided to go back and interview the other third grade teachers to find out what their beliefs about homework were.

One of the teachers did not believe that giving homework was a big deal unless a child did not understand the homework. Papers On Success? He believed that homework should be given for essay students to build responsibility and for character building. Term? In his experience the ones that don#146;t bring their homework back are usually the essay on donatello ones that don#146;t understand the concepts. He also felt that at term papers on success the elementary level if students pay attention in class then they will achieve and child labor industrial revolution, homework will not necessarily help them achieve. On Success? The other third grade teacher believed that homework should be a reinforcement of what is taught in thesis binding of manchester, school and he felt that it made a difference in term papers on success, their achievement at school. Essay On Donatello? He said that he could tell the next day by student performance if a student did or did not do their homework. He also believed that homework helped students learn to be responsible and term papers, build a good work ethic. After discussing homework policies and their beliefs about essay labor during industrial revolution homework with my colleagues I went to the principal and asked her if we had a school wide homework policy. She referred me to the staff handbook. Although there is not a school wide homework policy, there were some generally accepted principles that should govern teachers when assigning homework. Some of the principles include, flexibility and differences in on success, the assignments to individual students, homework should be reasonable in view of the pupil#146;s situation including health, housing conditions, outside work or responsibility, leisure-time activity and thesis service of manchester, conflicting demands of home and school.

On the daily announcements students are encouraged to read for 20 minutes every night as homework. Any homework given out in addition to this is up to the individual teacher. I also looked through Homework Helper: A Guide for Teachers which was published by the school district. This guide was handed out at a staff meeting at the beginning of the term on success school year and teachers were encouraged to thesis service, use it as a guide. Since that time homework has not been discussed with the staff. According to the guide the purpose of homework is to practice skills, reinforce academic concepts, extend learning, promote good study skills, apply new skills and concepts, involve parents, and term papers on success, develop positive attitudes toward school and learning. The guide does not discuss the amount of homework to be given. Any homework, aside from the essay death penalty daily reading, is papers, up to the individual teacher. #9;In order to gather more information about Jose#146;s home culture I tried to contact Jose#146;s parents through notes and phone calls home. After repeated attempts to contact Jose#146;s parents, his father appeared one afternoon at my classroom door.

It appeared that he had finally received one of the many messages I left for him. I was very excited to meet with him, but wondered how the thesis form in header meeting would go as we did not have a translator. After a few minutes I thought it would be appropriate because it seemed that he had enough of term papers on success, a grasp of the English language for us to be able to communicate without a translator. Our meeting was short (we really did need a translator). I asked him a few questions about his job and Jose#146;s behavior and is better, work habits at home. Term Papers On Success? He seemed very responsive and concerned. Apparently Jose had been telling him since the beginning of the year that he did not have any homework. Less Homework? He had believed Jose and did not try to contact me to confirm it. He and his wife both worked long hours and many times he had to term papers on success, work the night shift.

Often when Jose comes home his mother is at work and his father is either at work or sleeping. Service University Of Manchester? His grandmother, who speaks only papers, Spanish, is there to watch him. Of Manchester? Jose#146;s father said that he or his wife always asked Jose if he had finished his homework. He did mention that one afternoon when he told Jose his friend had to term papers on success, go home he saw Jose give his friend a piece of paper that looked like homework. Homework? His father didn#146;t ask about it and forgot about it until his meeting with me. The weekly notes that I had been sending home did not reach Jose#146;s parents either. Jose#146;s father suggested that he could sign Jose#146;s homework every evening and term papers on success, maybe this would help Jose do his homework and binding university, bring it to school. The day after meeting with Jose#146;s father, Jose did not have his homework. Term? He did bring his homework the next day signed by his father, but since then he hasn#146;t had anything signed by either parent.

#9;I realized through this brief interaction with Jose#146;s father that he and his wife both cared about their son and binding service of manchester, his success in school. However, I realized that they also had other things, such as tae kwon do lessons, that they wanted their son to learn. Gonz á lez (1995) points out how important it is for teachers to know their students#146; culture and to not have a prepackaged awareness of cultural diversity. They were providing nonacademic experiences for their son that they felt were important for his development as a person. In addition, I realized that Jose#146;s father wanted his son to do his homework, but was very limited due to term, his work schedule to write essay penalty, encourage and help Jose. I#146;m not sure why Jose#146;s mother did not return phone calls or come to school with Jose. I have only seen Jose#146;s father with him when attending school events. Although Jose#146;s father indicated that they asked Jose about his homework they did not seem to do anything to encourage or require that Jose do his homework.

Since they may not have been encouraging him to do his homework Jose may have been getting the message that homework was not valuable to his parents. #9;I contacted Jose#146;s second grade teacher to discuss his homework habits in second grade. Term On Success? I found out that he rarely brought in finished homework and Jose#146;s second grade teacher frequently tried to essay revolution, contact his parents to discuss work habits. Papers? She noticed that when his father had to work the thesis binding university of manchester night shift Jose came to school quite disheveled and without any homework. Term? When Jose#146;s father switched to working during the day Jose seemed more attentive in school and sometimes was able to bring in finished homework. Jose#146;s achievement in school, including homework completion, seemed to on donatello, be directly affected by his father#146;s work schedule. Tapia (1998) indicated that the papers on success most important factor influencing poor students#146; academic performance is family stability. Essay Penalty? Jose#146;s feeling of family stability seemed to on success, be affected by seeing his father regularly during the afternoon and evening. #9;To find out my class#146; attitude and essay, homework habits I passed out the Homework Survey to my whole class and read it to them as they circled responses.

I emphasized that this was not for term papers on success a grade and thesis search, they should answer exactly how they felt and not be worried about being wrong. Some sample questions from the survey are as follows: - I get easily distracted when I am doing my homework. - I feel unsure about which homework assignment to do first. - I feel teachers are unfair and give too much homework. - Activities such as sports and music are more important to me than doing my homework.

- Someone checks my homework for me when I am done. - Someone at papers home asks me if I have finished my homework. I handed out the essay surveys and then read through each item and explained any of the questions that students did not understand. As I looked over on success, the surveys I realized that my students were limited in their ability to during industrial, self-report because of their young age and their self-reports may not be identical to their actual practices at term papers home. For example, Aaron reported that he always turned in his homework when he actually rarely turned in less homework, his homework. Nine students, half of the term papers class indicated that they need someone to child industrial, remind them to do their homework. On Success? Half the 123 class indicated that they sometimes need help with their homework. It was interesting to note that Jose indicated that he does not like to do homework, many times feels he needs help with his homework, and term, he thinks homework is is better, important only some of the time. Jose also indicated that he received daily reminders at home to do his homework, but despite these reminders he did not always do his homework. Interventions and Monitoring.

#9;One intervention I tried was to change homework assignments so there wasn#146;t as much of a mismatch between Jose#146;s culture and papers, the school curriculum (CIP 5.3.2). Maybe Jose did not see the search relevance of the homework that was given and needed homework that was more meaningful. Kravolec and term on success, Buell (2001) found homework could be very disruptive of family life. Binding Of Manchester? It can interfere with what parents want to teach their children and punish children in term papers on success, poverty from being poor. Parents may have cultural and religious beliefs or life skills that they feel are important for their children to learn, but homework may interfere with the limited time they have with their children to share those beliefs or skills. 123 Since Jose frequently talked about Tae Kwon Do lessons and term, other things that he did during the week with his parents, I realized that it was important to them for thesis service university of manchester their son to be trained in some kind of sport. They might also feel that as a growing boy Jose needed some physical activity after school.

Although Jose indicated that his parents asked him about his homework they did not ask to term papers on success, see his homework. They believed him when he said he did not have homework or that he had finished his homework. It is possible that they did not have the time or energy to look at 123 his homework. They both worked long hours and it is term papers on success, possible that they had many daily survival demands that are more important than Jose#146;s elementary school homework. Since outside influences can not always be controlled or changed, I realized that interventions had to be made at the school or classroom level to thesis form, help students (CIP 5.4.1). Papers? It seemed that Jose was not getting the support that he needed from home because his parents#146; time is occupied with work and other basic survival issues, so one intervention was to give less challenging homework.

Although all the homework I give students should be able to do independently, he had indicated on 123, his Homework Survey that he needed help a lot. Papers? So, I modified his homework and noticed that he started turning in part of his homework. His parents#146; limited English may affect Jose, so I tried to university of manchester, give more homework that was self-explanatory and made sure that he understood all the directions before he left school. Another intervention I tried was to allow Jose to begin his homework at school. On Success? I let him start his homework at school. I noticed that the next day sometimes the only part he would have to on donatello, turn in was the part he had started in on success, school. Jose seemed to have difficulty getting his homework from school to home and then back to school. Penalty? So, I gave Jose a checklist with a Velcro check that he could move when he had completed a task. The checklist was to help him write his homework down, collect the materials he needed for home, put them in his backpack.

His father was given a matching one to on success, keep at home. Before leaving to go home everyday he had to make sure to check in thesis form, with me so I could check his backpack. After receiving the checklist I watched Jose everyday and noticed that he wasn#146;t following it. I reminded him and encouraged him to use it, but he still didn#146;t use it. On a daily basis I continue to check Jose#146;s backpack and give verbal reminders to term on success, use his homework checklist. He lost the Velcro check for his end-of-the-day checklist on his desk, so I gave him a new one, but he still hasn#146;t used it. He has gotten used to checking with me before leaving. For about two weeks I reminded him that he needed to see me before he walked out the door. Now he remembers on his own that he has to show me his homework inside his backpack. He comes up to me with his backpack open and write essay, his homework at the top so I can see it.

I send informal weekly progress reports home to his parents so that they know how he is doing in school and whether or not he has been turning in his homework. Summary and Implications. After all the term on success interventions and monitoring I can say that Jose turns in his homework about half the thesis service of manchester time. For the term papers first half of the less homework year he rarely turned in any homework assignments and the ones he turned in papers, were usually unfinished. Service Of Manchester? He seems to have more of an understanding that for me doing homework is just as important as doing work in school.

I also have a better understanding of his home situation and papers, that although his parents want him to do well in school they also have other things that they feel are important for Jose to learn. The communication between home and school is definitely better. In addition I feel that I am more aware that the university situation at home greatly affects students#146; ability to on success, work on homework and bring it back to school. This inquiry and search form, research on the benefits and negative effects of homework on students like Jose has really caused me to rethink why I give homework and the amount of homework I give. I realized that my beliefs and values about homework really contributed to my puzzlement. I have really been considering and debating within myself the issue of homework. I feel like I have been forcing my culture and background on students and making them relive how I went through school. Do I give homework for character building or do I really believe that it will help students#146; academic achievement? Checking homework usually takes fifteen minutes in the morning. Maybe this time would be better spent giving minilessons at the beginning of the day or building community in the classroom.

Although the school and school district set policies for term papers homework, they do not stress that homework must be given every night. As a result of this research, I want to make sure that I give meaningful homework. I have also decided to 123, give more differentiated homework. Students like Jose seemed to be overwhelmed with the amount of homework that I give so I will try adjusting assignments to fit the individual student as necessary. Cooper, H. (2001). Homework for term papers on success all #151; in moderation.

Educational Leadership , 34-38. Gajria, M. Salend, S. J. Essay? (1995). Homework practices of students with and papers, without learning disabilities: A comparison. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 28 (5), 291-296. Gonz á lez, N. E. (1995). The funds of knowledge for teaching project. Practicing Anthropology, 17 (3), 3-6. Kralovec, E. Buell, J. (2001). End homework now.

Educational Leadership , 39-42. Tapia, J. (1998). The schooling of persuasive, Puerto Ricans: Philadelphia#146;s most impoverished community. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 29 (3), 297-323.

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40 Useful Words and Phrases for term, Top-Notch Essays. The secret to a successful essay doesn’t just lie in 123, the clever things you talk about and the way you structure your points. To be truly brilliant, an essay needs to utilise the term right language. 123 You could make a great point, but if it’s not intelligently articulated, you almost needn’t have bothered. Developing the term on success language skills to build an argument and to less, write persuasively is term papers, crucial if you’re to write outstanding essays every time.

In this article, we’re going to essay industrial revolution, equip you with the words and phrases you need to write a top-notch essay, along with examples of how to utilise them. It’s by term papers on success, no means an 123 exhaustive list, and term papers there will often be other ways of 123 using the words and phrases we describe that we won’t have room to include, but there should be more than enough below to help you make an instant improvement to term papers, your essay-writing skills whether you’re a native English speaker or taking your first steps into essay child during industrial revolution, writing essays in papers, English. Let’s start by looking at language for general explanations of essay on donatello complex points. Usage : “In order to” can be used to term on success, introduce an explanation for the purpose of an argument. Example : “In order to understand X, we need first to understand Y.” Usage : Use “in other words” when you want to express something in write persuasive penalty, a different way (more simply), to make it easier to understand, or to term on success, emphasise or expand on a point. Example : “Frogs are amphibians.

In other words, they live on the land and in the water.” Usage : This phrase is another way of saying “in other words”, and can be used in particularly complex points, when you feel that an alternative way of wording a problem may help the reader achieve a better understanding of essay death penalty its significance. Example : “Plants rely on photosynthesis. To put it another way, they will die without the sun.” Usage : “That is” and “that is to say” can be used to term papers on success, add further detail to thesis search form in header, your explanation, or to be more precise. Example : “Whales are mammals. Papers On Success? That is to less is better, say, they must breathe air.” Usage : Use “to that end” or “to this end” in papers, a similar way to “in order to” or “so”. Write Persuasive Essay Death? Example : “Zoologists have long sought to understand how animals communicate with each other. To that end, a new study has been launched that looks at elephant sounds and their possible meanings.” Adding additional information to support a point. Term On Success? Students often make the mistake of using synonyms of “and” each time they want to add further information in support of on donatello a point they’re making, or to build an argument. Here are some cleverer ways of doing this.

Usage : Employ “moreover” at the start of a sentence to on success, add extra information in 123, support of a point you’re making. Example : “Moreover, the results of a recent piece of research provide compelling evidence in support of…” Usage :This is term, also generally used at the start of a sentence, to add extra information. Example : “Furthermore, there is thesis binding service, evidence to suggest that…” Usage : This is used in the same way as “moreover” and term on success “furthermore”. Example : “What’s more, this isn’t the service of manchester only evidence that supports this hypothesis.” Usage : Use “likewise” when you want to talk about something that agrees with what you’ve just mentioned. Term On Success? Example : “Scholar A believes X. Likewise, Scholar B argues compellingly in favour of this point of view.” Usage : Use “similarly” in the same way as “likewise”. Example : “Audiences at less is better the time reacted with shock to Beethoven’s new work, because it was very different to term on success, what they were used to. Similarly, we have a tendency to child industrial revolution, react with surprise to term papers on success, the unfamiliar.” Usage : Use the phrase “another key point to remember” or “another key fact to remember” to introduce additional facts without using the word “also”. Example : “As a Romantic, Blake was a proponent of a closer relationship between humans and nature. Essay? Another key point to remember is papers, that Blake was writing during the essay on donatello Industrial Revolution, which had a major impact on the world around him.” Usage : Use “as well as” instead of “also” or “and”. Example : “Scholar A argued that this was due to X, as well as Y.” Usage : This wording is used to add an extra piece of information, often something that’s in papers, some way more surprising or unexpected than the first piece of information.

Example : “Not only did Edmund Hillary have the honour of being the first to reach the university of manchester summit of Everest, but he was also appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire.” Usage : Used when considering two or more arguments at a time. Example : “Coupled with the literary evidence, the statistics paint a compelling view of…” Usage : This can be used to structure an argument, presenting facts clearly one after the other. Term Papers On Success? Example : “There are many points in support of this view. Firstly, X. Secondly, Y. And thirdly, Z. 16. Not to mention/to say nothing of. Usage : “Not to mention” and “to say nothing of” can be used to search form, add extra information with a bit of emphasis. Example : “The war caused unprecedented suffering to millions of people, not to mention its impact on the country’s economy.” Words and phrases for demonstrating contrast.

When you’re developing an argument, you will often need to present contrasting or opposing opinions or evidence “it could show this, but it could also show this”, or “X says this, but Y disagrees”. This section covers words you can use instead of the “but” in these examples, to make your writing sound more intelligent and interesting. Usage : Use “however” to introduce a point that disagrees with what you’ve just said. Example : “Scholar A thinks this. However, Scholar B reached a different conclusion.” Usage : Usage of this phrase includes introducing a contrasting interpretation of the term on success same piece of evidence, a different piece of evidence that suggests something else, or an 123 opposing opinion. Example: “The historical evidence appears to suggest a clear-cut situation. On Success? On the other hand, the archaeological evidence presents a somewhat less straightforward picture of what happened that day.” Usage : Used in a similar manner to “on the other hand” or “but”. Less? Example : “The historians are unanimous in telling us X, an agreement that suggests that this version of events must be an on success accurate account. Service University? Having said that, the archaeology tells a different story.” Usage : Use “by contrast” or “in comparison” when you’re comparing and contrasting pieces of evidence. Example : “Scholar A’s opinion, then, is based on term papers on success insufficient evidence.

By contrast, Scholar B’s opinion seems more plausible.” Usage : Use this to cast doubt on an assertion. Example : “Writer A asserts that this was the reason for what happened. Then again, it’s possible that he was being paid to say this.” Usage : This is used in 123, the same way as “then again”. Example : “The evidence ostensibly appears to point to this conclusion. That said, much of the evidence is term on success, unreliable at best.” Usage : Use this when you want to introduce a contrasting idea. Example : “Much of scholarship has focused on form in header this evidence. Yet not everyone agrees that this is the term papers on success most important aspect of the is better situation.” Adding a proviso or acknowledging reservations. Sometimes, you may need to on success, acknowledge a shortfalling in a piece of evidence, or add a proviso. Here are some ways of doing so. Usage : Use “despite this” or “in spite of this” when you want to thesis, outline a point that stands regardless of a shortfalling in term, the evidence. Child During Industrial? Example : “The sample size was small, but the results were important despite this.” Usage : Use this when you want your reader to term, consider a point in the knowledge of something else.

Example : “We’ve seen that the methods used in the 19th century study did not always live up to the rigorous standards expected in persuasive essay penalty, scientific research today, which makes it difficult to draw definite conclusions. With this in papers on success, mind, let’s look at a more recent study to see how the results compare.” Usage : This means “on condition that”. You can also say “providing that” or just “providing” to mean the same thing. Example : “We may use this as evidence to support our argument, provided that we bear in mind the limitations of the 123 methods used to obtain it.” Usage : These phrases are used when something has shed light on something else. Example : “In light of the evidence from the 2013 study, we have a better understanding of…” Usage : This is similar to on success, “despite this”. Example : “The study had its limitations, but it was nonetheless groundbreaking for its day.”

Usage : This is the same as “nonetheless”. Example : “The study was flawed, but it was important nevertheless.” Usage : This is another way of saying “nonetheless”. Example : “Notwithstanding the thesis binding university of manchester limitations of the methodology used, it was an important study in the development of how we view the workings of the human mind.” Good essays always back up points with examples, but it’s going to on success, get boring if you use the expression “for example” every time. Here are a couple of on donatello other ways of saying the same thing. Example : “Some birds migrate to avoid harsher winter climates.

Swallows, for instance, leave the UK in early winter and fly south…” Example : “To give an illustration of term papers what I mean, let’s look at the case of…” When you want to demonstrate that a point is particularly important, there are several ways of highlighting it as such. Usage : Used to introduce a point that is essay industrial, loaded with meaning that might not be immediately apparent. Example : “Significantly, Tacitus omits to tell us the kind of gossip prevalent in papers, Suetonius’ accounts of the same period.” Usage : This can be used to mean “significantly” (as above), and it can also be used interchangeably with “in particular” (the example below demonstrates the first of these ways of using it). Thesis Form In Header? Example : “Actual figures are notably absent from Scholar A’s analysis.” Usage : Use “importantly” interchangeably with “significantly”. Term On Success? Example : “Importantly, Scholar A was being employed by X when he wrote this work, and was presumably therefore under pressure to write essay, portray the situation more favourably than he perhaps might otherwise have done.” You’ve almost made it to the end of the essay, but your work isn’t over papers yet. You need to end by wrapping up everything you’ve talked about, showing that you’ve considered the arguments on both sides and essay on donatello reached the papers on success most likely conclusion.

Here are some words and phrases to help you. Usage : Typically used to introduce the concluding paragraph or sentence of an write persuasive essay death penalty essay, summarising what you’ve discussed in a broad overview. Papers On Success? Example : “In conclusion, the evidence points almost exclusively to Argument A.” Usage : Used to signify what you believe to be the most significant point, and thesis of manchester the main takeaway from the essay. Example : “Above all, it seems pertinent to remember that…” Usage : This is a useful word to use when summarising which argument you find most convincing. Example : “Scholar A’s point that Constanze Mozart was motivated by financial gain seems to me to term, be the most persuasive argument for her actions following Mozart’s death.” Usage : Use in the same way as “persuasive” above. Example : “The most compelling argument is presented by Scholar A.” Usage : This means “taking everything into account”. Example : “All things considered, it seems reasonable to assume that…” How many of these words and phrases will you get into essay child labor during industrial revolution, your next essay? And are any of your favourite essay terms missing from term our list?

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October 06, 2015 at 10:59 pm, Joe said: Thanks for papers on success, the list. I think it would also be helpful to include a list of words to help express the thoughts of the writers being referenced in the essay, for less homework is better, example, #8220;Jacob states that teachers need to consider the papers learning abilities of all students#8221; or #8220;Williams asserts that reading English texts more often can increase the writing skills of ESL learners#8221;. It sometimes becomes boring to thesis binding university of manchester, keep saying, #8220;so-and-so states that#8230;#8221; October 12, 2015 at 9:07 am, faiz said: This was useful for me. October 14, 2015 at 3:09 am, Lilow W. Papers On Success? said: This article was wonderful. Furthermore, I don#8217;t think my world history grade, as well as my grades in language arts and essay labor during revolution science, would have been half of what they are now without it. All things considered, this was an papers on success amazing article and I recommend it to thesis university, anyone looking to give their essay an term papers on success elegant twist. October 15, 2015 at 3:41 pm, Ayushi said: Thanks!!

Really a very useful list! October 18, 2015 at thesis search form in header 3:29 pm, Missy said: Really helpful ……………. Thank you guys. October 19, 2015 at 10:49 am, steven O'Donnell said: I would have also included #8220;in fact#8221; October 19, 2015 at 9:42 pm, Tom Howell said: *Gasp* As someone who has studied and takes a modicum of interest in the English language, and term papers having spent a lifetime writing scientific essays, all I can say is this list of cliches will not aid you in your academic pursuits. This is a categorical list of English don#8217;ts that will undoubtedly be highlight with a sigh, and a comment something along the lines of #8220;Please, no more#8221; paraphrased of course. Some of these are inescapable and are useful tools, but please use in moderation. If you truly wish to improve your writing, consider the use of language in essay child revolution, literature you may study as part of term on success your academic endeavours be it english or technical based. What makes a writing style worthy of note, and what makes it tedious and monotonous?

The use of structure, engaging writing styles, and even metaphors can be true keys to essay success. December 07, 2015 at 8:24 am, Jeff B. said: Tom, I must agree. In my English class such cliches as listed here would be highlighted and returned to essay child industrial revolution, the student with an admonition to #8220;please use your own words,#8221; or something to papers, that effect. As I like to joke, #8220;Cliches should be avoided like the plague.#8221; October 20, 2015 at 8:22 pm, yoursif said: October 22, 2015 at 5:00 pm, nur amira said: thanks it was indeed helpful. November 02, 2015 at child during revolution 1:11 pm, sania said: really..its very helpful. Term Papers? im unanimous in asserting that how this has engendered an essay advantageous my result. Term Papers? November 12, 2015 at 10:59 am, Alex said: This is less, so great#8230; thanks for the A grade. November 16, 2015 at term 1:22 pm, Chala said: Thanks a lot for this helpful article. One question though: The example given for phrase 12 #8220;Scholar A argued that this was due to X, as well as Y.” has a comma included after #8220;X#8221;, but isn#8217;t a serial comma incorrect in 123, a series of two items? November 21, 2015 at 9:05 pm, Yo said: November 26, 2015 at 5:29 pm, courage said: thanks very much.very useful we look forward for other posts.

November 29, 2015 at term 1:13 am, Joey said: I don#8217;t really feel comfortable using firstly, secondly, thirdly to introduce new points#8230; does anyone else feel the 123 same? December 07, 2015 at 7:58 am, Jeff B. said: While some of the suggestions in this article are valuable, I am going to have to term papers, agree with Tom Howell about the use of cliches. Many of the phrases suggested (e.g. #8220;To put it another way#8221; and #8220;Another key thing to write death, remember#8221;) are cliches, and should be avoided in original writing. Another note: this article recommends the use of #8220;In conclusion#8221; to introduce the conclusion. My suggestion is to avoid it, and I am not the only one who feels this way. Papers On Success? To quote the Writing Center at Harvard University: summary,#8217; and #8216;to sum up.#8217; These phrases can be. usefuleven welcomein oral presentations.

But. 123 readers can see, by the tell-tale compression of the. pages, when an essay is about to end. You#8217;ll irritate. your audience if you belabor the papers obvious.#8221; If your readers cannot figure out that from reading your text that you are presenting your conclusion, then your conclusion has more problems than simply the introduction to it. Homework Is Better? December 07, 2015 at term on success 8:03 am, Jeff B. said: Note: In my comment above, I should have specified #8220;for college-level writing#8230; and write persuasive above.#8221; Further, I will say that sometimes, indeed, #8220;In conclusion#8221; can be a useful phrase, but in many if not most cases it should be avoided. December 07, 2015 at term 10:43 am, Jeff B. said: * Assuming, of course, that my #8220;comment above#8221; is actually posted after it undergoes #8220;moderation.#8221; Otherwise my note makes no sense#8230; December 07, 2015 at 8:25 pm, pavla said: put (or set) the record straight. December 09, 2015 at 12:42 pm, Ahsan said: Really great info. Persuasive? I will use these words in content of my site in order to get best rankings. December 09, 2015 at 8:48 pm, khalid Benameur said: really these are benificial words to use and Iam going to use them.

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essay on clays quilt Freedom’s Story is made possible by papers a grant from the Wachovia Foundation. Rooted in Africa, Raised in America: The Traditional Arts and Crafts of. African-Americans Across Five Centuries. John Michael Vlach. Professor, American Studies and Anthropology. The George Washington University. National Humanities Center. Rarely do studies of death, slavery mention the valuable skills and tangible creations of the term on success millions of Africans brought to the New World. Much is madeand rightly soof African talents in storytelling, music, and dance but these modes of creative performance do not adequately describe the full range of Africa’s contributions to American culture.

The Africans brought to the New World to toil their lives away as slaves were generally cultivators. Write Penalty? They also possessed a wide range of term papers, skills that they had used for generations to wrest a living from the land and among these millions of unwilling immigrants were many skilled artisans. 123 They included builders who erected houses for term papers their families and other structures that sheltered their annual harvests. When confronting the challenges of essay, living in the dense tropical forests of their homelands, they turned to their local blacksmiths who forged the necessary iron tools that allowed them to clear and on success maintain their garden plots. Basket makers provided them with various containers that allowed crops to be harvested and stored until needed. Potters turned local clays, found most often along the essay death banks of papers on success, numerous rivers and streams, into useful cooking and storage vessels. Other domestic implements, items like serving bowls and drinking cups, could be fashioned from gourds of varying sizes and baskets were made from reeds, palm leaves, and binding service of manchester a wide variety other vegetal materials. Over the course of papers on success, several millennia African populations developed the means to write persuasive live successfully within a challenging environment of extreme heat, prolonged rain, and dense forest cover. On Success? Labeled by Europeans as savages, these people possessed a wide array of tangible skills that would ultimately prove to be precious immigrant gifts that they would contribute to persuasive the making of the Americas. Term On Success? Unfortunately for them, they were within easy reach of less, slave traders whose ships made regular calls along almost five thousand miles of Africa’s coastal shores. Asante-style drum.

The well-documented horrors of captivity in the foul holds of slave ships drive from our minds any images except those of horrible misery and suffering. Yet objects of considerable creativity, on occasion, also made the same voyage from Africa to term papers the Americas. There is today in the British Museum a drum carved from a section of a tree trunk that was collected in Virginia some time between 1730 and write 1745. The drum’s shape, materials, and mode of decoration are so distinctive that the papers on success instrument can confidently identified as one made by a person belonging to the Akan-speaking peoples who still reside in the modern nation of Ghana. There can be little doubt that this musical instrument was used in some plantation context almost half a century before the American Revolution. The presence of thesis search in header, such an unquestionably African object in the Americas indicates that the captives who were taken far from their homeland were still able to retain selected aspects of their native identities. It was more often the case that elements of their culturelanguage, religion, and foodways to name a fewwould over time become blended or creolized expressions as Africans evolved into African-Americans. Banjo being played at slave.

quarter with a drum. accompaniment. 18th Century. In plantation societies the on success playing of drums was generally outlawed due to the fear by slave owners that such instruments could be used to send messages related to rebellion and escape. Such prohibitions did not however apply to other African musical instruments such as the banjo. In fact, the appealing sound of the banjo would, by the dawning of the nineteenth century, ignite a national fascination for its compelling combination of melody and percussion.

As a player’s fingers plucked a lively tune on the strings, he would simultaneously mark the song’s beat when his hand tapped the thesis of manchester skin stretched over the sounding chamber. Functionally the banjo joined the lute to the drum, an act that fused melody with a strong rhythmic punctuation. This combination of term papers, tune and percussion in a single instrument proved to be so appealing that banjo tunes that were first heard in plantation contexts are played today. Thesis In Header? However, the banjo is now so thoroughly associated with the Appalachian highlands and Anglo-American musicians that only papers a handful of enthusiasts are aware of either the banjo’s African origins or its long history among African-American players. African Potter and Colonoware samples. 2005 African Diaspora Archaeology Network. Archaeologists, who have probed the grounds on old plantation sites dating back to the seventeenth century, regularly turn up fragments of unglazed earthenware pottery. Seeming to be very crude when compared to the stoneware vessels commonly in thesis binding service use in Euro-American households, these items were initially presumed to have been made by Native Americans of the colonial period who perished shortly after the arrival of the first European settlers.

Initially labeled as Colono-ware, it is term on success, now clear that many of these pieces were fashioned by Africans. Binding Of Manchester? Consequently these rough earthenware vessels should be recognized as Afro-Colono pieces if not, in some cases, simply as examples of term on success, African pottery. During the colonial era South Carolina’s enslaved blacks outnumbered white people by a ratio of four to one and, given this numerical dominance, planters found that they could only effectively supervise their slaves when they were out in the fields. Consequently, the essay routines carried out in their domestic quarters couldand didreconnect them to some of the practices of their African homelands as they fashioned their own clay vessels and used them to cook their meals according their own preferences. The African quality of their domestic routines was so evident to term one eighteenth-century visitor that he would write that “Carolina looks more like a negro country than like a country settled by white people.” At plantation sites across the Carolina lowcountry archaeologists have discovered that over persuasive essay penalty ninety percent of the ceramic evidence consists of term on success, fragments of Colono-ware, a finding that suggests that slaves controlled far more of essay, their domestic routine than was previously suspected.

Given that Africans were the largest population group in South Carolina during the colonial era, it should not be too surprising that black Carolinians would continue to use their African languages when conversing among themselves. But even when they had developed a creolized variant called Gullah, this new language still retained many African elements. They also developed an Africanized spatial “language” that was used in the design and layout of term papers on success, their quarters. To some white observers these buildings were too small and thus seemed uncomfortably crowded. This is because when English rules of measure were employed, room sizes were generally in write death penalty range of on success, 264 square feet (16 feet x 16 feet). In West African buildings rooms are considerably smaller being, on average, closer to 100 square feet (10 feet x 10 feet). The Afro-Carolinian average room size, based on a sample of excavated foundations, was 120 square feet (approximately 11 feet x 11 feet). These proportions suggest that slaves continued to employ a sense of proportion that recalled the traditional house types found all along the Guinea Coast region from thesis search form, Sierra Leone to on success Cameroon. Thesis Search? Filming “Digging for Slaves.” Wall trench and post holes.

in slave quarter. Whenever African-Americans were able to exert a degree of control over their working or living conditions, there usually emerged interesting tangible signs of their concerns 1859 Jar. (a.k.a. Papers? Dave the Potter). 25-Gallon Jar. (a.k.a. Dave the Potter). and values. As early as the 1820s in write persuasive penalty Edgefield District of western South Carolina, for example, slave labor was used extensively in the manufacture of stoneware pottery. The most noteworthy black potter in the area was David Drake, an extraordinarily skilled man who is credited with producing the largest vessels ever made during the term papers antebellum periodhuge crocks with holding capacities of almost fifty gallons. Beyond the achievement of creating vessels that were so monumental in scale, Drake also added inscriptions in the form of witty rhymed couplets like “A large jar which has four handles/ pack it full of fresh meatthen light candles” or “Good for lard/ or holding fresh meat/ Blest we were when/ Peter saw the folded/ sheet.” But he could also offer more sobering statements on 123, his captivity: “Dave belongs to Mr.

Miles/ wher[e] the oven bakes the pot biles.” That he would display his literacy in public was a dangerous gesture since South Carolina law required that any slave who was literate was to be sold out of the state because of his ability to send secret messages to other slaves who might be plotting escapes or even rebellions. But because Drake was so skilled and could clearly make the sorts of large storage jars required by term on success the bigger plantations, the criminal penalties for his literacy were apparently overlooked. Less Homework Is Better? That Drake’s craft skills had evidently earned him a rare dispensation from the penalties of the local slave codes would signal to other slaves that skill was a potential pathway to privilege. Face jugs attributed to a slave potter in. Edgefield, South Carolina, about 1850. While the potteries of the Edgefield District were established to satisfy planters needs for on success utilitarian wares, by the middle decades of the nineteenth century some African-American potters were making small vessels that were sculpted into the form of human heads. Generally about five inches tall (although one example measures less than an inch-and-a-half), their purpose has never been discovered and essay thus remains open to speculation. It is, however, worth noting that these small face pots strongly resemble wooden sculptures known in on success the Congo region of central Africa which also have shiny white material inserted in them to mark eyes and teeth in exactly the same manner as the Edgefield vessels. The opportunity to develop pottery skills allowed African-Americans to on donatello develop new skills even as they as retained some aspects of an ancestral tradition. Sherry Byrd and term her “Home-grown/ Hand-made/Passed-on-Family” quilt.

While quilted bedcovers were not used in the tropical homelands of enslaved Africans, they soon learned how to make them. 123 Requiring thousands of term, tiny stitches to thesis search form attach the colorful quilt top to term papers on success a plain back, assembling a quilt could take months to is better complete. Papers? Fannie Moore, who was still a child when slavery was abolished, recalled how her mother quilted in thesis search her cabin making bedcovers for “the white folks” as well as for her own family. One particularly noteworthy quilt decorated with images of chalices was made in on success 1860 by some of the enslaved women of essay child during industrial, Mimosa Hall plantation in East Texas. Created on the occasion of a visit by an Anglican bishop, the quilt is today a high prized work of art owned by the American Museum in Britain located at Claverton Manor in Bath, England. Bedcovers of this sort rigorously follow a strict grid pattern typical of most Anglo-American quits and in this instance black quilters contributed only their labor as the quilt was assembled. But over their years of captivity, black quilters evolved their own approach to term papers quilt-making by developing a style open to imaginative patterns that break away from the usual Euro-American patterns based on a strict repetitive geometry.

Contemporary African-American quilter Sherry Bryd actually rejects old patterns saying “I don’t like to do the same things over and over again, and so I just kind of build my own quilts as I sit at the machine.” The improvisatory mode that she describes has led many quilters to experiment with novel notions of quilt design. The most adventuresome proceed intuitively working out on donatello, ideas that they have never tried before although they still seem to term papers be, in some way, familiar. African-American Quilter Wanda Jones explains that “It’s nothin’ about makin’ it a little different. It’s still the same pattern. You just add somethin’ of labor revolution, your own to papers it.” A fusion of thesis binding service university, past and present occurs while a quilter is term papers on success, sorting out some of the less is better various ways that she might assemble her quilt. This review process has led ultimately to a preference for a set of term papers, constantly evolving patterns. The fluid design process seen in so many contemporary African-American quilts is analogous to 123 the open-ended approach to musical composition that can be heard in blues and papers jazz performances where improvisational technique constantly interrupts regularized notions of on donatello, tone and time. Mary Lee Bendolph, Mary Lee Bendolph.

and Ruth P. Mosely. Papers? Recently there has been much public acclaim for thesis binding service university of manchester the quilts produced in term the small central Alabama town of Gee’s Bend. These exciting bedcovers have been displayed, so far, at twelve major museums all across the country and can be seen on a host of thesis form, websites. Marked by bold color choices and patterns that break away from the expected regularized patterns of repeated blocks, these quilts strike most viewers as works of term papers on success, are equivalent to abstract paintings. Actually the Gee’s Bend quilts derive from so-called “throw together” quilts known to southern blacks as far back as the sharecropper era and, in some cases, even to slavery times.

While they are now widely hailed as outstanding works of art, for the Gee’s Bend community they are necessary items grounded in the experience of the self-reliant forebears. 123 Some quilters see in the quilting process an expression of on success, homage to ancestors who survived conditions much worse than what they may have to essay on donatello confront today. Contemporary Gee’s Bend quilter Mary Lee Bendolph acknowledges a feeling for the past in her work when she selects the papers on success materials for her quilts: “Old clothes carry something with them. You can feel the presence of the person that used to wear them. It has spirit in them. Even if I don’t even know the person, I know someone wore those pants, and it feels lovely and warm to me.” But the past is only one of the influences that she brings together with her own personal insights and write persuasive death penalty preferences as she creates a quilt: “I never try to quilt altogether like anybody It’s better if you do what you are supposed to do than to try and copy somebody else.” In the hands of an artist like Bendolph an term papers, old art form like quilting remains fresh and 123 relevant. Contemporary African-American folk artists find themselves faced with the possibility of papers, honoring the form legacy of the past even as they look for a way to make their own mark. Philip Simmons, a renowned blacksmith who worked in Charleston, South Carolina for seventy years, was trained by papers Peter Simmons (no relation), a man who was born a slave. Peter Simmons’ history in ironwork traces back at essay child during industrial, least as far as the first decades of the nineteenth century. But when asked about the importance of this history in carrying on term, his ancient trade, Philip Simmons suggests that the future always held more of an attraction for him because of the appeal of the unknown: “After all those many years [of working], I’m still learning things.

I’m still doing things I have never done before. There is thesis university, always something you can learn. Blacksmithing, there’s always something new to learn.” So often the dominant interest in history is focused on looking back over time in order to on success answer questions related to origins. While the study of the historical record is important, Simmons encourages us to alter our perspective and to consider how the great arc of on donatello, history also reaches forward to contemporary generations.

He suggests that if we have a good understanding of older precedents and the desire look at them with care, we might be able to see how historical influences can move beneficially on term on success, into the future. Simmons’s suggestion about the thesis in header utility of traditional knowledge in term papers the present can be seen daily in the streets of Charleston, South Carolina. Philip Simmons, 1982. Photographed by Tom Pich, for the National Endowment for of manchester the Arts, National Heritage Fellows. Every morning African-American basket sewers return to their chosen street corners where they ply their centuries-old trade of making coiled baskets. As early as 1690s, their ancestors made rice fanners, three-foot-wide trays fashioned with thick coils that were used to clean the rice before it could be cooked. They also made a wide assortment of term on success, containers that were used both in their homes and in the fields.

The baskets made for persuasive death home use tended to be smaller and thus their coils were thinner and their shapes more elegant than the baskets used for field tasks. When a series of hurricanes at the end of the nineteenth century destroyed the vast rice fields that stretched from North Carolina to Florida, there was no longer a need for most work baskets but the more resourceful basket makers began to focus on flower baskets and term on success other decorative forms that might be sold to tourists. Known as “show baskets” because they allowed a basket maker to show-off her particular talent, thousands of them can be seen most often at small stands along the coastal highway (Route 17). Consequently, the public presence of basket sewers has become an exotic feature of the local scene that can lure tourists to Carolina lowcountry. During the last quarter of the twentieth century, sweetgrass basket sewers (and there are hundreds of them) were celebrated in several museum exhibitions, both locally and nationally, and as a result of this attention their baskets have come to be celebrated as the product of an unbroken tradition that has endured into its fourth century. One of the 123 great contemporary stars, among many highly talented basket sewers, is Mary Foreman Jackson who has placed her works at term on success, an impressive list of notable museums that include: the Smithsonian American Art Museum, the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, and the Philadelphia Museum of of manchester, Art. Jackson’s baskets are so highly regarded that when prominent figures visit South Carolina they presented with one of term, her baskets as a remembrance of the event. Included among these dignitaries are: Pope John Paul II; Charles, Prince of Wales, and search in header the Emperor and Empress of term papers on success, Japan.

That a humble tool for cleaning rice could give rise to a prestigious art form used to honor the world’s most noteworthy figures, speaks volumes about the essay creative energies embedded in the African-American community and the enduring power of term papers on success, their traditions. 123 Clearly a community that can produce such talented artists deserves closer study so that their hidden virtues might, one day, become a source of national pride. Guiding Student Discussion. Deriving history from artifacts is a tricky proposition for most scholars because they are so used to gathering information by term papers reading written documents. But objects and spaces, the tangible record of human experience, also have the ability to mark and express the record of human actions if they can be accurately placed in a geographic context and a historical sequence. Once archaeologists can link a dusty sherd of service of manchester, pottery to a person from a specific location during particular period, they can use that fragment to carry our minds back to that very same moment. By attending carefully to the materials, size, construction, decoration, and use of an object, whether it is on success, as small as a pin or a large as house, a detailed biography can be constructed of any artifact (see Fleming’s cited below for a model). Child Labor Industrial? With that profile in hand, one can turn then to a particular type of term, artifacta quilt, for exampleand compare it to others of the same class and essay during industrial revolution then make useful observations of similarities and differences over time or across regions. What emerges from term on success, such an inquiry is service, something of the life history of the object that might indicate the virtues or flaws of papers, a particular quilt pattern. If enough quilts are sampled as group, it may be possible to learn something about the artistic direction followed by a particular community. My book The Afro-American Tradition in Decorative Arts samples a wide array of topics that might be considered for class or individual projects: basketry, woodcarving, weaving, quilting, pottery, boatbuilding, blacksmithing, carpentry.

Since we live an thesis university, era where most people are consumers rather than producers of the things they use every day, life in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries is bound to appear very alien, if not irrelevant. Students might be benefit from assignments that require them to inspect aspects of the daily routines of term papers on success, slaves. Reading selected slave narratives, particularly those collected by 123 interviewers working for the Federal Writer’s Program, will take students directly into term the slave quarters and their work areas (see Yetman). Often filled with memories of essay labor industrial, harsh treatment and cruel exploitation, their accounts also describe instances of diligent work and craft skills. Papers On Success? The evident pride that some people express indicates that their statements made by material means served as a partial therapy for thesis form their cruel treatment. By creating a wide array of domestic items that they could use in their quarters, enslaved African-Americans proved that they were more the papers on success mere property. Gabe Lance, who worked for many years in essay labor during industrial the rice fields of South Carolina, when asked about life during the years before the Civil War, responded with apparent pride and a measure of bravado “Missus, Slavery time people done something!” It would be very therapeutic if students could understand that enslaved people were more than the papers on success sum of their brutalizationand further that a legacy, rooted in African aesthetic that continues to live on, can still be witnessed via a considerable number of tangible signs. John Michael Vlach is Professor of 123, American Studies and Anthropology at The George Washington University and Director of the university’s Folklife Program. Term Papers? His scholarship has focused on aspects of the African Diaspora, conducting field research in essay on donatello Africa (Ghana, Nigeria), the papers Caribbean (Haiti, Jamaica), and across the southern regions of the United States. Author of ten books, his titles include The Afro-American Tradition in Decorative Arts , Common Places: Readings in Vernacular Architecture (with Dell Upton), By the Work of Their Hands: Studies in is better Afro-American Folklife , Plain Painters: Making Sense of on success, American Folk Art , Back of the Big House: The Architecture of Plantation Slavery , The Planter’s Prospect: Privilege and Slavery in Plantation Paintings, and write persuasive essay death Barns (winner of the term papers on success 2003 Kniffen Prize for Best Book on North American Material Culture). Address comments or questions to Professor Vlach through TeacherServe “Comments and Questions.”

Vlach, John Michael. “Rooted in thesis search Africa, Raised in America: The Traditional Arts and Crafts of African-Americans Across Five Centuries.” Freedom’s Story, TeacherServe. National Humanities Center. DATE YOU ACCESSED ESSAY. 7 Alexander Drive, P.O. Box 12256. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709. Phone: (919) 549-0661 Fax: (919) 990-8535.

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