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apollo 13 essay “HOUSTON, WE’VE HAD A PROBLEM HERE.” 1218 April 1970. The Mission Insignia for Apollo 13 showed the sat essay, god Apollo, representing the middle term, Sun, riding his chariot across the highest score sat essay, surface of the Moon to symbolise the Apollo Project bringing back new knowledge from the Moon. The two names chosen for the Apollo 13 spacecraft turned out to get essays published be very prophetic. The Command Module was called Odyssey from Homer and Arthur C. Clarke’s fictitious works. Lovell liked the sound and felt it was going to follow the dictionary’s description of a long and eventful voyage. The Lunar Module was called after the sign of the Zodiac and star constellation Aquarius , the water carrier, at times identified with Zeus pouring the you can score sat essay, waters of life down from the heavens. Before the mission, the crew had hoped that Aquarius would bring life back from the Moon. Royal Essay! After the mission they were glad it did! Settling into score, the Command Module, the astronauts of Apollo 13 were an assorted trio. Lovell was a navy test pilot with 572 hours in space, including the first trip to the Moon in Apollo 8. Nature Conclusion! He had more time in highest sat essay, space than any other human at the time. The other two were civilians looking forward to their first trip into space.

Haise, a serious family man, had been a journalist turned naval aviator. He was recognised as a specialist on the Lunar Module, having spent fourteen months at Grumman, the factory building the spacecraft. He knew every switch, wire and connector in research papers, the spacecraft. You Can Score Sat Essay! Swigert was a swinging bachelor with the reputation of an air hostess in every airport. The crew of Apollo 13: from left James A. Lovell, Jr, John L. Swigert, Jr., and Fred W. Haise, Jr. Photo courtesy of the Apollo Image Gallery maintained by Kipp Teague. Two days before the mission, Swigert had replaced Ken Mattingly, who had worked with backup crew member Charles Duke. Infected by Paul House, a three year old friend, Duke developed German Measles the weekend before the launch.

As Mattingly was found to have no immunity to the disease, the doctors were afraid he might break out in school papers, a severe rash at score sat essay, the moment Lovell and Haise were on the Moon’s surface, when swollen fingers and sore muscles could have slowed him up, particularly in an emergency. Because of the nature, teamwork required by the crew, normally the whole crew would be changed, but as Duke was already out, they left Lovell and Haise. Score Sat Essay! The training had to be intensified to develop the teamwork required with Swigert in only two days. The new crew spent many extra hours in the simulator drilling through the procedures. Published! In one of the many strange twists of fate in this mission, Swigert had been trained as a specialist in malfunctions of the Command and Lunar Modules. As NASA Administrator Dr Tom Paine pointed out: “Swigert practically wrote the book on highest, spacecraft malfunctions.” Ironically, Mattingly never did break out with Rubella. The original crew of Apollo 13: from left James A. Essays! Lovell, Jr, Thomas K. Mattingly II, and Fred W. Haise, Jr. Highest You Can! Photo courtesy of Ed Hengeveld via the Apollo Image Gallery. Apollo 13 was going to get essays published be the first moon landing with a greater degree of difficulty than either Apollos 11 or 12. The target was the Frau Mauro region, a range of rugged hills 177 kilometres to the east of the score sat essay, Apollo 12 landing site.

Frau Mauro was going to be more interesting to the geologists Apollo was now going to be more scientific, rather than a flight testing exercise. Sunday 12 April 1970 LAUNCH. Launch day found light and variable winds, with a maximum strength of 12 knots from the east south east. Altocumulus clouds with a base height of term papers 19,000 feet covered about 40% of the sky, with cirrostratus spread over the whole sky above. The temperature was 24C and relative humidity 57%. A perfect launch day. as received in Australia by shortwave from highest you can score sat essay The Voice of America. Recorded by Colin Mackellar. 2.2MB mp3 runs for 4:44. Photo courtesy of the Apollo Image Gallery maintained by Kipp Teague. Originally scheduled for 12 March 1970, Apollo 13 left Pad 39A at 1413 USEST 11 April 1970 (0513 AEST on Sunday 12 April).

There was trouble right away. Lovell: “At five and a half minutes after liftoff, Swigert, Haise, and I felt a little vibration. Then the get essays published, centre engine of the S-II stage shut down two minutes early. This caused the highest score sat essay, remaining four engines to burn 34 seconds longer than planned, and the S-IVB third stage had to burn 9 seconds longer to put us into orbit. No problem; the S-IVB had plenty of fuel.” Apollo 13 entered Earth orbit at 0525:39 AEST and went into a 185.7 by research papers 183.9 kilometre orbit with period of 88.2 minutes and a speed of 28,053.2 kilometres per hour. Translunar injection was at 0754:47 AEST with a 5 minute 50.8 second burn and highest you can score sat essay, Apollo 13 was heading for the Moon at 26,600.4 kilometres per hour. Essay! The CSM separated from the SIVB at 0819:38 AEST and docked with the LM at 0832:08 with television watching the action. The two docked spacecraft were ejected from the SIVB at 0914:00 AEST before being separated from each other. In the previous missions the SIVB was sent off into solar orbit but for Apollo 13 the you can score, SIVB was targeted to impact the Moon so the nature, vibrations could be detected by highest you can score the Apollo 12 seismometer. Despite this problematic start, the three astronauts settled down to the relatively relaxed trans-lunar coast life.

The peace of Sunday was broken by an agitated Swigert calling Houston. In the rush to replace Mattingly, he remembered he had not filed his Income Tax Return: “How do I apply for an extension?” he asked, “Things kinda happened real fast down there and I need an extension. I’m really serious. Research Papers! ” “You’re breaking up the room down here,” replied a laughing Joe Kerwin, but later Flight Director Glynn Lunney passed up the advice, “American citizens out of the country get a 60 day extension on filing, I assume this applies to you can score you.” Monday 13 April 1970. On Monday morning Capcom Joe Kerwin called, “The spacecraft is in real good shape as far as we are concerned. We are bored to tears down here.” This “boredom” was reflected in the world outside a third lunar landing hardly drew any media attention, in fact all the American television networks ignored the special television show put on by the astronauts. At the Goldstone Tracking Complex in California it was a clear spring afternoon as the evening shift for Monday April 13 came in for a quiet spell of uneventful tracking. Bill Wood , C Shift leader at the DSS-12 Pioneer Wing Station: “Pioneer, the half Coyote, half German Shepherd station mascot greeted us at the gate as usual, before we took over tracking the signal from the school papers, Saturn IVB. Highest You Can Score! Ed Smith, the intersite microwave engineer, had the air to frank essay ground voice loops up so we could keep up with what was going on at the you can score sat essay, Prime site and hear the spacecraft and Houston talking. Things were very quiet, even boring.” It wasn’t long before this mood was to change, to change dramatically. Tuesday 14 April 1970. At 1133 AEST on 14 April Lovell and Haise had entered Aquarius earlier than the flight plan had scheduled, anxious to check the pressure in the helium tank, which checked out okay.

White Team Flight Director Gene Kranz on shift shortly before the television broadcast. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. At 1227 AEST, the middle school papers, astronauts put on a television show, exhibiting some of their gear such as their space helmets, sleeping hammocks and special bags for drinking water inside their spacesuits. Lovell in the CM played music from 2001:A space Odyssey and Aquarius from a small tape recorder. Sadly, the astronauts did not know that their program was ending at the NASA centres, as the commercial networks had lost interest in score, broadcasting boring trips to essay the Moon. Highest! Marilyn Lovell and Mary Haise had to go to nature essay conclusion the Mission Control Center to see their husbands on television. Fred Haise takes the few viewers of the broadcast on a tour of the Lunar Module, Aquarius . White Team Flight Director Gene Kranz (closest to the camera) watches in Mission Control, just 17 minutes and 42 seconds before the explosion. GET: on screen at top left, 55:37:11; GET of explosion: 55:54:53.

NASA image. Astronauts Vance Brand and Jack Lousma (Capcom) enjoy the TV show. Score Sat Essay! From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. At 1259 the view research papers, astronauts finished their on-board production with: “This is the crew of Apollo 13 wishing everybody a nice evening, and we’re just about ready to close our inspection of Aquarius and you can score sat essay, get back for a pleasant evening in Odyssey . Goodnight.” Lovell: “On the tapes I sound mellow and benign, or some might say fat, dumb, and happy. A pleasant evening indeed! Nine minutes later the roof fell in. ” As the astronauts were copying down a message from Houston, on a control panel just above them a yellow caution light glowed to school indicate a low pressure in hydrogen tank #1 in score sat essay, the Service Module. Back at Houston the same warning glared at EECOM Sy Liebergot from the essay 2012 winners, sloping panel of his console. As he had been working on the contents of the tanks he wasn’t too concerned to you can see the get essays published, light, as it could be a normal short-term situation. Sat Essay! In the weightlessness of space the cryogenically stored gases could stratify into layers of different densities and give a false quantity reading, but to make sure, Liebergot told Capcom Jack Lousma to ask the astronauts to school papers stir both the hydrogen tanks, using paddles operated by electric motors.

Normally this stirring was performed each day after the sleep period, but Liebergot wanted an score sat essay, extra stir before they went to sleep as he had been having trouble reading the quantity in the oxygen tank #2, so he suggested they stir the oxygen tanks too. Lousma: “Thirteen, we’ve got one more item for educating essay, you when you get the highest you can sat essay, chance. We’d like you to stir up your cryo tanks. ” Swigert answered “Okay, stand by” and at nature, 1306:18 AEST flicked the switches labelled H 2 and O 2 FANS on to stir the sat essay, contents of the hydrogen and oxygen tanks. Nobody knew that inside Oxygen Tank #2 wires to the fan had lost their insulation from an incident during a test two weeks before. Rita Essay! A committee led by Edgar Cortright, Director of the Langley Research Center in Virginia, was formed to investigate the incident. It found the highest score, following events led to this moment of the nature essay, Apollo 13 disaster. None of highest you can score this can ever be verified, of educating frank essay course, because the Service Module burned up in the atmosphere on reentry. The flawed #2 oxygen tank had originally been made for highest you can score, Apollo 10, but had been returned to the manufacturers to improve the electromagnetic interference properties of the nature, vac-ion pumps.

When removing it from the you can, Apollo 10 Service Module the frame holding the tanks was dropped about 5 centimetres. Although there is a possibility the jar could have loosened the couplings of the rita frank essay, fill tubes, as far as the spacecraft systems engineers are concerned, this incident did not begin the series of you can score sat essay events leading to the explosion in space. In the oxygen tank there were a set of tube assemblies in the neck of the tank to fill and empty the tank on the ground, and papers, a different set for use in space to pipe the oxygen to either a fuel cell, or to the cabin atmosphere. According to score sat essay the engineers the real culprit was a set of nature essay couplings in highest you can sat essay, these tube assemblies in the top of the oxygen tank which leaked during a Count Down Demonstration Test (CDDT) conducted on March 16, a test run to check out the published, launch procedures before every mission. Highest You Can Score Sat Essay! The filling system was working normally, but technicians found they were unable to pump the super-critical cold oxygen fluid out of tank #2 after the test. Due to the leaking couplings, gas pumped in to remove the educating rita essay, liquid oxygen was bypassing the tank contents and coming back out again, leaving up to 92% of the you can sat essay, liquid contents behind. Looking for school, a solution, the engineering team thought the quickest way to empty the liquid oxygen would be to boil it off using the highest you can score, heaters in the tank. Educating Rita Essay! After discussions between the engineers at Kennedy Space Center, the Manned Spacecraft Center, North American Rockwell (the contractor) and Beech (the manufacturer) it was decided to go ahead. Highest You Can Score Sat Essay! They also advised Mattingly and santayana, Lovell, assuring them it would be okay as these tubes were not used to supply the oxygen during the flight.

Lovell queried the implications of putting a new tank in. The flight would probably be delayed by up to a month was the answer, so Lovell told them to go ahead with the old tank: “If you’re all comfortable with this, then I am too.” The original Apollo spacecraft worked on 28 volts of highest you can score sat essay electricity, but after 1965 the essay, Apollo spacecraft’s electrical systems had been modified to handle 65 volts from the external ground test equipment. Score Sat Essay! Unfortunately Beech, the manufacturer of the tank, did not advise the manufacturer of the thermostat of the get essays published, change, so the bi-metal thermostat switches installed in these tanks were still the 28 volt models, so when the highest score sat essay, heaters were switched on essay competition, to boil the oxygen off after the CDDT test, the higher voltage caused arcing in you can, the bi-metal thermostat and welded the contacts together. With the thermostat contacts permanently on, the heating elements remained on for 8 hours, instead of being turned off when the temperature reached 27C. This allowed the temperature inside the tank to climb to an estimated 538C. As the temperature gauge on the ground test panel only went to 29.5C, no one was aware of this excessive heat, which burned the santayana little essays, Teflon insulation off the wires in the motors driving the two fans inside the score, tank. The fate of Apollo 13 and little essays, its crew was now riding on the two bare wires sealed in Oxygen Tank #2. You Can Sat Essay! Perhaps the first clue of a problem in view research, the Service module was at highest you can score, 0318 AEST 14 April when oxygen tank #2 quantity indicated off scale high, eight hours before Lovell and Haise entered the LM to little conduct some system checks, but nobody took notice of it.

But now, on board Odyssey , 322,000 kilometres from Earth, the you can sat essay, relaxed complacency of the middle term papers, crew and ground teams around the world was to be suddenly interrupted when Swigert switched the fans on in the oxygen tanks. When Swigert switched the fans on in O 2 Tank #2 at 55:53:18 GET, (1306:18 AEST on 14 April), some of the liquid oxygen in tank had been used, exposing the bare wiring. As a result a spark arced between the wires a spark in sat essay, pure oxygen sealed under a pressure of 6,205 kPa in the super tough spherical nickel alloy steel tank. View Research! It took less than 20 seconds for the resulting pressure to blow the tank apart . shock the highest you can, feed valves to two of the three fuel cells causing their failure within seconds. wreck the adjacent equipment in Bay 4 of the Service Module . and blow the external side panel out. which clipped the main antenna as it hurtled out into space. Langley Research Center estimated the published, explosion was equivalent to 3.2 kilograms of TNT, which would demolish an average sized suburban house. There was nothing to indicate what had happened; no sound in the vacuum of space; no sensors to detect explosions. As the Service Module was not directly visible from the Command Module windows, the score, astronauts could not see what had happened behind their backs. Just a shudder from the spacecraft.

At Goldstone and view papers, Honeysuckle Creek Tracking Stations the prime receiver’s usually steady white “Signal in Lock” light suddenly blinked out and the alarms began their two-tone singing. You Can! The servo operator immediately switched to Program Track (antenna under computer control) and the receiver operators began trying to reacquire the signal but were only able to find a weak signal coming from the spacecraft. Alan Foster on the Honeysuckle Creek receivers remembers: “The signal level dropped right down to about minus 140 db, I can remember struggling with it it was pretty grim but we managed to keep in lock. Royal Competition! They also went on to emergency voice and became hard to hear.” “Fred was still in the Lunar Module. Jack was back in highest score sat essay, the Command Module in santayana essays, the left hand seat. And I was half way in between in the lower equipment bay wrestling with TV wires and a camera, watching Fred coming down.” Haise was crawling through the tunnel from the Lunar Module when he saw the wall of the tunnel flex, and felt the jar from the explosion. He jumped when the master alarm suddenly howled in his headset, mixed with Swigert’s voice from the Command Module yelling about a panel alarm. “Now, before that, Fred being in the Lunar Module, had actuated a valve which normally gives us the same sound. Highest Score! since he didn’t tell us about get essays published it, we all rather jumped. But it was his joke and we all thought it was sort of fun until something happened.” “It wasn’t me!” Haise threw back at Lovell’s inquiring expression as he instinctively dived for his couch in the Command Module. Swigert tried to slam the highest you can score sat essay, hatch shut behind him, thinking the jolt might have come from the Lunar Module being hit by something.

The astronauts knew a high speed object not much bigger than a grain of sand could rip open the flimsy skin of the Lunar Module and educating frank, let their life supporting atmosphere vent out in moments. Highest Score! Though Swigert wrestled with the hatch, it wouldn’t lock shut as it was misaligned. As they still had their atmosphere and were still alive, they pushed the hatch aside. All three astronauts’ pulse rates shot up to over 130. “It is interesting to note that days later, just before we jettisoned the Lunar Module, when the hatch had to competition 2012 be closed and locked, Jack did it – easy as pie. That’s the kind of flight it was.” “It shook the spacecraft and scared the hell out of me. You Can! I proceeded to look at papers, Jim and about the same time – I guess about two seconds had elapsed – when I had a master alarm and a main bus B undervolt light. I told Houston we had a problem and proceeded to go over to the right hand side of the spacecraft to look at the voltage…” He saw the B bus voltage supplying half the power to score sat essay drive the santayana little, spacecraft, drop right out. Haise checked fuel cell #3 supplying its electricity, and found it dead, so connected the alternative A power Bus to line, but it seemed to be on its way out too. You Can Score! A quick check of fuel cell #1 showed it was as dead as #3. With only fuel cell #2 left to drive the A Bus, the astronauts realised from the mission rules that landing on the moon was now impossible.

At 1308 AEST Swigert called Houston with the view papers, now famous remark, “Okay, Houston, we’ve had a problem here.” Capcom Jack Lousma, “This is Houston – say again, please.” “Houston – we’ve had a problem. We’ve had a Main B Bus undervolt,” Lovell explained. “Roger. Main B undervolt. … Okay, stand by, Thirteen, we’re looking at it.” Capcom Lousma answered for highest you can score sat essay, the Mission Control team. In the Apollo 13 spacecraft, launched at 1313 hours (spacecraft time), it was 9:08 pm on April 13 . At Honeysuckle Creek it was 1308 hours (1:08 pm) on April 14. At Houston it was just after 2100 local on a pleasant clear evening. With three friends, Andy Saulietis had rigged up a telescope connected to a black and white television set on published, a roof of the Manned Spacecraft Center.

They were studying a slowly fading pinpoint of light approaching the Moon – the Saturn IVB rocket following Odyssey , blinking as it tumbled along. While they watched, a bright spot appeared in you can score, the middle of the screen and over research papers the next ten minutes grew into quite a bright ball. No one connected the flare with Apollo 13 they vaguely thought it was a defect in their television monitor. They left the rooftop quite oblivious to you can what they had witnessed – the oxygen tank on school term, Apollo 13 exploding, and in ten minutes spreading into a gaseous sphere over 48 kilometres wide, glowing in the sunlight. Inside the you can, Mission Control Center none of the Flight Controllers sitting at their consoles were aware of what had happened either, until some of them began seeing abnormal indications coming down their telemetry channels – strange readings from temperatures, pressures, voltages, and the status of various pieces of get essays published equipment. You Can Sat Essay! They were overwhelmed by reports of nature conclusion loss of the High Gain Antenna, spacecraft computer restarts, random thruster firings, and multiple system failures. Highest Sat Essay! It took them over fifteen minutes to figure out that there had been some sort of explosion, but they were still hopeful the mission was going to proceed to a normal lunar landing. EECOM Sy Liebergot, the Flight Controller in charge of the Command and Service Module’s electrical and environmental systems, was now squarely in term papers, the hot seat: “Our data suddenly went ratty, some of it went static.

I heard the announcements from the spacecraft and was already scanning my readouts. Nothing made sense. I called Kranz, ‘We may have an instrumentation problem, Flight. Let me go ahead and check,’ which was my way of you can sat essay putting Kranz off, and he knew that.” “Rog.” Kranz replied. Hear Sy Liebergot’s EECOM loop starting just six seconds before the middle, explosion. Highest Sat Essay! He asks about the cryo stir, and then we hear a burst of essay static as lock is lost on the High Gain Antenna. We hear the team beginning to troubleshoot the problem. This recording is highest you can score, part of longer audio on a disc included with Sy’s book, “Apollo EECOM: Journey of a Lifetime” available from CG Publishing/Apogee Books.

This audio clip is also available on Sy’s website. Used with kind permission of, and with thanks to, Sy Liebergot. 1.1MB mp3 / 2 minutes 12 seconds. Clip starts at 055:54:49GET. Charlie Dumas (left) speaks with Gerry Griffin at essay conclusion, the EECOM console. Sy Liebergot, smoking a pipe, is at right.

From 16mm NASA footage several minutes before the score, explosion. Screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Liebergot never saw the pressure spike in get essays published, the oxygen tank that caused the explosion: “You look away, you blink, and it’s gone. That’s exactly what happened. We were doing the cryo stir and I was just looking to the right of the oxygen tanks at the hydrogen tanks where the changes usually showed up first.

Everybody was looking at the hydrogen, which was about two inches over. When I looked back the spike had already gone. Highest You Can Sat Essay! My backroom guys, Dick Brown, electrical system expert, and nature essay, George Bliss and highest, Larry Sheaks, my environmental control systems experts, were trying to figure out what was going on as well. To begin with we figured we just had a fuel cell problem and concentrated on that. Pretty soon we knew the tank was gone, so I asked for an estimate of how long we had on the remaining tank.” Liebergot had little to work on, only displays of nearly fifty parameters all showing out of limit readings on his console. This was so sudden, without any warning, that he felt overwhelmed.

No amount of training or mission experience could prepare him for this crisis. Initially he knew that the two dead fuel cells drew their oxygen from the same source, and as the third cell was still working, at first he didn’t suspect the oxygen tanks. He was working on a Fuel Cell #3 leak, and trying to nature conclusion isolate it. Also, he was still trying to figure out why two fuel cells would fail. Then he saw that oxygen tank #2 was showing empty. Sat Essay! Its contents had all gone! Half the oxygen for the cabin atmosphere and school papers, the spacecraft power for the mission had gone in two minutes – just vanished. They hadn’t even reached the moon. All their training and simulations had always relied on backup systems to keep the mission going, nobody had been game enough to introduce a complete failure of all the power systems into the simulations.

As one of the Flight Controllers said later, “This was so far down the line, if anyone had asked us to simulate it ahead of time we would all have said he was being unrealistic.” “I had all the feelings that went with not having the answers to highest you can score sat essay the problem and not seeing any way out of it. It happened too quickly – it was a cascading failure which means the original failure got masked by the subsequent failures it created. We were never trained for middle, a cascading series of problems leading to a catastrophe. That’s not training. It was like saying the structure of the spacecraft was going to fail.” A minute or so after the you can, explosion Alan Glines, the santayana, communications engineer (INCO), reported to Kranz that the signal from the spacecraft had switched to the smaller omni antennas, which was probably due to the side panel hitting the highest you can score sat essay, big antenna on its way past. The weaker signal combined with the erratic behaviour of the spacecraft caused the receiver operators at Goldstone and get essays, Honeysuckle Creek and the other stations difficulty in holding onto the weak, fluctuating signal for the rest of the mission.

Then Lovell announced the score, voltage on the A Bus was beginning to drop. Royal Competition! An uneasy silence fell on the voice loops… “Okay, Houston, are you still reading Apollo 13?” Lovell couldn’t contain his anxiety any longer. “That’s affirmative,” replied Lousma, “We are reading you. We’re trying to come up with some good ideas here for you.” He looked appealingly at score sat essay, Kranz: “What can I tell them?” Kranz did not have an research, answer. Nobody had an answer. Capcom Jack Lousma apeaks with the sat essay, crew onboard Apollo 13 after the explosion. Astronaut John Young is seated next to him.

From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Lovell couldn’t understand why his ship was reeling drunkenly about the heavens. The thrusters were firing away trying to bring the spacecraft under control, but unknown to either the astronauts or the flight controllers at the time the published, explosion had knocked some of the highest sat essay, thrusters out. Lovell took over royal commonwealth 2012 manual control, but found no matter how he tried, he could do no better than the automatic pilot – the spacecraft seemed to highest you can score sat essay have a mind of its own, always trying to veer away from the course. He decided to middle term look out of the window in case he could see something outside. As he swung himself onto highest score the left seat and peered out, the sight that met his inquiring eyes formed a knot in his stomach – the sun was shining on a powerful stream of gas spurting out of the side of the Service Module. Rita! Sixteen minutes after the score, explosion, at 1322 AEST, Lovell remembers, “I happened to look out of the left hand window, and saw the final evidence pointing toward potential catastrophe. ‘We are venting something out into the . into space,’ I reported to essay conclusion Houston.” “Roger, we copy you are venting,” acknowledged Lousma. In Mission Control a report of gas venting into space spread among the consoles like wildfire, and put a whole new dimension on the situation. Liebergot: “I ignored that, I couldn’t deal with that.

I needed to go and find what I could do about highest you can score sat essay it. Essay! ” Fuel cell #2 was still producing electricity but when Lovell looked back at the oxygen pressures again Tank #2 was still reading zilch, but now Tank #1 was only half full, and sat essay, dropping! They were going to lose all their oxygen – they weren’t going to have enough to bring the ship back home to Earth! This was it! Lovell knew they were in published, trouble. But how serious was it?

Was it only oxygen gas squirting out into space? How long did they have? He immediately sensed that their next moves would be crucial to their survival, and their lives would depend on score sat essay, maintaining communication with Houston, and for educating frank essay, that they needed power. There were only 15 minutes of battery power left in the Command Module, and that was needed for reentry into the Earth’s atmosphere. The Earth was over highest sat essay 90 hours away . Royal Competition Winners! Lovell: “The knot in my stomach tightened, and all regrets about not landing on the moon vanished. Now it was strictly a case for survival. Highest! I had seen the film Marooned and I must admit that the parallel crossed my mind.” He looked across to Haise, the LM expert and pilot, “We’re going to have to santayana little use Aquarius to get home.” Back in mission control, Liebergot also saw oxygen tank #1 contents disappearing before his eyes – the pressure dropping from 6,068 kPa down to 2,760 kPa in less than three minutes.

Two thirds of the you can sat essay, electrical power generation system was dead, and there was only educating rita three hours of life left. Looking into the immediate future, he felt momentarily sick in the stomach. He grabbed the security handles on his console to steady himself down. Highest You Can Score! Was he going to get essays be the first flight controller to highest you can sat essay lose a spacecraft and its crew out in space? “In all my life I have never felt so alone, as I did then. I didn’t have the view research papers, answers. It seemed we were on the point of losing everybody and score sat essay, everything.” What had to be done before the Command Module completely died?

Would this crippled combination of a dead Command Service Module and a Lunar Module only designed to go down to middle papers the lunar surface and score sat essay, back with two people cope with demands and manoeuvres they were never designed for? There was little time left to make any plans. Everybody was facing problems that seemed to royal commonwealth winners be leading to more problems. except the score, Lunar Module systems people they were standing by get essays with a fully operational spacecraft, powered down waiting to arrive at the moon. It wasn’t long before they realised the Lunar Module was going to be involved. During the Trans Lunar Coast phase of the mission, the Lunar Module was powered down to conserve power, except for some critical systems kept warm by highest score thermostatically controlled heaters powered by the Service Module batteries fed through the Command Module. Now they had lost the power to the relays that controlled the transfer of the get essays published, power source to the Lunar Module batteries – so they could not turn the highest you can score, power on essay, in the Lunar Module from its batteries in the descent stage.

That was the first big problem to be overcome. Strangely enough a year earlier, on 25 April 1969, during an Apollo 10 simulation the simulation team had failed the highest score sat essay, fuel cells in almost the same spot, and view research, the simulation ended with a dead crew. It was decided that this failure was a bit unrealistic and the incident was forgotten as the Apollo program forged ahead. Fortunately some of the more conscientious Lunar Module flight controllers had worried about their simulation failure, and decided to look into the problem. Sat Essay! Jim Hannigan, branch chief of the Lunar Module flight controllers, assigned Donald Puddy to pick a team to work on the problem. Bill Legler, one of the key members of the team (who had been present during the Apollo 10 simulation) worked out some procedures that could reverse the papers, power flow to highest score go from the Lunar Module back into the Command Module and energise the power transfer relays. These emergency procedures had never been completed and incorporated into the official procedures, but with the Apollo 13 situation these preliminary procedures were recovered and dusted off.

They gave the Lunar Module controllers a head start. The engineer in charge of the electrical and environmental systems of the Lunar Module was Bill Peters, “I had just unplugged from the console and only taken two steps away when Bob Heselmeyer called out ‘You’d better come back here, I think something’s going on.’ I figured out get essays published pretty quickly it looked like a major disaster, and one of the plans in cases like this was to close all the telephone lines in and out of the Control Center so just in case I called my wife real quick and told her not to expect me home that night – turn on the TV to find out why – and hung up.” At the Goldstone tracking station a team was quickly formed to analyse the telemetry information they had just recorded, particularly the last few moments before the explosion. Bill Wood , lead USB Engineer: “We were able to read all bits up to signal loss by recording the data at you can score sat essay, a high speed of 60 inches per second and playing it back at research, 3½ inches per second. Then we rolled the chart paper onto the control room floor and counted the frames of data by eye to find out what each parameter was reading up to the signal loss, and what things looked like right after the signal was reacquired. My recollection was that the engineers found a pressure spike in the oxygen tank that exploded.”

The telemetry showed the pressure shot up to 6,950 kPa for two seconds before dropping to sat essay zero in the next two seconds. Then Larry Sheaks called Liebergot to tell him that the essay competition 2012, oxygen surge tank in the Command Module was losing pressure. The surge tank was usually used for reentry only, but was used as a buffer to score sat essay keep the oxygen levels steady. View! The EECOM from Milt Windler’s Maroon shift, John Aaron, was quietly shaving at highest you can, home when the phone shrilled. It was Arnold Aldrich, his office manager, at Mission Control. Rita! “Arnie said ‘Hey, John, these guys are working some kind of problem and I know your specialty is instrumentation patterns and they think this is a telemetry problem, but I don’t know.’ So I said to Arnie, ‘Go and read me some parameters off displays such and such, then go to displays such and such and read those out to me. He did all that and I said ‘Arnie, that is score sat essay, not a telemetry failure there is no pattern there that fits. Tell those guys they’ve got a real problem and I’ll be right there.

By the royal commonwealth competition 2012, time I came in, I got in on the tail end of analysing what had happened there, and started convincing the you can sat essay, guys that they ought to power down the Command Module and save the batteries, because we were using battery power to troubleshoot the problem, and papers, I knew these were the same batteries that were going to bring us home. That was pretty traumatic because the Command and Service Module was never designed to be powered down in space and we didn’t have any procedures to highest sat essay power it up from scratch. Normally it was powered up over a period of published days on the pad before you launched, using a lot of power.” Forty six minutes after the explosion George Bliss informed Liebergot that there was only 1 hour 54 minutes left in O 2 Tank #1, when the last fuel cell would die. Then there would only be the Command Module’s reentry batteries left – and they were needed for you can, reentry. The unthinkable had happened and royal commonwealth essay 2012 winners, there was no back up or redundant system to pull them out of you can this one. They were facing a major disaster in space. Liebergot announced on santayana essays, the intercom loop: “Flight, the pressure in O 2 tank 1 has dropped all the way down to 297 (psi) (2048 kPa) and we’d better think about highest score getting into the LM.” Flight dynamics chief Jerry Bostick was sitting in the Trench listening to the drama deepening on the console behind him, and began to think of educating rita frank essay getting the sat essay, spacecraft back as soon as possible. He and his team soon discarded the immediate turn-around (direct abort which would bring them home in 34 hours) using the main SPS engine because the LM ‘lifeboat’ would have to term papers be cast off, and doubt about the integrity of the Service Module – that is, how much damage had been done to the internal systems of the highest score, Service Module? Was the conclusion, engine damaged?

Even if it wasn’t, there was no electricity to operate the engine controls such opening or closing valves. Score Sat Essay! The alternative was to carry on and sling around the get essays published, Moon. This was going to take up to score four days – could they keep the middle school term papers, astronauts alive for such a long period? That was up to the LM systems controllers. The Trench waited for the Flight Directors to make up their minds. Highest Score! Ken Mattingly slid alongside Lousma and plugged his headset in. Little Essays! He wanted to help his mates if he could.

Kranz said this was his toughest call on highest score, Apollo 13. “My team was pretty much split down the middle. Many of my systems controllers wanted to get home in the fastest fashion possible.” By now there were two teams gathered around the consoles discussing the emergency and the chatter was getting out of hand so Kranz stood up and yelled around the room, “Okay all flight controllers cut the chatter. I want every member of the White team to settle down and get back on the voice loops – the rest of you shut up.” Still damp from being called from a shower at home, Chris Kraft had arrived by now and joined the intercom conversation at his Director’s console, just before thirty three year old Glynn Lunney was due to essay take over the next shift. Leader of the Maroon team, Milt Windler, also joined the group. Lunney had been discussing the return options with Bostick and an intense discussion developed between the Flight Directors on score sat essay, the best course of view research action, ending with Kranz addressing Kraft, “Our only real option is to go around the Moon.” Chris Kraft, Astronaut Jim McDivitt, and Robert Gilruth in the back row of the MOCR. Behind them is the glass window of the VIP viwewing room.

From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Kraft agreed, “When do you want to do the burn?” The decision was made, and the Flight Dynamics controllers in the Trench breathed a sigh of you can score relief and began to work out a burn procedure for a trajectory to sling around the little essays, Moon and return home. So 53 minutes after the explosion, an emergency plan began to evolve. Astronauts Gene Cernan (left), Deke Slayton (coat) and Ed Mitchell look on as Jack Lousma sits as his Capcom console. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by highest you can Colin Mackellar. “I was already in commonwealth 2012 winners, a back room of the Control Center when we got the report that there was a problem. We were due on shift at about 10:00 pm (USCST) that night. The spacecraft crew were supposed to go to highest sat essay sleep and we were supposed to sit there and watch a sleep shift. I went in and plugged in with Gene; I knew the spacecraft crew had reported a bang and some venting, so there was a suspicion there was some kind of problem, but people still weren’t sure how serious the essays, problem was. There were a set of you can score sat essay confusing indicators we had lost the oxygen in one tank so we lost the fuel cell that was plugged to it, and that fuel cell was plugged to the B electrical Buss. The RCS thrusters were split between main Bus A and Main Bus B, so we had lost half the thrusters which gave us these attitude control problems. We became involved in closing off the fuel cells, one at a time, to try to nature isolate a leak within the fuel cells, but once you shut them down, you can’t get them back, and I remember doing that as a last resort.

We had a number of situations to deal with. We were on a non free-return trajectory. Up until Apollo 13 we had used trajectories that would loop around the Moon to return approximately into the entry corridor. Here we were not going to come back to any safe kind of Earth entry at all. We were also at a point where it would have been very expensive in terms of propulsion to turn around and come back without looping around the Moon. That was considered for a while, but the highest score sat essay, only way we knew how to do that was to dump the descent stage of the Lunar Module and use all of the Service Propulsion fuel, but the two problems with that were we couldn’t power the Service Module up any more, we were only down to batteries, so we couldn’t sustain a power load to run the Service Propulsion engine, and we didn’t want to dump the descent stage of the Lunar Module because it was our lifeboat where most of the batteries, water and so on essay 2012, were stored. Parallel with all this going on highest score, with the guidance people was what are we going to do to power the Lunar Module up. We knew we had to get it powered up enough to take care of the manoeuvre later, but we also began to realise that the way the telescope worked for aligning the platform in the Lunar Module that it probably wouldn’t work by itself while it was attached to the Command Module out in free space. Royal Commonwealth Essay Competition 2012 Winners! We realised we had to get an highest sat essay, alignment from the Command Module guidance reference system, the inertial platform, and transfer it over to the Lunar Module which was a lot of published number plugging by highest you can the crew members, followed and checked by research papers the people on the ground. This of course happened some time after we got the Lunar Module powered up.

We got the Lunar Module powered up but as we went through it we were trying to figure out what we didn’t have to bring up because we knew we were going to be power limited and highest sat essay, water coolant limited to get home. The Lunar Module was designed for royal competition, two men for highest score, two days and we knew we were at papers, least four or five days from sat essay home with three people. Little! We knew we couldn’t stay powered up at these levels so we had to figure out a way to score sat essay cut the power down. We also knew we had limited amounts of consumables on board. We got the Lunar Module configured so it could do a passive thermal control. Get Essays! Instead of a rolling manoeuvre, which we normally used, we rotated the vehicle ninety degrees every hour so we could get equal sun (heating) and cooling on the vehicle. As we could watch this on the ground the you can score sat essay, crew didn’t have to worry about it.

Once we got in that position we said we’re on this non-free return, why don’t we trim that out and get the vehicle on a free return so if anything happens later we are least heading for research papers, the reentry corridor. So we did this 40 foot per highest you can score second manoeuvre that put us on a free return trajectory. After that we began to royal commonwealth essay 2012 try to you can score sat essay take power off everything that we didn’t need and middle school, we began to score lay out in detail the options for how big or small a manoeuvre we would do at seventy nine and a half hours into term, the mission, after we got around the highest you can sat essay, Moon. We settled on a manoeuvre that wasn’t quite maximum but would get us back by about 142 hours. We had also figured out how to view research husband the consumables. By the you can sat essay, end of my shift about ten hours later we had put the vehicle back on an Earth return trajectory, the inertial guidance platform had been transferred to the Lunar Module, and royal essay competition, we kept the Lunar Module reasonably powered up for the burn planned for two hours after we had turned the corner at highest sat essay, the Moon. We had a plan for what that manoeuvre would be, and we had a consumable profile that really left us with reasonable margins at the end.” Glynn Lunney (left) and view research papers, Milt Windler, take stock of the situation. Behind them, in the background, is Robert Gilruth. Highest You Can! Deke Slayton is in the foreground. Research Papers! From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Here’s a view of the MOCR during Glynn Lunney’s shift, after the accident.

Panorama assembled from 16mm NASA footage by CM. Gene Kranz and his White Team continued their shift for highest score, an extra hour before handing over to Glynn Lunney and the Black Team, and went to the back of the little, building to highest you can score sat essay study data from the spacecraft. Kranz decided to step out of the Houston shift sequence and head a Tiger Team to santayana little essays concentrate on highest you can sat essay, the engineering and procedures to get the crippled spacecraft and its crew back home. “The key thing here was I didn’t form the royal essay, Tiger Team the Tiger Team to you can sat essay a great extent always existed. During the santayana essays, Apollo Program we flew with four mission control teams, and one team was always designated as the Lead Team and in case of any mission difficulties it was that team’s responsibility to establish the game plan, the highest score, recovery plan, do the trouble shooting and that just happened to fall into my team. We had many problems here we had a variety of survival problems, we had electrical management, water management, and we had to figure out how to navigate because the stars were occluded by the debris cloud surrounding the spacecraft. Basically we had to turn a two day spacecraft into a four and essay, a half day spacecraft with an extra crewmember to highest you can score sat essay get the crew back home. We were literally working outside the design and test boundaries of the spacecraft so we had to invent everything as we went along. Essay! There were many lead people, but the three people I would name were Arnie Aldrich who handled the score sat essay, checklist, John Aaron with the research, power management, and Bill Peters who looked at the Lunar Module and tried to figure out how it could be most effective as a lifeboat.” There were no official procedures to refer to even the emergency procedures didn’t cover losing all three Command Module fuel cell power sources and using the Lunar Module in lieu of the Command Module. At 1456 AEST on 14 April Lovell and Haise had already decided to highest score sat essay climb into the Lunar Module, “Without much discussion from the ground, both Jim and I decided to head for the LM. At this point we only had one choice and took it,” Haise explained. Swigert was left to get essays wind down the Command Module.

The last oxygen tank was nearly empty. You Can Sat Essay! Capcom Jack Lousma told the astronauts, “Thirteen, Houston. We’d like you to start making your way over to the LM now” Swigert replied: “Fred and nature essay conclusion, Jim are in the LM.” Lovell had joined Haise in the LM, who was already throwing switches to highest you can sat essay bring the power up when Swigert yelled down the tunnel, “Houston wants the LM powered up.” Haise advised Houston, “. and Jack, I got LM power on.” GUIDO Will Fenner (green shirt) at the Guidance console as the navigation platform is transferred from view Odyssey to Aquarius . You Can Sat Essay! From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Swigert said he had never seen the LM activated so fast, but it still wasn’t fast enough. Royal! He had to turn the reentry battery in the Command Module on to keep the highest, navigation guidance system going until the crucial settings were transferred to the Lunar Module system. Just as Lovell set up a good alignment at 1513 AEST, the last Fuel Cell #2, died. Lovell: “Getting that transfer was the first big turning point.”

The concern is evident on the face of astronaut John Young as he stands beside Capcom Jack Lousma. Educating Frank! Behind him is astronaut Tom Stafford. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Houston told Swigert to close the highest you can score sat essay, Command Module down. The power had to santayana little essays be turned off in a carefully planned sequence so it could be brought back up ready for you can, reentry.

At 1553 he turned off the last switch, looked around the lifeless cabin no cosy lights, no friendly voices from the radio, no gurgling from pipes or whirring of fans their cheerful home of a moment ago was just dark and middle school, dead 333,125 empty kilometres from Earth, and racing away from it at 3,380 kilometres per hour! He floated into the Lunar Module, and said to Lovell and Haise, “It’s up to you now.” He suddenly felt lost. You Can Score! He was trained for the Command and Service Module, a position normally busy right through the mission. Now he could only santayana watch the other two expertly bringing the Lunar Module to life. The last few hours had been fast and furious, crammed with momentous life threatening events; now it was just waiting. for what? Haise said that he lost all track of highest sat essay time during those hectic five hours, full of frank rapid-fire events. It was more like a dream than reality because of the jolt from the you can score, security of comfort and royal commonwealth 2012 winners, order to the onslaught of unexpected events and highest you can sat essay, fleeting images and feeling very vulnerable to the hostile environment of empty space. Published! Dead tired, he was the first to you can drag himself into the Command Module to sleep soundly for the next five hours. Royal Commonwealth 2012! RIGHT ACROSS THE CONTINENT, FROM PERTH TO SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA PITCHES IN TO HELP APOLLO 13. “At the time of the explosion I was operating the ranging system, which measured the distance and speed of the spacecraft, when I heard Swigert send his problem call, and then listened as the flight controllers sent a barrage of you can score sat essay instructions up to educating frank the spacecraft, punctuated by score sat essay terse responses from the astronauts. Once we had acquired on get essays, the smaller omni antenna, my equipment was managing to keep locked on highest score, the spacecraft signal, but my finger was hovering beside the ‘acquire’ button in case of drop-outs. At that stage we did not know it was a life-threatening situation, we thought it was a communications problem with the school, spacecraft.

The first indication of the seriousness of the sat essay, crisis to get essays published us at Honeysuckle Creek was when Mission Control in Houston called the Operations Supervisor at Honeysuckle Creek and asked, ‘How long would it take to get Parkes up?’ Parkes was the CSIRO’s radio telescope used during the Apollo 11 mission. It was not called up for the Apollo 13 mission because the astronauts now used a big portable umbrella antenna for score, communications from the lunar surface. I knew the situation was really serious as you don’t just casually ask to use the 64 metre radio astronomy antenna at Parkes without making high level arrangements with plenty of warning.” In Mission Control the low signal levels from the spacecraft were causing concern. Chris Kraft, Director of Flight Operations, “We wanted to make sure that we got a good telemetry signal, and Parkes was one of the places where we knew we could get it.” “Parkes isn’t committed to this mission,” Mike Dinn informed them. “Oh, then Mr Kraft will be calling your Director on the phone shortly, “ Houston replied. Honeysuckle Creek Station Director Don Gray : Don Gray, Station Director, in his office at Honeysuckle Creek.

Photo: Hamish Lindsay. “I was sitting in my office listening to rita this conversation on the net, and in moments the phone rang. Chris Kraft said to me ‘We have a serious problem on the spacecraft; it looks like we are going to have to power down and will need all the antennas we can get. Do what you can to get Parkes up as soon as possible.’ First of highest you can score all I called Tom Reid, the Director at Tidbinbilla, to middle papers organise a crew to go to Parkes, then I rang John Bolton at Parkes to find he was already aware of the problem and was prepared to change the antenna over to support the NASA signals.” At the Deep Space Station at Tidbinbilla the request took Station Director Tom Reid by surprise: “What are you talking about? It takes weeks of negotiations between the CSIRO and NASA Headquarters, agreements and money and budgets.’ Then I got a black phone call , ‘Hey look, we’ve got a problem on board the highest you can score sat essay, spacecraft this is a serious thing, think again about published how soon you can do it – never mind about highest score sat essay budgets and money.’ The contractor’s people responded magnificently, got themselves down to Parkes luckily the royal commonwealth essay winners, equipment was still there, it just wasn’t configured. NASA hastily flew out sat essay Bob Taylor, one of the Goddard engineers, to be there, as he knew the system.” Dr John Bolton, Director of Parkes. Photo from a 1967 ABC publication, via John Sarkissian. “I was listening to published the conversation between Houston and James Lovell, and as had been my habit, had thoroughly digested the flight plan. I realised that the only solution was to occupy the LM and use its facilities. The very low power (signal from the spacecraft) and the fact that the highest, journey would be in Parkes coverage time meant we would certainly be called in. I rang Tom Reid, the Director of Tidbinbilla, with whom I had an rita, excellent relationship, to you can ask for the NASA crew to be sent in; I rang Taffy (Dr.

E.G. Bowen) to let him know what assistance I would need from Sydney; and santayana, then Charlie Chenhall (RP Workshop Supervisor) to organise supplies and aircraft. Fortunately Radhakrishnan (Venkataraman Radhakrishnan, Director of the Raman Research Institute, Bangladore, India) was conducting a special experiment on the telescope and a number of highest score sat essay engineers were on hand. They dismantled and carried Rad’s equipment down the ladder of one of the feed legs, while Parkes staff used the lift to rita frank get the NASA gear to the focus. We accomplished in 10 hours what normally took close to a week.” Bruce Window , Tidbinbilla USB Supervisor: “It was about 6 pm. I was working on shift at sat essay, Tidbinbilla when we were cranked up straight away to get to Parkes in a hurry in santayana little essays, a light aircraft, a Cessna 337. Highest You Can Score! It was a hairy trip. At the same time the CSIRO had been given the message and they had taken their feedcone off and had started to assemble our feedcone. We arrived in the dark, drove out to santayana little essays the site, by which time the CSIRO had flashed up all their part of the equipment. On that first day we had got the voice but we hadn’t got all the links through to you can sat essay Honeysuckle.

I can remember holding the cable and shouting in frustration, I had the stuff in my hand but I couldn’t do anything with it! Predictions were the problem (the information where to point the little, antenna), they were a big problem early on. We just had to rely on predictions from NASA. John Bolton and highest score sat essay, his boys had to work around them as much as they could. We didn’t get any really good data from Parkes that first night. They were relying heavily on us because of the improved quality of signal they were able to up the bit rate by winners one step with our signal from what they were getting from the 26 metre dishes (such as Honeysuckle) that was why they needed us at Parkes. We worked 16 hour days.”

“I was relaxing at home when I had a phone call from the shift supervisor at the time to say there was a problem, so I immediately went in to find that Apollo 13 really was in trouble. You Can Score Sat Essay! Next there was a call from the Network Manager in nature conclusion, the United States to highest you can say they wanted two things immediately they wanted to activate the lines to Parkes, and the second one, which was a bit more difficult, was to published get some kind of broadband communication between the Carnarvon OTC Earth station and the Carnarvon Tracking Station. They wanted everything they could get. I worked out I still had a few friends left in the PMG (Post Master General’s Department) in Western Australia who could help us out. Highest Score Sat Essay! So, by 4 o’clock in the morning I dragged one of my friends out of bed, and he said, ‘Oh, I think I have got an OB (Outside Broadcast) link we could use, I’ll see what I can do give me a call back in an hour.’ When I called him back he said, ‘Yes, I’ve organised it, two OB vans will be leaving the middle school, depot in Perth for Carnarvon at 8 o’clock this morning, as soon as the guys get to work.’ There was no mention of score sat essay money, or anything like that, it was a matter of let’s do it and sort things out middle school term afterwards. At the same time I got cracking with the PMG. Because we already had circuits into Parkes, there was a probability most of it was still working. I called people out of highest sat essay bed and they found most of the link was there, and pretty soon after the royal essay competition, Tidbinbilla guys arrived we had the links up.” Trevor Gray , PMG technician: “We worked non-stop through the night to highest get the get essays, links going. After Apollo 11 we had trouble with the connections exploding when we switched the highest sat essay, equipment on because of the essay, high voltage and moisture getting in, so we had left the equipment switched on, but then all the highest score, electronic valves had deteriorated, and we were frantically trying to find the sick valves and change them before we could get the links going.” Wilfred Laing , Senior Technical Officer at the Redfern Microwave Terminal in Sydney was interrupted by the phone ringing: “It was the City South Control to say they needed Parkes up in view research, a hurry.

I rang through to Parkes to score find they were already setting their end up. Get Essays Published! Somebody must have had a premonition because only a few days before we had put up a temporary link from Parkes to Sydney via Orange just in case it may be required. We dropped everything we were doing with the state networks and concentrated on the Apollo circuits.” Meanwhile out in highest score sat essay, space the astronauts found that as soon as they brought the Lunar Module communications system on line it clashed with the Saturn IVB rocket following them, as they were both transmitting on the same frequency. Because the Apollo 12 mission had left a seismometer on the moon, the Saturn IVB was organised to crash on the moon for seismic readings, and extra batteries had been added for communications to last until impact. Normally, this should occur well before the Lunar Module was fired up. So with both the Saturn IVB and Lunar Module transmitters on the same frequency it was the same as having two radio stations on the same spot on the dial of view research papers your radio. Which one does it try to lock onto? Bill Wood at the Goldstone Tracking Station, “The Flight Controllers at Houston wanted us to move the signal from the you can, Lunar Module across to the other side of the Saturn IVB signal to allow for expected doppler changes. Tom Jonas, our receiver-exciter engineer, yelled at me, ‘that’s not going to work! We will end up locking both spacecraft to one up-link and wipe out the telemetry and middle school, voice contact with the crew.’ I jumped on highest you can, the station intercom and strongly requested Bill Sheridan, the Station Operations Supervisor, to tell Houston what would happen, but they just told us to follow instructions. So at that time Houston lost telemetry with the Saturn IVB and get essays, voice contact with the spacecraft crew.

Luckily our big 64 metre Mars antenna was already switching over to the Apollo emergency and their narrower beam width managed to discriminate between the two signals and the telemetry and highest score, voice links were restored. So the nature, situation stabilised from our point of view until it was time for us to hand this ‘mess’ over to Honeysuckle Creek in Australia.” Honeysuckle Creek was tracking with its smaller 26 metre antenna. Deputy Director Mike Dinn : “This was where the receiver operators earned their money. When they fired up the LM, we had both signals in the same bandwidth and we had ten receivers that could lock to one or the other and did! Before the mission I had foreseen the highest sat essay, possibility of our having to cope with the Saturn IVB and the LM together. Commonwealth Competition 2012 Winners! There was nothing written down in the procedures and I remember calling Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland, our technical advisors, to discuss what we might do, and score, we agreed there would be no difficulty in “pulling” the frequencies apart by tuning the station transmitters appropriately. I was used to this procedure in the Deep Space Network in the early years of lunar and planetary exploration. Anyway, I remember that we acquired the two spacecraft and successfully pulled the two links apart. View Research! Then Houston asked us to highest you can sat essay tune the frequency of one transmitter and I immediately recognised this would bring all the frequencies back together again. I tried to talk Houston out of this, even asking Goddard to tell them, but was unsuccessful, and we had to carry out the request. The problems we knew would happen, occurred.” John Mitchell , Honeysuckle USB Shift Supervisor: “Back when Apollo 1 had the fire, during the long suspension period that followed we used to hire a Cessna 210 and practice handovers and that sort of thing.

When Mike Dinn was looking for get essays published, emergency procedures I put up the you can sat essay, theory that what happens if the little, Saturn IVB signal does keep going for some reason? So I proposed the theory of getting the LM to you can sat essay switch off and we practiced that time and time again with the aircraft. I told Mike Dinn that this was the way to go.” From his previous discussions with Goddard, Dinn agreed: “I advised Houston that the only way out of this mess was to ask the astronauts in the LM to term papers turn off its signal so we could lock on to the Saturn IVB, then turn the LM back on and pull it away from the Saturn signal.” “They came back in an hour and told us to go ahead, and score sat essay, Houston transmitted the instructions up to the astronauts ‘in the blind’ hoping the school term papers, astronauts could hear, as we couldn’t hear them at that moment. The downlink from the highest score, spacecraft suddenly disappeared, so we knew they got the message. When we could see the Saturn IV downlink go way out to the prescribed frequency, we put the second uplink on, acquired the LM, put the sidebands on, locked up and tuned away from the Saturn IVB. Then everything worked fine.” In the left foreground at the servo console is Brian Bell, behind him is Bernard Smith bending over view research the System Monitor chart recorder.

Along the receiver console behind are the receiver operators, Graham Fraser, Ross Barnes, and Jerry Bissicks. Photo: Hamish Lindsay, exact date unknown. In Houston, the Director of Flight Operations, Chris Kraft, came out and grimly told the media, “This is score, as serious a situation as we have ever had in a manned spaceflight.” People around the published, world, already blas about moon missions, suddenly became engrossed in sat essay, this gripping drama from space as the world’s media wound themselves up for this journalists’ manna from the santayana essays, Apollo program. Everybody was wondering would they come back alive? Director of Flight Operations, Chris Kraft, speaks to the media at a midnight press conference in the MSC Auditorium. Courtesy Spacecraft Films. With no power, the highest you can score sat essay, Command Module lapsed into a dark tomb, steadily getting colder and colder. Beads of moisture formed over all the rita, surfaces, crusting the windows. Occasional flashes of highest sunlight through the windows pierced the darkness lit only by educating frank their torches. Outside, a cloud of vented gases and debris gathered around the spacecraft. Sparkling in the brilliant sunlight, they stopped any chance of the astronauts taking sights on stars for their navigation. “The spacecraft was doing things I had never seen before.

The LM was never designed to have a 27,000 kilogram dead Command and Service Module attached to it, so I literally had to learn to fly the vehicle all over again.” Apollo 13 was the second mission that had deviated from the ‘free-return’ trajectory, where the spacecraft would automatically sling around the Moon and return to highest score Earth if anything had gone wrong. Get Essays Published! When the missions began to aim at the western landing sites the spacecraft took a different path and would not automatically return to Earth. Highest You Can Score! Now they had to get back on to a free return trajectory, or they would miss the Earth by something like 70,000 kilometres. The only get essays reliable engine available was the LM’s descent motor, but that was never designed to you can score push the combined CSM and LM, and there were no procedures to use it in this way or simulations. Although pilots are reluctant to essay competition winners admit it, the computer can control burns much more accurately and reliably than manual control, so the astronauts waited anxiously while Houston figured out the rocket’s burn times.

Fred Haise calls Capcom Jack Lousa, to ask about plans for the return flight. Starting at 059:17:53GET. This recording illustrates another problem caused by locking the IU and LM transponders to the same frequency. Bill Wood: “The GDS Wing was uplinking to the IU and GDS prime was uplinking to sat essay the LM. That would have caused problems receiving both voice and command from the ground. While there was only one 30 kHz voice subcarrier from the GDS Prime, the presence of two uplink carriers would have caused the interference that the crew was hearing.” Clip starts at 059:59:05GET. The headline on view, Sydney’s The Sun newspaper, printed just hours after the explosion, tells the story. Meanwhile Lovell and Haise were wrestling with an uncontrollable spacecraft, trying to stabilise it and get away from the glittering debris enveloping them. They needed to see the stars to check they were pointing in the right direction for highest score, the burn. Every ruse failed.

They could only hope the data transferred from the Command Module was still accurate enough. “Roger, Aquarius, You are go for little, the burn,” Capcom Lousma finally announced. Haise commented, “This was yet untried. I knew, of course, that if we failed to blast into the free return trajectory we were doomed to swing around the Moon, miss the Earth, and go into eternal orbit around it.” First of all Lovell had to remember to unfold the Lunar Module’s legs so they wouldn’t get blasted by highest score the descent rocket’s exhaust. Then he carefully followed the burn procedures radioed up from middle papers Houston, hunched over the computer display with his hand on the throttle control. At 1842:43 AEST Tuesday 14 April the engine burned for 34.23 seconds, just over the scheduled 30 seconds. “Auto shutdown.” Lovell advised Houston and everyone hung anxiously onto the trajectory displays. Was the you can score sat essay, Lunar Module’s motor able to do the educating rita, job?

Was Apollo 13 coming home? Soon the highest, tracking data showed that the royal commonwealth essay, burn was perfect. Apollo 13 was going to round the highest, moon at about 209 kilometres instead of 97 kilometres above the royal commonwealth essay 2012, surface and would return to Earth . into the Indian Ocean. “Any old ocean would do as long as it was on the Earth,” announced a relieved Lovell. A long way away from the main recovery forces waiting for them in the Pacific, but at least it was back on Earth. The nearest American ship was the destroyer Bordelon , cruising off the highest you can score, coast of Mauritius, but the American Department of Defense sent assurances they could get aircraft to the area. Due to the growing confidence in little, the Apollo program, this was the first time mission secondary recovery forces had not been sent to the South Atlantic, let alone the you can sat essay, Indian Ocean. Lovell checked around the instrument panels, and announced the next major item on his mind: “Okay, Houston, burn’s complete. Now we have to talk about powering down.” The next big problem were the consumables it wasn’t much good the spacecraft arriving back on Earth with the astronauts dead from asphyxiation. The Lunar Module was only designed for two people for 45 hours, now it was going to educating rita frank essay have to support three bodies jammed in it for 90 hours. There just wasn’t enough water or power to last the voyage back to Earth.

Lovell figured that the you can, earliest they could get back would be around midnight on Friday; and little, he couldn’t see how it could possibly keep them going that long. In the Lunar Module Haise was looking at the situation. There was plenty of highest sat essay oxygen but the electrical power and cooling water worried him. The LM had no fuel cells, only batteries for competition 2012 winners, two days of normal operation, and the water used for highest you can sat essay, cooling the commonwealth essay competition 2012, electronic systems would run out about 5 hours before reentry by his calculations. Earlier tests had shown that the Lunar Module could survive for about 7 hours without cooling before the guidance system would be the you can score sat essay, first to succumb to the heat. Haise waited for nature conclusion, Mission Control’s assessment. The Tiger Team at highest score sat essay, Mission Control knuckled down to working out how to cut all consumables down to view papers a basic existence level. “We gathered up in highest score, the back room with Kranz because there was nothing for the Command and middle papers, Service Module guys to do in real time on the consoles because the score, spacecraft was dead. Kranz started talking about the strategy, what we were going to do going around the santayana essays, Moon and highest you can, when we get back close to Earth we will power the spacecraft up and do the educating frank essay, reentry. and I said, ‘Kranz you can’t do that because you don’t have the power’ and he said, ‘Okay John Aaron, you’re in charge of power if anybody wants any power you go and see John Aaron.’ So I said, ‘Tell you what guys, I’ve got some ideas, but let me put them down a piece of paper and come back in an hour and I’ll show you a way we might be able to do this.’ So they came back in about an hour, and I had sketched out a rough profile and I told them, ‘Okay guys, this is all the score sat essay, power we’ve got so we’ll have to research do the guidance system and all this stuff this way. ’ and everybody started saying ‘Oh my God, you can’t do that - we’ve got to highest you can score sat essay have this, we’ve got to have that’ and that started a whole sequence of the brokerage process between me allocating subsystems and switch turn-ons and circuit breakers and keeping track of the power profile. That went on nature conclusion, until we got very close to reentry, and it started taking on more and more refinement, until it finally got to highest the point that a crew started trying it in the simulators just to make sure these guys could actually do that.

It was an papers, endless iteration of brokerages across those days, and you have to remember all the power analysis was done on arithmetic and slide rules we never had any calculators.” Bill Peters, Lunar Module TELMU, or electrical and environmental systems engineer, “We had developed some off-line computer programs that gave a time line power profile output. We were running a load of anything up to 30 amps with the computers up, and there was no way we could get back with that sort of load. I figured if we could get down to about 12 amps we would be okay. We only knew this from you can score sat essay our ground computations. Actually we had an nature essay conclusion, error in our ground computation that under calculated so those batteries were consuming more than we had calculated. The first time I felt we could make it home was when we went around the score, Moon and did the real LM power down and the numbers came up on the screen.

Before that there was a possibility they would not make it. Once we hit the 12 amps I was convinced we had it made. We had very little powered up, only santayana some communication equipment and the cabin fan to circulate the air. John Aaron came to me and wanted me to charge up the reentry batteries in the Command Module. We had concocted a scheme where we ran two CSM to score sat essay LM umbilical cables backwards they were designed for the CSM to send power to the LM to heaters to keep some components warm while travelling to the Moon. This powered the Command Module’s inverters to charge its batteries. I gave them all the fat that I could come up with, as much power as I felt we could afford.” On Earth emergency teams swung into action around the country, from California to New York, where there were 10 phone lines kept open between Mission Control and a room staffed with 70 Lunar Module experts at middle term, the manufacturer’s plant in Bethpage, Long Island. Highest! On 14 April the nature essay, US Senate adopted a resolution urging all communications media and businesses to pause at 2100, their local time, to “permit persons to you can join in nature essay conclusion, prayer for the safety of the astronauts.” On the same day President Nixon cancelled his appointments and drove out to the Goddard Space Flight Centre in highest, Maryland, accompanied by Apollo 11 astronaut Michael Collins, at the time Assistant Secretary of State for commonwealth essay competition 2012, Public Affairs, to find out the details of how the mission was progressing. Despite the Cold War, the Russians ordered four ships to the splashdown area, and Premier Aleksei Kosygin sent a message, “I want to inform you the Soviet Government has given orders to all citizens and members of the armed forces to use all necessary means to render assistance in the rescue of the highest score, American astronauts.” 6 min 47s / 1.4MB mp3.

This is 12 hours after the santayana little, explosion and the comms is now much better. Starting at 066:35GET. Highest You Can Score! Wednesday 15 April 1970. By 1520 on 15 April the crew in the crippled spacecraft had followed the essay 2012, ground instructions. Lovell, “We shut off all those exotic electronic devices that we would not normally be caught without out there the guidance systems, the computer, the auto pilot. We only had the radio for communications and a little fan to circulate the atmosphere.” “For most of the first two days after the explosion we split shifts . I was awake in sat essay, the LM alone while Jim and Jack slept in the CSM and vice versa. So there was no crowding during that period.

It finally became so cold that we all just stayed in the LM. In zero G, though crowded, it was just a soft nudge if you happened to bump into someone. Most of the time Jack floated in educating rita frank essay, the back area of the highest score sat essay, LM crew cabin out of the way, so the area was really not that confining. Term Papers! And it was good to have the three of us together in highest you can, the same vehicle. Santayana! The added ‘heat of the third body’ helped to raise the temperature in you can, the LM.” The moonlight was flooding into the spacecraft’s interior and the astronauts were able to put their torches away.

They had cut their consumption of water down to 170 grams per day. As Houston told them to save the Lunar Module’s water for cooling, Lovell told Swigert to transfer all the drinking water from the Command Module to published the Lunar Module, which he did using plastic juice bags, but he sloshed some of the water into his boots, and suffered the you can, misery of cold wet feet for the rest of the trip. Essay! They ate cold hot dogs and wet pack foods, when they ate at all, the Command Module having the highest you can, only water heating system. All the food and drinks were cold refrigerator cold! They didn’t get very thirsty and became quite dehydrated. This crew set a record by losing 50% more weight than any other crew, Lovell losing 6 kilograms.

As Apollo 13 approached the backside of the Moon the Sun set behind the rim. Rita Frank Essay! An eerie darkness enveloped the spacecraft. The glinting, blinding debris surrounding them vanished and score, the surrounding velvet blackness was studded with an illimitable sea of bright stars stars in every direction. The thick band of stars making up the Milky Way stretched across the papers, void. The crew then became aware some of the stars were blotted out by highest score sat essay two sinister black clouds accompanying the spacecraft.

Lovell, “I can’t for the life of me figure out what that dark stuff is.” Haise, “Yes – did you look at it, Jack?” Swigert, “Yes, okay. Nature! see it there like two black clouds.” They decided it was the debris from the sat essay, explosion. They became subdued as they remembered the middle, crisis-laden moments of the explosion until a voice from Earth broke the spell, “Go ahead Houston.” “Okay, Jim, we have a little over two minutes until loss of highest you can score signal and everything’s looking good here.” Vance Brand’s matter-of-fact voice from the security of the view research papers, Mission Control Center showed he was unaware of the mood in the spacecraft’s cabin. “Roger, I take it you don’t want us to activate any other systems or make any other preparations until we reacquire signal?” Lovell checked. “Okay, we’ll just sit tight, then. See you on the other side.” Apollo 13 rounds the sat essay, Moon. View from Aquarius, with the Command Module at right. NASA JSC scan via the ALSJ. AS13-62-8909. APOLLO 13 SETS A RECORD, TAKING HUMANS TO THE GREATEST DISTANCE FROM EARTH.

At 1021:35 AEST on educating rita essay, Wednesday 15 April (GET 77:08:35) Apollo 13 coasted behind the Moon and lost contact with the tracking stations on Earth for about 24 minutes 35 seconds. As they looped around the back of the Moon, at a maximum height of 253.7 kilometres above the lunar surface, the Moon was 400,171 kilometres away from the highest you can, Earth, further than any other Apollo mission. According to the Guinness Book of Records at this point Lovell, Swigert, and get essays published, Haise set a record as the humans to travel the you can sat essay, farthest away from Earth. The crew lost the research, crescent sunlit edge of the Moon behind them and flew over a totally black lunar surface until about five minutes before Earthrise a glow appeared on the lunar horizon. Haise saw it first, then Lovell moved back to let Swigert see the view through the you can score sat essay, window. While Lovell hovered at the back of the cabin the two first timers were glued to the Command Module’s windows, gazing in awe at the grim and desolate landscape of chaotic craters and torturous rilles, taking photographs and exclaiming, “Wow, look at that!” “Hey, you guys come on we’ve got a burn to do. If we don’t get this right you won’t get your pictures developed!” Lovell had seen it all before on Apollo 8. “It’s all right for you you’ve been here before – we haven’t.” They still couldn’t take their eyes from the passing spectacle. Mare Moscoviense. View from get essays Aquarius . AS13-62-8922.

From the highest score, Apollo Image Atlas of the Lunar and Planetary Institute. After reacquiring the tracking stations on Earth at 1046:10 AEST the crew began to prepare for the Lunar Module’s descent rocket firing to bring them home faster. Nature! AOS. You Can! Starting at 077:35:39GET. While they were waiting for the burn, Houston called up, “By the way, Aquarius, we see the results of Apollo 12’s seismometer. Looks like your third stage just hit the moon, and it’s rocking it a little bit.” Lovell answered, “Well, at least something worked on this flight. Sure glad we didn’t have a LM impact too!” The Saturn IVB smashed into the lunar surface at 1109:40 AEST 15 April, 140 kilometres west north west of the Apollo 12 seismometer with a force equal to 11 tonnes of TNT. Dr. Gary Latham, principal investigator of the experiment, commented: “The Apollo 12 Lunar Module’s signal only lasted for about 55 minutes. This signal (from the Apollo 13 Saturn IVB) arrived about frank 30 seconds after impact, the peak amplitude was a factor of 20 to you can score 30 times larger than the LM, and lasted for 4 hours, which was astounding to us.” Choosing the safest option of the three available, one that did not require the little, Service Module to be dropped off, but took the longest time, Houston told the crew they could shorten the trip by 10 hours with a PC+2 burn, or a burn 2 hours after Pericynthion, the closest point they would come to the Moon.

It would also bring them down in the Pacific Ocean the original target where all the recovery forces were. Unfortunately at this point there was a tropical storm “Helen” threatening the area, and they were considering an highest you can sat essay, alternate landing spot. Due to view research papers the software in the LM not being able to accommodate the attached dead bulk of the sat essay, CSM, Lovell had to fire the engine manually. Santayana Essays! At 1240:39 AEST on Wednesday afternoon Swigert sat on the ascent engine cover during the 4 minute 23 second Trans Earth Insertion (TEI), or PC+2 burn, which increased their speed by 966 kilometres per hour: “Now we were really on our way home, I felt much better about our chances,” he said. As heard live via the sat essay, Voice of America, Rhett Turner reporting.

79:28GET. Now it became a matter of waiting. And how the time dragged! “It was very quiet . Middle School Papers! very quiet. And suddenly when there was nothing to do and you’re in a tight spot that’s bad news, because you start thinking about the tight situation you’re in and you want something to do!” In the computer room at Honeysuckle Creek it was anything but quiet. Highest Score Sat Essay! Geoff Seymour , Computer Supervising Engineer: “We had an essay 2012 winners, intermittent hardware problem in the telemetry computer. Highest Sat Essay! Prior to the launch we had experienced this problem and at middle school, one stage they were anticipating delaying the launch until we could fix the problem, but the computer managed to stay up long enough for the launch to go ahead.

Round about the time of the explosion the same computer began to fail again, which put the pressure on us because they needed the ability to send commands up to the spacecraft, and to receive the telemetry down, they needed both computers up. We began to troubleshoot this computer and managed to narrow it down to three printed circuit boards on one chassis. We replaced those, but it didn’t solve the problem. I stayed on site, sleeping in one of the highest sat essay, bedrooms below until we fixed it. As the spacecraft rounded the moon and was coming back the NASA engineers decided to ship out a chassis from the computer in the training facility in published, Goddard and strapped it into a first class seat on you can sat essay, an airliner. We believed we could fix it before the chassis arrived from the States. The only thing left for us to do was to take the chassis out of the computer and we removed several hundred printed circuit boards, we cleaned every socket in the chassis, we cleaned every pin on every printed circuit board we could remove – we put it all back in, and from that day onwards the intermittent problem just went away.” Early on Wednesday morning out in space a new development threatened the astronauts.

A light warned them that the carbon dioxide had built up to a dangerous level, and in the confines of the Lunar Module they would have eventually gone to competition 2012 winners sleep and died, poisoned by their own breath. On Monday night Chief of the Crew Systems Division at Houston, Ed Smylie, had already figured out there would be a carbon dioxide problem and had worked out you can sat essay a crude, but effective solution in his head. He joined his assistant, Jim Correale, to get essays published work out you can a system to join the Command Module’s square lithium canisters, which clean the carbon dioxide from the air, to the Lunar Module’s round system using only the materials available on board such as tape, plastic, and cardboard. Astronaut Tony England verified the procedure by successfully putting one together by oral instructions only. Smylie carried his contraption into Mission Control and left it on the Capcom’s console.

The carbon dioxide reading for a healthy atmosphere was normally about essays 2 or 3 millimetres of mercury but now it was reading 13, and 15 was the recognised limit before the first signs of poisoning became evident. Score! When he was ready Capcom Joe Kerwin called up the little essays, spacecraft, and read the sat essay, instructions as the crew began to assemble the get essays, canisters at around 0330 on 15 April. Lovell: “Jack and I put it together it wasn’t very handsome, but it worked.” Jack Swigert (right) and Jim Lovell (left) work on the carbon dioxide solution. Photo courtesy of the Apollo Image Gallery. AS13-62-9004. In the Australian Senate, Apollo 13 caused enough concern to highest you can be raised as questions on April 15 and April 16. Senator Anderson, “It is interesting to be able to tell the Senate and the people of Australia that a small army of dedicated Australians worked throughout the night to install microwave links enabling the 64 metre radio telescope of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation at Parkes to assist the papers, return voyage of the Apollo 13 spacecraft. Parkes, within hours after a request by the National Aeronautics and you can sat essay, Space Administration, established voice communication with the astronauts at about 8:30 pm last night.

Teams from the Post Master General’s Department and the Australian Broadcasting Commission, assisted by personnel from rita frank essay Amalgamated Wireless (Australasia) Ltd., installed temporary microwave circuits from Parkes to Coonambro and from Red Hill in Canberra via Williamsdale to score sat essay Honeysuckle Creek. This task, which involved the erection of 6 aerials up to 60 feet high in research papers, the middle of the night, was completed at 6 am this morning. The microwave links will enable Parkes to transmit telemetry data from the spacecraft. Parkes, and the Australian Capital Territory stations of Honeysuckle Creek and Tidbinbilla, which my Department operates for NASA, will start to play a crucial role after the spacecraft’s trans-Earth injection which was scheduled for 12:40 pm today. I would like to you can sat essay pay special tribute to the staff at Honeysuckle Creek and Tidbinbilla who, working at the lowest possible signal level, have been providing communications between the ground control and the astronauts. I am certain that I speak for commonwealth essay 2012 winners, all Australians in wishing the Apollo crew a safe return to score Earth.” Thursday 16 April 1970. At 0626:53 AEST during the morning of 16 April, not long after they had entered the influence of the Earth’s gravity field, everyone at rita frank essay, Mission Control slid to the edge of their seats and grappled with another heart stopping report from Haise: “I just heard a little thump, sounded like down in the descent stage, and I saw a new shower of highest you can score sat essay snowflakes come up.” Another explosion! This time from under their feet in published, the life supporting Lunar Module they were all depending on! More debris gathered around the two stricken spacecraft. It was battery #2 in highest, the Lunar Module’s descent stage.

Don Arabian, from the Mission Evaluation Room, figured out that hydrogen and oxygen gases had built up in the battery’s lid until the pressure blew it off. Papers! Bill Peters, the Lunar Module’s electrical engineer: “After it made its “pop and snowflakes” as people say, we looked at the data and it had a spike in the current data, that’s all we saw in real time, but that battery continued to run for a long time before it failed to score sat essay contribute electricity and I turned it off.” After consulting with the middle school papers, manufacturers, the engineers decided that the remaining batteries were going to last comfortably until the end of the mission. Sat Essay! Mission Control began working on correcting some errors derived from the TEI burn with another burn of published 14 seconds of the Lunar Module’s descent motor at 1431:28 AEST on 16 April. Lovell fired the engine, while Haise kept an eye on the spacecraft attitude and Swigert called the times. Houston was anxious not to disturb the spacecraft’s homeward trajectory, so told the crew not to dump any waste material overboard.

This meant they had to find a way to store their urine on board. They found three bags in the Command Module and six little ones in the Lunar Module, plus by using some tanks associated with their EVA suits they managed to keep ahead of the you can score sat essay, flow. “I’m glad we got home when we did,” said Lovell, “because we were just about out of ideas for stowage.” Friday 17 April 1970. As Apollo 13 raced home the Flight Dynamics team (FDO, RETRO, and GUIDO) began to frown as they spotted the tracking data was indicating the spacecraft was gently drifting away from the get essays published, critical entry corridor. What was causing this insidious drift? Every known source of highest you can venting gas was turned off, so it had to be something else. After the mission ended, it was concluded that the santayana little essays, small thrust causing the drift came from a ‘non-propulsive’ water boiler vent in the Lunar Module’s cooling system, which under normal circumstances would not have been noticed in highest you can sat essay, the short dash down to the moon’s surface and back. When the royal commonwealth essay 2012 winners, error crept up to 161 kilometres it was time to do something, or the astronauts in you can sat essay, their spacecraft would bounce out of the atmosphere and go off into solar orbit: “. to become a permanent monument to middle term the space program,” as Lovell wryly put it, but said he would rather burn up in the atmosphere than skip out into solar orbit.

The flight controllers were reluctant to fire the Lunar Module’s descent engine again. Helium was normally used to force the fuel into the engine combustion chamber, and the Lunar Module engineers were watching the highest you can, pressure slowly building up in the storage tank. At 12,411 kPa a safety membrane would blow out to relieve the pressure. Once that happened there was no guarantee the engine would work, so the correction burn had to happen before the helium blew. Late during Wednesday evening when Capcom Vance Brand called Apollo 13: “We don’t want to power up the spacecraft completely, so that means no computer or mission timer. We’ll simply go with a manual burn, with you controlling the engine with the Start and santayana little, Stop switches. For attitude, what we’re going to want to do is manually orient the spacecraft to place the highest you can sat essay, Earth in the centre of your window. If you hold it there throughout the burn, the attitude will be correct.

Got that?” “Roger, I think so,” Lovell confirmed thoughtfully, remembering back in Apollo 8 they had tried just such an little, exercise to highest score sat essay see if they could steer the middle term papers, spacecraft into the reentry corridor with no help from the navigation systems. Score Sat Essay! Houston planned to burn the royal essay competition 2012, Lunar Module’s descent motor when they were just entering the score sat essay, influence of the Earth’s gravity, and still moving relatively slowly. Using Swigert’s wrist watch, from 1431:28 AEST 16 April, they timed the burn manually for 14 seconds at 10% power, during which Lovell and Haise steered the spacecraft to keep the crosshair of the optical sight in term papers, their windows parallel with the highest you can, Earth’s terminator, or sunset line, which meant they should be aiming straight for the reentry corridor again. Published! Three and a half hours later the highest you can score sat essay, helium pressure reached 13,245 kPa and blew the safety membrane out, sending another thump through the spacecraft and a shower of commonwealth 2012 winners sparkling crystals to join the cloud of debris shepherding Apollo 13 through space. The startled astronauts looked at each other but realised what it was, and Lovell murmured, “That’s the sat essay, end of our helium problem.” It became so cold in Odyssey that sleep was impossible. Lovell: “When we turned off the electrical systems, we lost our source of heat, and the sun streaming in the windows didn’t help much. We were as cold as frogs in a frozen pool, specially Jack Swigert, who got his feet wet and didn’t have lunar overshoes. It wasn’t simply that the temperature dropped down to 1.6C; the sight of santayana essays perspiring walls and wet windows made it seem even colder.” The Command Module had been referred to as “the bedroom”, but by the last day they were calling it “the refrigerator”. During the last 12 hours before reentry, Haise had to go into the cold and score sat essay, damp Command Module. When he returned, it took him four hours in the Lunar Module before he stopped shivering.

He ended up trying to sleep in his sleeping bag in the tunnel between the two spacecraft, with his head in the Lunar Module, which was much warmer at 10C. Royal Essay Competition 2012 Winners! Even after the fiery reentry and warm 27ºC Pacific waters they could still see their frosty breath inside the cabin. You Can Sat Essay! Honeysuckle is prime during this recording of Jim Lovell describing the cold the view papers, 39 second recording, made at Honeysucke Creek, begins at 132:53GET. This clip (254kb mp3 file) was recorded by score sat essay Hamish Lindsay. Lovell commented: “We had a dead Service Module, we had a Command Module but it had no power in it, and we had a Lunar Module that was a wonderful vehicle but it didn’t have a heat shield.” No one knew what would happen to a frozen Command Module that had coasted through space without any power for little, over two days. “We were worried that the systems would get so cold that the batteries would freeze, the propellants in the lines would freeze that when we brought the Command Module up it would be non-functional,” Kranz admitted later, backed up by Lovell: “The walls, ceiling, floor, wire harnesses, and panels were all covered with droplets of water. Highest You Can Score Sat Essay! The chances of short circuits caused us apprehension, to say the santayana essays, least. But thanks to the safeguards built into the Command Module after the disastrous fire in January, 1967, no arcing took place. The water droplets caused one sensation as we entered the atmosphere - it rained inside the Command Module!” At Houston, Gene Kranz and his Tiger Team wrestled with reentry procedures and check lists for the last six hours of the mission that had never been tried before. Normally it would take three months to develop these procedures they had less than three days. “Basically we planned to you can power up the vehicle in reverse, we had the crew turn the educating rita frank, guidance system on in the blind, then right at the end I allowed them to turn on the telemetry system so that we could see it and verify it was all on okay.

By doing it backwards that way we had enough power but the crew had to do it right. Later I realised I was kinda lost in my own world trying to build that check list that had to highest you can be done perfectly the first time, then when I saw what shape the crew were in being dehydrated, no real sleep, freezing to death, I realised that was another factor that I didn’t take into account. But they executed that check list perfectly, it was just amazing. We finally got the sequence down so Ken Mattingly could try it in the simulator, and frank essay, he found things that wouldn’t work so would come back and negotiate with me and I said we can’t add more power, we have to do some other way. And of you can score sat essay course the view, crew was getting kinda anxious, they were trying to be subtle, but not too subtle, and highest you can score sat essay, kept saying, ‘Hey Houston, we’re looking out the window and the Earth’s getting bigger and bigger where’s that check list?’” It was Thursday evening in Houston when Arnold Aldrich and Gene Kranz escorted Aaron into the Mission Control Center, hugging the royal essay competition, checklist to his chest: “I had one hand type-written copy with the latest changes in it, we didn’t have word processors in those days, and I said ‘Okay Flight - here it is, read it to the crew.’” A relieved Capcom Vance Brand took the copy, turned back to highest you can sat essay his console and educating frank, called: “Houston, Aquarius.” “Go, Houston,” replied Lovell. “Okay, we are ready to highest you can sat essay read you the first checklist instalment” “All right, Vance. I’m going to get Jack on the line, so stand by.” Aaron became aware he was surrounded by people holding out demanding hands: “Where are the copies, EECOM? I need a copy.” So as Brand heard his headset saying, “Okay, Vance, I’m ready to middle school papers copy,” he had to hand the checklist back and score, sheepishly answer: “Okay, Jack but we have to ask you to wait one minute again. We want to get a copy of the checklist into nature conclusion, the hands of the Flight Directors and EECOM and it’ll take a second or two.” It was nearly half an hour before Brand began two tedious hours reading out the check list to a very tired Swigert as he copied them down holding a flashlight between his teeth.

Then followed another hour of Lunar Module procedures to Haise, followed by a timeline sequence that glued both checklists together. In the time it took them to highest you can score write the get essays published, procedures down, they covered 96,500 kilometres. Highest Score! Swigert finished writing down the last entry just over 12 hours before they were due to start using it there was no time for corrections or a second chance it had to be right the first time as the spacecraft hurtled towards that narrow door into the Earth’s atmosphere with its speed building up to a maximum of 38,623 kilometres per hour. Six and a half hours before they were due to start using the checklist – they tried to get some rest. Lovell reported: “Haise is lying in the tunnel with his head on the ascent engine cover, Swigert is lying on the floor in a sleep restraint.” They had been averaging three hours of disturbed sleep a day. Four hours before reaching the view, atmosphere Houston sent the message, “You can jettison the Service Module when you are ready. No big rush, but any time.” Lovell and highest you can, Haise manned the santayana essays, Lunar Module, while Swigert fired the Service Module separation bolts from the Command Module at 2314:48 AEST during the evening of April 17. Lovell had suggested to Swigert that he put a label over the switch to jettison the Lunar Module in case he threw the wrong switch, and sent his mates off to be incinerated in the brief meteor the Lunar Module was to become! Lovell then backed the Lunar Module and Command Module away from the carcass of the you can sat essay, Service Module. Swigert tried each of the Command Module windows but saw nothing. Lovell swung the essay conclusion, spacecraft around and he and Haise peered out highest you can score of the Lunar Module’s windows and educating essay, also saw nothing no sign of the big cylindrical Service Module.

Lovell was scanning the velvet black void when he stiffened as he became aware of score a huge silver shape silently gliding into view, slowly rolling to reveal a great gash in its side. Lovell gazed wide-eyed at educating, the tendrils of wire, tubing and entrails gently waving about. Expecting only a small hole from the explosion, he said “I’m glad we couldn’t see the highest you can score sat essay, Service Module earlier. With one whole panel missing, the wreckage and wires hanging out, it was a sorry mess as it drifted away.” Then Haise yelled “I can see it out my window,” so Swigert rushed down the get essays published, tunnel, stuck his camera to the window and score sat essay, managed to get some shots, though by then it was beginning to tumble. Get Essays Published! Photographs of the damage for later analysis were important, as the Service Module would burn up on reentry. The damaged Service Module drifts away. Here’s another view. AS13-58-8464, via the Lunar Planetary Institute in Houston. The photo has been cropped and considerably brightened. Jim Lovell exclaims, “There’s one whole side of that spacecraft missing.”

As heard live via the Voice of America, with Rhett Turner providing commentary. 4.7MB mp3 / 9 minutes. When hearing of the extensive damage to the Service Module some of the Flight Controllers began to highest score sat essay wonder about the Command Module’s heat shield. Had it been damaged in the explosion? Nothing was said at rita frank essay, the time, but Haise had thought about it too, and the astronauts had discussed the possibility during the flight. During the mission they had filled the Command Module with all their rubbish in you can score, plastic bags, and now Haise had to transfer them all back to the LM as they prepared for the homecoming. He commented: “Boy, you wouldn’t believe this LM right now! There’s nothing but bags from floor to ceiling!” Saturday 18 April 1970.

At 0400 USCST on Friday April 17 the members of the Tiger Team entered Mission Control and spread around the consoles for the final moments of the saga. John Aaron took over from Sy Liebergot at the EECOM console and around 1000 he felt ready for educating essay, the Command Module power up procedure and called on the intercom, “Go EECOM,” returned Kranz. “Ready for highest sat essay, power up any time the crew is.” “Roger EECOM Capcom Flight.” “Go Flight,” answered Joe Kerwin. “EECOM says the Command Module can come on get essays published, line anytime.” “Roger Flight,” Kerwin keyed his air/ground switch, “Aquarius, Houston.” “Go Houston,” Lovell responded tersely. Highest You Can Score Sat Essay! “You’re go to start powering up Odyssey.” Swigert felt a useful member of the crew again as at 0123 AEST Saturday April 18 he began to educating frank power up the Command Module using its normal three reentry batteries, which had been topped up from the highest you can score sat essay, Lunar Module’s batteries. “Every switch and middle papers, circuit breaker that I turned on made me feel just that much better. I forgot about being tired and highest you can, didn’t even notice the cold.” John Aaron, surrounded by the other shift EECOMs, watched the idling readouts on his console, waiting for Swigert to switch on the telemetry. He was looking for a maximum current drain of 43 amps. If it was much more the batteries might not last to splashdown. After nearly half an hour Swigert switched the last items on and the telemetry kicked all Aaron’s readouts into life. His eyes homed in on the current meter, and to his dismay he was staring at a steady 45 amps. “What the hell are those two rogue amps doing there?” he angrily questioned anybody on the intercom or within earshot.

Nobody could find any cause until the Guidance controllers spotted the back up gyros were on. The spacecraft crew turned them off and the meter dropped back to 43 amps. Aaron, “I almost panicked there because I didn’t know how long those two amps had been on. It turned out the spacecraft was wired different than we thought, there was a sneak circuit in published, the wiring taking an you can, extra load off the circuit breaker that we didn’t know about.” Once the Command Module was powered up it was important to check they were on the right track for reentry. Essay! Capcom Joe Kerwin: “This was the you can, tense time for me.

Swigert was trying to get essays find the two stars necessary to align the you can score sat essay, platform to get their precise attitude. He was having a hell of a time doing it because of view papers reflections into the telescope from the Lunar Module. The spacecraft were racing towards the highest you can, atmosphere, and Swigert was doing it, and re-doing it. What we would have had to do was to say ‘Okay, Jack its time to get essays published knock that off we’ll take an approximate attitude it’s time to jettison the LM we have to highest you can score get on with it. I kept looking at Kranz, but he just put his hand out silently to say give him another minute. Then Swigert finally got it and educating frank essay, called out highest you can ‘Five balls’ which meant that the essay, number after the highest score, decimal point on star angle difference was five zeros, meaning he had hit the right two stars and had an accurate platform. From there on everything just went nominally from royal competition 2012 my point of sat essay view.” Three and a half hours after the Service Module was jettisoned, it was the Lunar Module’s turn. Lovell: “Ten seconds.” Swigert, “Five. Published! LM Jettison,” At 0243 AEST 18 April the you can score sat essay, faithful “lifeboat” Aquarius was released and little essays, pushed off with 20.7 kPa air pressure from the tunnel. Sadly they watched it drift away to begin a slow forward somersault. Haise later said he would have liked to have looked after it in score sat essay, his backyard. “Okay, copy that.

Farewell Aquarius, and we thank you,” Kerwin called out from Houston. There was less than four and a half hours of electrical power left in Aquarius . “Farewell Aquarius , and santayana little, we thank you.” The ‘Age of Aquarius’ ends at score, 0243AEST on April 18th. Assembled from images AS13-59-8559, 61, 62, 63, 65, 66, 68, 71, 73, courtesy of the rita frank essay, Lunar and you can score sat essay, Planetary Institute. Aquarius is jettisoned. Voice of Apollo as heard via ABC Radio. “When Apollo 13 came back in, it did this vast swing back over the Indian Ocean. View Research! Because of the Earth turning it appeared to turn around and come back the other way. We put the you can sat essay, FPQ6 radar on and watched separation with it when they dumped the nature essay, LM. We could actually see all three parts of the spacecraft on our radar screens.” John Saxon at Honeysuckle Creek: “We were the last site, as we generally were, to score sat essay track the reentry phase of the nature essay, mission when they entered the Earth’s atmosphere. We were tracking both the Command Module and the Lunar Module.

There was a great deal of you can sat essay interest in where the LM came down because it had a package to be installed on the Moon which had a radio isotope power supply, and there was a concern that had it entered over land there might have been a radio active contamination problem. We were required to take very careful records of antenna angles when we lost contact. It entered the atmosphere and went into the sea somewhere in the deepest part of the ocean between Australia and New Zealand.” This was right where Flight Dynamics Officer (FDO) Jerry Bostick in Mission Control had carefully planned to put the Lunar Module. Get Essays! Mike Dinn’s Groundtrack map for Apollo 13 has been annotated to show the highest you can score, splashdown location. Nature Essay! Honeysuckle was the last ground station to track Apollo 13 before re-entry, when ARIA took over the comms. Click the image to get a 730kb scan of the entire map. Paul Mullen , antenna driver at Honeysuckle: “We lost the LM at the end it was going too fast for our 3 per you can second antenna speed it just dived out of view sight ahead of our antenna.” Entering the dark side of the Earth above the Indian Ocean, the three astronauts concentrated on the clock and score, Moon, sweating that it would set when Houston had calculated, confirming they were on the right track for a safe reentry. At precisely the right second a black notch bit into royal commonwealth 2012 winners, the bottom of the Moon, and it sank below the Earth’s horizon. The Commander looked at you can score sat essay, his crew: “Gentlemen, we’re about to 2012 reenter. I suggest you get ready for a ride.” Kerwin, “Odyssey, Houston standing by. Over.” Swigert, “You have a good bedside manner, Joe.” Kerwin, “That’s the score, nicest thing anybody’s said.

How about santayana that?” Swigert: “Sure wish I could go to highest score the FIDO (Flight Dynamics) party tonight.” Kerwin, “Yes it’s going to educating rita frank be a wild one. Somebody said we’ll cover for you guys and if Jack’s got any phone numbers he wants us to call, why, pass them down . Highest You Can Score! We just had a last time around the room and everybody says it’s looking great . Odyssey then plunged into the atmosphere at 0353:45 AEST, to rita be engulfed in a streaming firestorm, a fireball streaking across the sky. All communications with the spacecraft were cut off during the blackout period. A blanket of suspended anxiety descended over all the watchers around the world during the highest you can score, three minutes of silence of the blackout period. The seconds flicked away with no response from the spacecraft. Unable to commonwealth essay competition 2012 do any more for the mission now, the Houston Flight Controllers could only watch the you can sat essay, recovery forces at work on their large television screens and listen for the spacecraft to conclusion respond to their Capcom. It was suspected they had entered the atmosphere at a shallower angle than the optimum, which prolonged the blackout period. The tension built up. a minute after the expected time and highest sat essay, still no sight or sound of get essays Odyssey the cameras stared at a vacant sky, the speakers just hissed static. Joe Kerwin called out from Houston, “Odyssey, Houston standing by.” Suddenly Swigert’s voice filled the airwaves over the Pacific, “Okay, Joe!” and at 0402 AEST three healthy parachutes were seen. Luckily the original landing area was calm now the tropical storm was raging over the alternate landing area.

Joe Kerwin on the Capcom console, earlier in sat essay, the mission. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Mission Control erupted into term, a frenzy of cheering, handshaking and highest sat essay, clapping. John Aaron: “Since I had designed the reentry sequence, Kranz put me on research papers, the console as it came in you can sat essay, and that worked out fine, but that sure was something when they made it through the blackout and out came the chutes. We had live video coverage from the ship – that really was a lucky strike extra to get that close for the finish.” So how close was it to three fatalities? According to Sy Liebergot, the LM had 104 hours of breathing oxygen left, but only 10 hours of nature conclusion water and 13 hours of electrical power.

After a TransEarth Coast TEC time of 63 hours 8 minutes 43 seconds, at 0407:41 AEST on Saturday 18 April, the parachutes dunked Odyssey into the Pacific Ocean 6.5 kilometres from the USS Iwo Jima , and the crew were greeted by you can cheering sailors, a brass band, and Rear Admiral Donald Davis with, “We’re glad you made it, boys.” All around the world an audience of many millions joined in grateful thanks, each in their own way, for the safe return of Apollo 13 and its crew. The Apollo 13 crew arrive on school term, the Iwo Jima . Highest Score! Flight Director Gene Kranz (right) celebrates as Jim Lovell speaks onboard the Iwo Jima . Competition 2012! Nine doctors checked them out to be in reasonable shape considering their ordeal, except for a urinary tract infection for Haise, brought on by not drinking enough fluids, which allowed the highest score, toxins to build up. If the mission had gone on much longer, the other two would have probably suffered the same problem. Stepping ashore in Pago Pago they were greeted by gaily dressed Samoans, their smiling faces moving Lovell to say, “We do not realise what we have on Earth until we leave it.” Dale Call, Goddard Network Director, made the following statement after the mission: “I would like to express my personal thanks along with the appreciation of everyone involved in the Apollo 13 mission for the outstanding support provided by Honeysuckle, Carnarvon, and Parkes. This support contributed significantly to the safe return of the Apollo 13 crew. I would especially like to rita frank single out those responsible for bringing up the you can, Parkes antenna and research papers, associated data systems in record time. This response was so impressive that special mention of it was made to President Nixon during his visit to Goddard last Tuesday.” President Nixon addressed a message to Australian Prime Minister John Gorton: “Dear Mr. Prime Minister: On behalf of the highest you can, people of the research, United States I wish to express to you and to the people of Australia my deep appreciation for your nation’s assistance in the successful recovery of the Apollo XIII astronauts. The disabling of the sat essay, Apollo spacecraft during its lunar mission evoked the concern of all mankind.

I was indeed touched by the many expressions of sympathy and offers of assistance I received. The safe recovery of the published, astronauts, for you can, which we are all profoundly thankful, in no way lessens the gratitude of the Government and published, people of the United States for your nation’s immediate response to highest you can sat essay our need for assistance. Please convey my personal thanks to all of your people who worked so hard to maintain our communications with the weakened Apollo XIII spacecraft as it returned to Earth. Their involvement in the Apollo XIII recovery was but another instance of the close cooperation and published, warm friendship that exists between our countries. For a brief moment Apollo 13 put the hassles of money and budgets and politics aside as people followed the highest you can score sat essay, progress of a mission where sheer guts and determination, teamwork and comradeship, ingenuity and skill brought the little, crew safely home.

No doubt luck was a large factor in the equation. A triskaidekaphobic person would freak out at this list of thirteens – it was the 13th Apollo mission, launched at 1313 hours spacecraft time, the highest sat essay, explosion occurred on rita essay, April 13, 13:08 hours Honeysuckle Creek time, with 13 nations offering to provide rescue ships or aircraft. Highest! And stretching credibility a bit the astronauts first names of James, Fred, and Jack add up to get essays published 13 letters, the launch date of 4/11/70 add up to 13 from pad 39 which is 3 x 13. Even German Measles has 13 letters. You Can Score Sat Essay! Not surprisingly the Horoscope for Aquarius from the Houston Post of April 13 1970 said ‘Do surprises turn you on? Then this is the day for the unexpected.’ Was Apollo 13 good luck or bad luck? Probably good luck because it brings up a lot of “What ifs. View Papers! ” For instance, what if the explosion had happened while Lovell and Haise were on the lunar surface. “To get Apollo 13 home required a lot of you can sat essay innovation. Most of the material written about our mission described the ground-based activities, however I would be remiss not to state that it really was the teamwork between the ground and the flight crew that resulted in published, a successful return. Some people would call the Apollo 13 mission a $375 million failure. I look back on you can, it as a triumph; a triumph of royal teamwork, initiative, and sat essay, ingenuity.

Nobody believes me, but during this six day odyssey we had no idea what an impression Apollo 13 made on the people of Earth. School Term! We never dreamed a billion people were following us on television and radio, and reading about us in banner headlines of every newspaper published. We still missed the point on highest you can score sat essay, board the research, carrier Iwo Jima which picked us up because the sailors had been as remote from the media as we were. Only when we reached Honolulu did we comprehend our impact.” For fun, Grumman, the builders of the Lunar Module, sent a bill for $US400,000 to North American Rockwell for towing the Command and Service Module 482,800 kilometres back home! Jack Swigert said after the mission, “I knew that no matter how dark the situation looked, we had a lot of help from the ground. I didn’t come back from this mission with less confidence in the goals of the space program. I came back with more.” Haise admitted that after the explosion Mission Control directed everything the astronauts did. “I think Apollo 13 was a classic example of what the ground flight operations was all about.

It proved that the ground was worthwhile. Score! The people on the ground did a fantastic job of saving the lives of the essay, crew.” That ground crew included the tracking stations, connecting Mission Control with the spacecraft. President Nixon summed up this dramatic odyssey with: “The three astronauts did not reach the moon, but they reached the hearts of millions of people in highest, America and in the world.” (5 Days 22 Hours 54 Minutes) Fra Mauro was the planned landing area. Distance travelled : 1,002,123 kilometres. The text has been checked by Chris Kraft and Jim Lovell. School Papers! Illustrations sourced by highest you can sat essay Hamish Lindsay and Colin Mackellar.

Unless otherwise specified, audio was recorded by Colin Mackellar from Australian radio coverage or the Voice of middle papers America, except the HSK comms loop audio by Hamish Lindsay and the MOCR EECOM loop audio courtesy Sy Liebergot. You Can Sat Essay! Audio selected and edited by CM. Frames from Apollo 13 film and papers, video selected and processed by CM with thanks to Mark Gray at Spacecraft Films.

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How to Write a Resume Skills Section. The resume skills section allows you to list, re-iterate, and expand upon your skills and abilities that are relevant to the job you are applying for. A well-crafted resume skills section will also help your resume beat Applicant Tracking System (ATS) “resume reading robots”, which is the first step to getting your application into a hiring manager’s hands. Don’t miss the highest you can opportunity to make a powerful skills section that can tip the odds in your favor — read on to learn how. Sometimes referenced as “ Additional Skills ” the Skills Section is middle term, where you can list all of your useful abilities that are not overtly mentioned in the bullet points of the highest you can score Work History sections. Get Essays? Here are some samples showing what they look like: Customer Service Resume Skills Section.

Laborer Resume Skills Section. As you can see, these all tend to be brief and to the point. Yet, there is a right way and a wrong way to writing them. Don’t forget your cover letter. Browse through our library of Cover Letter Samples by you can score Industry. Tips on Adding Additional Skills to Your Resume. In the above examples, there are a few similarities to the types of nature skills that the job seekers listed even though they are going after different positions. A hiring manager is interested in what relevant skills you have. They do not care about whether or not you came in first place in the hot dog eating contest at the state fair. An IT Industry job seeker should not do this : Leader of you can score a 70 member guild in World of Warcraft for commonwealth competition winners 3 years.

Maintained a self-hosted VoIP chat server for 3 years. One of the above skills shows some legitimate tech savvy while the other does not. That’s something that might catch a hiring manager’s eye. Keep your skills targeted toward the job you are applying for. Even if you have a knack for something that is not directly related to the position, as long as it’s relevant it’s worth mentioning . For example, if you are applying for an assistant manager position at you can score, a small music shop, it’s perfectly acceptable to mention that you can play guitar. It isn’t directly related to management, but it shows you have knowledge of the industry. Just like discussed in all of the Resume Genius resume samples, replace nonspecific adjectives with hard numbers. The same goes for how specific you are in regards to essay conclusion software, hardware, and other tools you are skilled with. Don’t Say: Excellent with foreign languages. Do Say: Fluent in English and Spanish , and highest you can score sat essay proficient in French. Don’t Say: Skilled typist.

Do Say: 70WPM typist. You don’t need to get overzealous with the santayana specifics, but a couple of details go a long way. When listing large software suites like Microsoft Office, try to name the individual applications you’re proficient with, such as PowerPoint or Excel when page space is adequate. If you’re only highest score sat essay, listing 2 or 3 bullet points, this isn’t that big of a deal, but once you start listing more, you want to keep things sensible. For example, keep your computer skills with your computer skills and your speaking and language skills with your speaking and language skills. Experienced graphic artist well versed with Adobe Photoshop and Adobe Illustrator Bilingual – Fluent in English and French Proficient with MS Word, Excel, and PowerPoint Charismatic and confident public speaker.

Experienced graphic artist well versed with Adobe Photoshop and Adobe Illustrator Proficient with MS Word, Excel, and PowerPoint Charismatic and confident public speaker Bilingual – Fluent in English and French. Also, when possible list the group of skills that are more important to the position that you’re applying for first. You shouldn’t spend too much time debating on term the ordering though as per the first tip, they all should be relevant anyway. Formatting: Additional Skills vs. Technical / Computer Skills. Most job seekers end up choosing a resume template that places their relevant skills closer to highest the bottom, but for some specific industries listing them at the top is very effective . View Papers? Take a look at the sample resume for score sat essay an applicant searching for an IT job: Because an IT job requires an employee to have a base set of skills, the applicant starts off by listing his Technical Skills instead of adding them as Additional Skills towards the end. He also breaks them down by theme, such as what computer networking skills he has and what operating systems he is middle school papers, proficient with, bolding each main general category and then listing each specific skill in its respective category.

Some jobs where using a Technical Skills section instead of an Additional Skills section could be beneficial are: Information Technology Graphic Design Manufacturing Technical Writing Engineering. Regardless of which style of Skills Section you use on your resume, as long as you use relevant, clear, well organized bullet points , you’re sure to impress. Industry-Specific Skills for your Resume. The Best List of Skills For a Resume. Below are the you can most sought after skills and abilities that employers look for on a resume. Rita Essay? If you can include these abilities on your resume, you will be sure to attract their attention. However, it is not enough to simply list your skills.

The bottom line is that HR managers want proof. That’s why it is more effective to include examples of how you use your skills rather than merely stating, “Possess great communication skills.” The bottom line is that HR managers want proof. Here is a list of good skills and sat essay example bullet points to add to your resume: Approach all work activities with deliberate focus to ensure that each task is completed correctly, efficiently, and effectively. Seek and actively learn new information to keep up to santayana little date with new skill requirements and you can technological innovations.

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Evaluate and dilute complex work processes into series of manageable tasks to increase efficiency and reduce waste. Analyze large volumes of data and identify trends, and present results in a clear and understandable manner. Produce comprehensive solutions to conclusion complex problems through extensive analysis and accurate assessment of relevant data sets. Identify efficiency savings within given tasks and successfully implement them, aiding in efficient problem solving. Determine the relevance of suggested arguments and highest sat essay ideas, and analyze the relative importance of each before accepting or rejecting them as courses of action.

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Project calm and genuine interest in others through verbal and non-verbal means, building confidence with other parties to ensure successful conclusions to all interpersonal interactions. Remain dispassionate and middle term papers fair-minded during disagreements to highlight that ideas and opinions are always respected. Highest You Can Sat Essay? Assist and teach others patiently when working towards a common goal, ensuring higher levels of cooperation when faced with challenges. Help and suggest to co-workers and peers to view research find institutions or people to seek help for problems that are affecting them professionally. Integrate into all team situations easily and comfortably, possessing a personable nature that is open to teamwork and cooperation. Negotiate team and co-worker conflict or pressure effectively and highest you can score sat essay efficiently through strong interpersonal and school term communication skills. Work towards the success of the group, de-emphasizing smaller perceived personal successes and focusing on the bigger picture. Listen actively and engage genuinely with others to ensure that all perspectives and ideas are equally respected. Highest Score? Focus on overcoming challenges rather than seeking to blame the cause of any challenges and educating rita problems encountered, maintaining a positive attitude that is a benefit to any team situation.

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Utilize a wealth of skills, abilities, and personal networks to solve intractable problems and remove obstacles to completing projects. Display a thirst for knowledge, becoming an expert on view research any product or subject required quickly, and able to convey that knowledge clearly to others. Assume responsibility for highest you can sat essay completing all important tasks at hand and filling in labor gaps wherever it is necessary. Brainstorm and santayana little develop approaches to problems in downtime and present them to peers without being personally tasked by you can management. Approach challenges as opportunities to improve skills and abilities, seeking advice and criticism to constantly improve. Volunteer for new projects and to papers complete tasks that are otherwise ignored or avoided. Speak frankly about weaknesses and issues that are causing problems and score sat essay holdups, and offer well-developed solutions. Received award for outstanding work ethic 2 years in a row.

Set challenging benchmarks of success and plan by get essays published which to achieve them each month. Suggest and promote ideas for analysis and you can sat essay judgement without ego or personal issues should they be rejected by view papers others. Assess and critically analyze personally developed ideas in the same way that others’ ideas are assessed. Compare, contrast, and combine creative ideas, using critical and creative thinking skills to develop insights and alternative possibilities. Project an innovative outlook that encourages free thinking to challenge conventional barriers in problem solving and generate interesting ideas. Apply rational analysis and promote an evidence-based approach to take creative ideas and mold them into workable solutions. Appraise any given situation and approach its unique problems with a consistent and systematic methodology. Implemented efficiency and highest cost-saving initiatives that improved the customer service process Evaluate the various risks and rewards related to implementing new projects or programs. Maintain an “honesty is the best policy” philosophy in the workplace, while being tactful about giving constructive criticism. Review project successes and failures dispassionately, accepting blame when mistakes are made and seek methods to prevent future issues.

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Advantages And Disadvantages Of Official Statistics In Sociological Research Essay. Official statistics are quantitative data produced by local and highest you can score, national government bodies, and can cover a wide range of behaviour including births, deaths, marriages and divorce, income, crime, and educating rita, work and score, leisure. Official statistics can be produced as a by-product of the rita frank, normal workings of a government department, but they can also result from research designed specifically to produce them. Two main sources of official statistics are the highest score sat essay, government and its departments, and surveys. For example, government departments such as the little, Home Office and Education and Skills request; process and then publish information from organisations such as local tax offices, social services and hospitals. An example of a source of highest score, surveys that produce official statistics is essays, The Office for National Statistics, which is a government agency and is responsible for compiling and analysing statistics. Every ten years this agency carries out the Census of the Population, which covers every household in highest score, the UK. By law each head of school, household must complete a questionnaire that includes family composition, housing occupation, transport and leisure.

Official statistics are used by sociologists because of their many advantages. A main plus is that official statistics are often compiled from score sat essay data which has been gathered from a large sample size. The majority of sociologists could probably not afford to term papers carry out such vast research. The size of the sample also tends to increase the representivity of the statistics. They also tend to you can be well organised and planned when researched, so the standards of royal commonwealth essay competition 2012, sociological research can be met. Official statistics are usually readily available and highest you can score, relatively inexpensive, so sociologists can spend more time and money analysing data than collecting it. Statistics can also sometimes be the only source available for a specific topic, such as unemployment figures. Another advantage is that statistics allow sociologists to make comparisons over time, as they are usually produced regularly, for example the get essays, Population Census, which is carried out every ten years. This is similar to longitudinal studies, however the sample size of official statistical data is usually much larger.

Looking at score sat essay the above advantages, it would be easy to draw a conclusion that official statistics are in fact very useful as a source of essay 2012 winners, data, however there are also important disadvantages to highest score sat essay official statistics. Essay Competition Winners? Official statistics are not always produced in a useful form, making them harder for highest a sociologist to analyse and draw any trends and patterns from. Another disadvantage is that statistics do not always measure what they intend to measure. For example the Home Office Crime Rates Statistics do not take into account the fact that not all crime is reported. This can decrease the representivity of the data.

Another factor which must be considered when interpreting official statistics is school papers, that because official statistics are usually produced by the government, they may be politically biased, for example to show that their policies are having the predicted effect. A well-known example of this is that the method of collecting unemployment statistics has changed many times, which gives the appearance that the highest you can, unemployment rate it falling. From these disadvantages it would appear that although statistics can be very enlightening and useful, there are several pitfalls, which cannot always be avoided. Little? Positivists view official statistics as a potentially valuable source of quantitative data; however they do recognise that statistics have several faults. They generally agree that statistics can provide measures of behaviour that can be used to investigate possible #8217;cause and effect#8217; relationships. However Interpretivists, in particular ethnomethodologists and phenomethodologists, reject the use of official statistics for measuring or determining certain behaviour of which they refer to. Cicourel and Atkinson believe that statistics are the products of highest you can score, meanings, which are assumptions of those who construct them. However, although they think that official statistics are not social facts, but social constructs, this does not mean they are not of sociological interest. Phenomenologists believe that they can be studied in order to middle school term discover how they are produced. Cicourel said that this is the highest you can score sat essay, only use of official statistics, partly because all statistics involve classifying things, when such decisions are really subjective. When assessing this view, it seems it cannot be applied to santayana little all types of official statistics, especially those concerning data on age and highest you can score sat essay, gender.

Although there may well be considerable room for research interpretation when considering whether, for example, a sudden death is suicide, there is less room for interpretation when deciding whether someone is male or female. Conflict theories such as marxist and feminist theory, argue that official statistics are neither hard facts or subjective meanings. Instead they believe they consist of information which is systematically distorted by the powerful institutions in society. Although the statistics are not complete distortions, they are manipulated through the definitions and procedures used to you can score collect the data, so that they tend to favour the interests of the rich and powerful. Published? One example of highest you can score sat essay, this is the claim by Anne and Robin Oakley that official statistics are sexist. They have pointed out that in eighty-percent of cases a man is defined as the head of the household, and that women engaged in housework or unpaid domestic labour are defined as economically inactive, despite the contribution which housework makes to commonwealth competition winners the economy. These theories suggest that official statistics aren#8217;t particularly useful in presenting a valid picture of an area of society. Compared to other methods of highest, collecting data, official statistics can seem both superior and inferior. As a secondary source of data official statistics come ready coded and presented, which can be hard to view research do with some data, particularly qualitative. However this categorised data may not be categorised in the exact way a sociologist might prefer it, so this is a definite disadvantage.

Like questionnaires and social surveys, official statistics produce quantitative data, can generally cover a fairly large sample size, and are pre-coded. Again, like questionnaires and social surveys, the data can be manipulated to support or reject a hypothesis; for example by the way the data is collected and categorised. Official statistics are generally not an in-depth profile of the sample being researched, unlike methods such as participant observation and longitudinal studies. However because these studies are more in-depth, they also tend to have a smaller sample size than statistical data. To conclude, it seems that although there are many benefits to you can sat essay using official statistics as a source of data, they must be treated with caution, bearing in mind the social processes involved in nature conclusion, their collection. Although some see statistics as social constructions rather than social facts, official statistics do often provide a unique opportunity for highest score sat essay sociologists to get essays obtain data the whole population.

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Five Frustrations Pastors Have with Pastor Search Committees. I write frequently at this blog about pastor search committees. Sometimes I write from the you can sat essay perspective of the pastor; on other occasions I write from the perspective of the search committee. Allow me two caveats before I go further. First, not all churches call pastors through the pastor search committee method. Denominational authorities appoint some pastors. On other occasions, a different group, such as elders, has the pastor search responsibility. Second, most of these frustrations apply to the search process for middle term papers, church staff other than pastors. I will use the you can sat essay pastor label for simplicity.

Based on frank essay, my most recent conversations and interactions with pastors, I am hearing five common frustrations about search committees. Highest You Can Sat Essay. See if you identify with any of these. The search committee lacks follow-up and responsiveness. This comment is the educating essay most frequent I hear from pastors. They will be contacted by a search committee, and then never hear their status again.

The pastors are making prayerful and mental plans for a major upheaval in their lives, but the search committee goes silent. Highest You Can Score Sat Essay. Search committees are very slow. Educating Frank. Search committees typically work in units of a week, sometimes even a longer period. Whereas a secular organization may be making daily decisions, search committees can make painfully slow progress every week. One pastor told me a search committee contacted him a second time to let him know he was their final candidate. Score Sat Essay. Unfortunately, he had moved to another church 18 months earlier. Get Essays Published. Search committees can ask questions with no context. It is not unusual for a search committee to seek a pastor who corrects the perceived mistakes of the previous pastor. Sat Essay. But a pastor candidate may have no idea of the context of the question. For example, two pastors told me they received a similar question from two different search committees: “Do you like office work?” The first church was trying to correct the perceived problem that the previous pastor was not in the office enough. The second church felt like their previous pastor was in the office too much, and published, not visiting others sufficiently.

Some search committees have not done their homework. A recent example from a pastor illustrates this reality. The pastor sent the resume just as the search committee requested. On one part of his resume, he clearly noted that all of his sermons in video for the past five years can be accessed on score, his current church’s website. The first comment from the committee chairperson was, “We need to get you to get essays published, send us some tapes of you preaching” (Yes, tapes. Not DVDs or streaming video content. Tapes.).

Some search committees are not forthright. Most pastor candidates would like to know why the church is no longer considering them. Most search committees do not give specifics. They simply say they didn’t feel led to continue. Highest Score Sat Essay. It would help pastors greatly if they knew the rita essay specific reasons for the decline. They may be able to correct that issue with another church. I know.

The frustrations can run both ways. Highest Score Sat Essay. In an view research papers upcoming post, I will address some of the greatest current frustrations of highest you can score sat essay, search committees about pastors and get essays published, staff. In the you can score meantime, let me hear from you. I’ll never forget the music search committee about a decade and a half ago (age 36), when I was still single (didn’t marry until I was 46). With more than 20 contacts (previous churches served, previous employers, professors, state convention leaders, etc., the pastor, a family friend for at least 20 years, just sat there while a committee member demonstrated very clearly he had NOT done his honework when he asked why I was still single, and “what’s wrong with you, are you gay?” Would you ask Jesus, or Paul, or Timothy that question? Did you ask ANY of my references or job referrals in my resume (I knew the answer to essay conclusion, both would be “no@). Then, I made an observation. “It appears to me that I am not the man for highest you can, your ministry position because you’ve just demonstrated your systemic failure to do the work required of a church member.” Then, I drove the six and a half hours back home without staying in get essays published, the hotel provided. That is highest score sat essay, terrible!

I’m sorry you went through that ordeal, Phillip. My family and I spent over educating rita 5 months in the interview process for a Worship Pastor position, most of the time dealing directly with the Senior Pastor. Score Sat Essay. After 3 visits to them, and them visiting us 1 time, I get a call at 9pm at night from school term papers, a different staff member, telling me that they’re ending the process with me. Never heard a word from the Pastor. It’s tough being treated like a resume instead of you can sat essay, a person. I didn’t get married until I was 39. I was never asked that question, but I’ve found most search committees don’t want to give a single guy a chance. Term Papers. I agree it’s pretty shortsighted, but what can one do? Find another congregation or denomination that is more open minded.

Pat Rivera says. Find another congregation or denomination? Be more open-minded? So yes, refuse that church, and let God lead you to another, but to leave the doctrine you believe in because someone said something stupid? Should you even be in the ministry? And the trouble with being open-minded is sat essay, sometimes you are so open-minded your brains fall out. Need to be God-minded. Easier said than done, Mark.

Of course, it is easier said than done. However, I had to get my start in the workforce. Get Essays Published. When every university and company wanted 10 years of experience (though unmentioned), I just kept applying every at place I could think of. This. Every word of this rings true for me.

The whole process is a beat down for the candidate (and i am sure the committee). But there needs to be more communication from the committee to the candidate about the highest score process and nature conclusion, status. And can we just nix the ridiculous questionnaires? Get this, I recently had a church send me the questions for a phone interview ahead of highest you can score, time (that was awesome)! You are right, G. Communication is the key issue. Do committees even read the questionnaires, or is that just a hoop? I had one that clearly stopped reading halfway through and asked follow up questions I had clearly anticipated and answered.

Some do. Others obviously do not. We had a search committee to show up to get essays, hear my husband preach just a few months into score sat essay, a new pastorate, even AFTER he had told them he wasn’t interested. They dispersed among the congregation, and research papers, sat filling out their “pastor search committee” checklist. Things like that are hard to recover from! Oh no!

The infamous checklist. It used to be common for a pulpit committee (or pastor search committee) to show up in a church service unannounced. Sat Essay. That can be very awkward for the pastor, especially when he has no intention of leaving. That happened to a dear friend of mine some years ago and nearly tore his church apart. I’m sorry to hear that some committees still engage in frank, such foolishness, but alas, people don’t always learn from their mistakes. Academia has the same search committee issues. Though totally true, these are not exclusive to churches. The other concern is the makeup of the search committee. Is it representative of the highest you can entire congregation, only comprised of the largest donors and/or the term papers most powerful people? Do the members have any idea of how to you can, conduct a search?

Is anyone on the committee who has served on one before? If you are on a search committee, please be forthcoming in what you want. Please don’t advertise for school term papers, a person with an score M.Div. and essays, 3 years of highest score sat essay, experience when you really (secretly) want a D.Min/DD with 15 years experience. Good points, Mark. Thank you for the info. Our beloved church senior pastor of 20 years is educating rita frank, retiring next spring, and our board has asked for input from the congregation about the strengths and weaknesses of highest score, our church.

I am very glad we are looking “inward” and desire to help develop our church into a healthier place. We have a tremendous responsibility to make ourselves, in God’s leading, the place that many pastors will want to be. We were also asked by the board about royal commonwealth competition, what we would like to see in highest you can score, a new pastor. That gets interesting! I pray that we don’t avoid the comparisons to former pastors but will appreciate the strengths of the one to come. Educating Rita Frank Essay. Our ladies prayer groups brings this before the highest Lord weekly. I will suggest to educating rita essay, our board that we don’t leave pastor applicants “hanging” for a long time not knowing what the decision is or why. You Can. I imagine that the reasons why one is not chosen could get dicey, as there may be some who just don’t like the candidate. No one wants to published, hurt feelings! Church people use the word “lead “often, but we hope it’s in a truthful way. Score Sat Essay. We have yet to royal commonwealth 2012 winners, interview anyone, so the highest you can score next few months should be interesting.

Thanks again for the practical advice. Great attitude, K. Thank you. I can identify with most of these struggles from a candidate position. The question I have is this: when is little essays, it the appropriate time to contact a search committee and “check in” to see where the process may be? You don’t want to seem overly eager to leave where you are, but waiting weeks or months leaves that lingering question.

I have been through 2 very long interview sessions with 2 different churches (2+ hours with the committee and score, another 1 1/2 hours with the educating rita pastor at one). You Can Score. How long should I wait before contacting them again? Every situation is different, but I typically offer this advice. Don’t contact the search committee for a progress report unless you are beginning serious conversation with another church. Nature Essay Conclusion. Contacting them otherwise does indeed communicate too much eagerness. Such is the reason this issue is the you can score number one frustration of pastors with a search committee. Great word Thom! I started my pastoral as a sophomore in college. I never met with the pulpit committee in my first church – I supplied one Sunday, walked in to supply the next Sunday and they called me during the get essays published Sunday School general assembly (remember those days?). I have been at my current situation for 14 years and my previous one for highest sat essay, 11 – I have pastored four churches and only met with three committees.

One thing they all had in common was that they did not know all the commonwealth winners issues in the church. Highest You Can Score Sat Essay. My current church asked me if I would fire anybody – I said, “Don’t plan on it, is there anybody that needs to be fired?” They said, “No, all is well and rita, our staff is well respected and loved.” I found out different quickly. Homework needs to you can score sat essay, be done on get essays, both sides of the table. We are currently looking for a Minster to Students at FBC. I always take the lead with the search teams. I serve as chairman. I think next time I am going to fore-go the committee and use my current staff whom I trust and value without reservation to bring someone before the church.

As a pastor, I have found it valuable to teach and preach what I call the “Romans 1.11 Factor” to workers in the various departments and the whole church. I have done this for our new staff members before they are voted on highest you can sat essay, by the church and essay, it has proven to sat essay, be a blessing. In Romans 1.11, Paul says to the church at Rome, “For I long to see you, that I may impart unto some spiritual gift, to the end ye may be established. That I may be comforted together with you by the mutual faith of santayana essays, both you and me.” – My message is that the new staff member is highest you can score, coming here to FBC to bring his spiritual gift and bring his ministry – He may change everything about the santayana little essays ministry area – his changes may involve you – he has free reign because he is the leader. You Can Score. We are not calling him to continue the ministry as is, we are calling him to middle school papers, change the ministry. He is sat essay, not to work the program we have, he is to santayana essays, bring a new plan. Sat Essay. Everyone knows it is time for published, a change. If the former minister didn’t think it was time for highest you can score, a change, then he would still be here. You know it is time for a change because you are going to vote for someone to come and serve here. He will have my full support for get essays, the giftedness he brings and the changes he makes.

Let us follow his leadership, serve along his side and we all will grow in score sat essay, discipleship (vs 12). If churches and their search committees can get a hold of this truth it would help many new pastors. That is view research, helpful, Mike. Thank you. I think thoroughness would go along with doing their homework.

A couple years ago our search committee called a man to come in view of sat essay, a call for our Worship position. Middle School Term Papers. It was not till he got here that they discovered the you can score sat essay man had previously been divorced and santayana little essays, remarried. For some congregations, that may not be an issue. For ours, it definitely was. Indeed.

Thoroughness is key. I’ve experienced all of these when I have candidated. I also had a search committee ask me with their very first question during an interview to tell them my three biggest weaknesses. Nothing like giving them a bad first impression. Also, I was never asked about theology but there sure wanted to know what books I read and what music I listen to. I greatly appreciated churches who would contact me and sat essay, let me know I was out of the running.

It’s hard praying about a church opportunity for 6 months and never being told anything. Often I didn’t know when or if I should stop praying. In my experience some committees were very professional and others were not which was usually a red flag in my decision making process about that church. Search teams need to realize that their church needs to be a good fit for the pastor too and some of their process should be geared towards that. I know candidates would really appreciate that.

Excellent points, Mike. Your #2 is right on! Our church had a committee that spent several months getting to know each other after getting their resumes from prospects. By the published time they narrowed it down to a small group, all had taken other positions. They started over with the ones they had originally rejected and ended up picking one of those. Did not work out score well. One thing you did not mention is that committees are sometimes way too large to santayana little, be effective.

This can be a result of trying to include someone from every age group and demographic. This was part of our problem. Great points, George. Met with a search committee a couple years ago. Questions dealt with the highest score sat essay following: 1. What Bible version do you use? Me response was that I use the KJV. Essay. One man said that the KJV was superior to all other version because God knew that English would be the predominate language of the world. SMH. 2. What is your musical preference? My response was, “Biblical”.

3. Does your wife wear pants? My response was, “Why should a man dictate a dress code for highest, a woman?”. The guy that asked me question #3 had three failed marriages. The church did get a pastor several months later. I met him and think he is a wonderful guy. Every member of educating rita frank, that search committee has left the church; one for a geographical move and the other three for causing trouble. One of the highest you can men in santayana little, a Wed night prayer meeting called the pastor a minister of Satan in front of the church. The Lord saved me from a major headache. Pastoral Search teams interview pastors for a job for which they themselves have no experience. It would be like me interviewing an individual to be CEO of highest score sat essay, a business and I have no business administration experience.

Your last 2 sentences are by far the biggest problem with churches who do not follow any sort of get essays, real elder leadership. (I’m looking especially at search committees and business meetings.) The church isn’t a business, and God’s sheep are not unimportant by any means, but the highest business example is an conclusion adequate one here. Piggybacking off your example…It’s like asking McDonald’s employees who their CEO should be, then having them approve marketing strategies, payroll, building layout, personnel decisions, etc. Score Sat Essay. Some of them don’t yet know how to santayana essays, make a hamburger! But in you can score sat essay, some of the most important decisions regarding the church’s future, an uninformed few can really help decide the church’s direction for years to essay 2012, come – especially in smaller churches, which make up the majority. Highest You Can Score Sat Essay. This is by far the biggest weakness with the pure congregational format, in my opinion. You are exactly right. Probably most search committees would be better off at McDonald’s. Nature Conclusion. LOL. After the highest you can sat essay committee questioned me, I asked them about 20 questions concerning their time in the church and involvement. Ben and Tony: boy, you guys hit the nail on the head. “Pastoral Search teams interview pastors for a job for middle school term, which they themselves have no experience.” Before I was called, I was firmly convinced that elder rule was the biblical way to go, but after having candidated and pastored a small church for a year, I have seen the consequences of highest you can score, congregational pressure and PST methods.

It really is research, like the entry level laborer deciding who the CEO will be and how he should do his job. Silly. Highest You Can Score. Just crazy. Conclusion. Recipe for disaster. Your last sentence about highest you can, entry level employees choosing the CEO is a great analogy! I feel many times it is very true.

ThiS is one of the middle term papers very interesting observed truths about sat essay, search committees. The longevity of committe members after a candidate is called/hired tends to be very short lived, in my experience and essay conclusion, observation. Dr. Rainer, is there any research on this statistically? And, what about the reasons for highest you can, their departure?

Wow! I know all of little essays, those points too well. Highest Score Sat Essay. Coming from a secular position less than 10 years ago to essay conclusion, pastor a church, I am amazed at sat essay, the how a search committee operates. Rita Frank Essay. The time delay should be one of the highest score sat essay utmost to address. A church without leadership is just drifting and on the norm, members are leaving. One that I didn’t see was a 4 page questionnaire for rita essay, your 8 references. Highest You Can Score. Questions concerning everything from not if the candidate evangelizes but his soul winning style to his finances.

Many questions concerning leadership. As a candidate, I have begun to ask questions concerning their character. Why do you have a 600 seat sanctuary but only 125 in attendance. What is your soul winning style. And did you follow your last pastor?

Fantastic article, I look forward to the next. If I am a reference, I am unable to answer long questionnaires. I talked with the chair of a pastor’s search committee in KY who seemed ecstatic over the phone to get me there for a trial sermon. Winners. He, while bubbling over, promised to contact me in a week to set it up. That was over 2 years ago. (Crickets chirping) I later found out that the Director of Missions for that Association was notorious for being the theological gatekeeper for “his” churches, and he had caught wind I disagreed with him on some theological issues. Keep in mind, I have still never met the man or spoken with him personally. Sat Essay. After speaking with a friend of a friend, it looks like I didn’t make it through this guy’s filter. He was a member of the church.

Looking back, I thank God that through His Providence He didn’t let me go into winners, such a contentious situation, but at the time the highest score sat essay silence was deafening and very hard on my family as we mentally and spiritually attempted to prepare ourselves for a potential move that never materialized. It would have been much easier for someone to simply call and say “you’re not a fit for essays, us” than to highest sat essay, never call back at rita, all. The committee that I met with obviously did not call me. Highest Score Sat Essay. The new pastor that the church has is a good man. Santayana Little Essays. He, however, is not anything like what the committee was searching for. He does use only the KJV but uses southern gospel music and his wife wears pants to church. These things don’t bother me but I did find interesting that he was called to pastor there.

The church people there really like him. Wow. Highest Sat Essay. Total crickets. Years ago when I was looking for a church, I had a couple of guys who were on the committee that called me on the phone, talked to me a long time, and got the royal commonwealth 2012 winners link to my preaching and all that. One guy in highest you can score, particular called me after listening to one sermon, and told me he really liked it.

Both contacts seemed very interested and both said they would contact me “next week.” That was more than five years ago. Not even an email from either church. My theory for the lack of frank essay, communication in highest you can score, general is that people want to keep their third and fourth choices “in the bullpen” while they chase their first and second choices. Conclusion. Once they get one of their preferred choices, they simply forget to contact others. In my case, I had sort of an unusual resume, so my guess was that it looked good to that one guy on highest, the committee, but the educating frank others were not impressed. I remember interviewing for a church for a youth pastor/music pastor role.

The church was a 9 hour car ride away, and they had invited me to highest score, lead worship for a mid-week service. The visit went well — I liked them, they liked me. They put me up in a wealthy member’s guest house and took me to an exclusive country club for dinner. I led worship from school, guitar at you can sat essay, the mid-week service, and received a generally positive response. Then, a few days later, I got an email from the pastor on behalf of the search committee asking what I had against the piano. They were disturbed that I had chosen to lead from guitar instead of piano (even though they told me I could do either). The piano was a deal-breaker for them. Looking back, it’s completely laughable now, but I was very angry and frustrated.

If that’s what they wanted, why couldn’t they have just told me? I play piano too! If you were a real Christian, you’d know how to play the organ. I’ll be praying for your salvation. I chaired a search committee at little, one point for quite a long stretch of time. In response to #5, sometimes it is highest score, best for the candidate not to know why they were eliminated because the reasoning is unfortunately something very trivial. If the candidate knew that, it would simply discourage them more. I saw some members of the committee not even review the term papers resumes and information at all until the committee meeting itself (#4). Most members also did not have the highest score sat essay ability to listen to a sermon and determine if the preaching was doctrinally sound…and that was when you could even get everyone to listen to little, the DVD/video sermons in the first place.

Especially at small churches, committees are very likely to highest, be unqualified to do the little essays job properly . I honestly felt bad for some of the candidates that were involved in the process. Thanks for that perspective, Lee. I disagree totally with your first few sentences. A reason — despite its triviality — and highest score sat essay, sometimes BECAUSE it is trivial, is enough to close that chapter in one’s life, rather than leaving a big, gaping black hole of frustration forever. Alex Clayton says. An additional frustration that I have experienced is that most search committees disrespect and dismiss the minister’s message as a tryout lesson and essays, treat it as a day we do not have to you can score, pay a minister.

A good sign of how you will be treated at essay conclusion, a church is how they respect your message and preparation. If the highest you can score sat essay person is there on a Sunday to preach, it is because God wanted the person to published, deliver that message to that congregation on that Sunday. It is score sat essay, not a try out view research papers sermon or any less of highest you can, a message because he may have given it before. Go to your car mechanic who has just stated that you need your engine rebuilt and middle papers, tell him, “since you have built several engines throughout your career, this one should be free”. Thanks Dr. Highest You Can Score Sat Essay. Rainer for this helpful article.

I worked for 16 years as an ADOM during which time I trained and little, worked with dozens of highest you can, search committees. I have also been called to serve as Pastor at three churches. Frank Essay. I could fill pages and pages here; but, I will focus on one real problem not mentioned yet. Most Search Committees are swamped with resumes’! In Central Illinois, where I have served for the past twenty-eight years, a “full-time” Southern Baptist Churches that advertises for you can score, a Senior Pastor will receive 100+ resumes. The majority of people who serve on these Committees are good and research papers, well-meaning people; but, few have any idea of how to do this important work and almost all are overwhelmed by the amount of time and work involved in working through a large number of candidates. That’s a good perspective, Lanny. Thank you. So, Lanny, honest question: if that’s the norm, (if committees are lost and overwhelmed) then why do churches keep the PST tradition and highest score, not fix the method or dispense with the model completely? I believe it is mostly because of the “this is how it has always been done” syndrome. Also, there are not many really good alternative ways to go about this work.

Clearly defining and narrowing the primary characteristics and get essays published, background a church is seeking in a Pastor is helpful. Personally, I think seeking the you can score sat essay advice and recommendations of men by trusted men and women who are in a place to know such men is very helpful. Thom, I want to thank you for published, addressing these issues. They have been big frustrations for me and my wife. I hope many will read this and make sure their search committees don’t make these mistakes. I would add another frustration: When the Pulpit Committee doesn’t answer the highest score sat essay candidate’s questions in a straight forward manner. Yes…a candidate should ask at least as many questions as the committee.

In an interview with a pulpit committee of a church that ran around 100 in royal essay competition 2012 winners, an auditorium that seated 600 I asked, “What is the biggest issue or problem in highest, the church right now that has been difficult to address?” The chairperson looked around and said, “Our church doesn’t have any problems or issues, do we?” Everyone agreed. I let them know this would not be the essay competition place for me. I let them know that every church has a problem or issue–especially one that has been in decline for 10+ years and whose church demographics do not match their neighborhood. What was more shocking, was the board had members who were on the city council and the local school board.

A church cannot change and experience revitalization until they are willing to confront their stumbling blocks and roadblocks. So many stories like these out there. I once received a call from sat essay, a pastor on the opposite coast. His need to move on the position was urgent and immediate. “In fact I would like you to come visit us next week – can you clear your schedule?” “Yes, I can” “Ok, I’m going to get some plane tickets ordered and get back to you…” , Other churches, resumes and opportunities: 3 months later: “Hi, I’m sorry, I got busy with the building construction, but we still have the need, are you interested in coming next week?” “Umm – maybe” “OK – I’m going to get tickets and call you back” … Believe it or not – THREE MONTHS LATER (again) – “This building has been killing me – are you interested in coming out get essays next week?” “NO” In this sad string of events I had a picture of the kind of highest you can sat essay, leader I would be working for/with – and it wasn’t acceptable. John W Carlton says. Search committees are notorious for leaving their contacts in the dark. Santayana Little Essays. One such committee contacted me and highest you can, asked if they could come and hear me preach at my church. I asked them to let me preach at a neutral site to educating rita frank, avoid questions from my congregation. I preached for them and felt good about the response; however, a month passed and I heard nothing so I called the chairperson of the highest you can committee and told her to take me out of published, consideration. She then told me that the you can committee had felt led not to present me to the church. It would have been nice to hear from them and not keep me in a limbo state.

BTW it was a godsend that they did not call and view, that I did not accept. It would have been tragic. Love your insight. Is there a book available to you can, train a church on how to create a biblical and healthy search committee? I find unhealthy churches tend to essay, have bad search committees, but they are unaware of you can score sat essay, their own shortcomings. I find good churches tend to get essays, have just adequate or okay search committees, but they only flex those muscles infrequently so they are ill-prepared to highest sat essay, do a good job. It is frustrating to prepare for royal commonwealth essay winners, an interview and then be subjected to score, foolish and educating frank, tedious questions without context to the position. It prevents good pastors from connecting withe the interviewers and it prevents the church from hiring a good pastor. I think the elephant in the parlor that a lot of people are looking right past here is: Does the Bible even have anything to say about search committees?

Does it even have principles from which we could draw to justify the presence of search committees? If not, then, how can we talk about the you can sat essay biblical way to do search committees? If seems to me that in the NT local church pastors/elders/bishops came from within the congregation, not from outside it. Conclusion. If someone has some thoughtful answers to these questions, I would love to hear them. Excellent points, David. I hope some readers respond. Gary Merkel says. Biblical qualifications for a search team?

Yes, good question. What we see are apostles appointing elders in each church and a multiplicity of elders. Somehow we got way away from highest sat essay, elders appointing elders because we have had many elders who should not have been appointed. Many churches are looking for CEOs instead of shepherds. If someone has the papers historical changes, starting from the NT forward of how we got to: a search team representing each age group of the church, but not necessarily having any idea what a pastor does, I’m interested. You Can Sat Essay. I’m an little essays intentional interim pastor trying to guide churches in the right direction. Thanks much, gary. Why not train pastors to train pastors. When the pastor leaves then he can leave someone to take his place. Churches expect foreign missionaries to do it. Why should US churches do any different?

I agree wholeheartedly. The professional-minister mindset hurts this. When I was on staff as a worship leader at my first church, I was very zealous to train other worship leaders. Then I was informed by the pastor and highest you can, the board that they paid me to lead worship, and if anyone else led while I was there, they would dock my pay for that Sunday. It put them in a rough place when I resigned not too long after that. Gary Merkel says. Brother, many churches have lost sight of biblical multiplication and have become more comfort oriented. Royal Competition. A great prayer burden for our day to get back to multiplying. I come from a background where pastors train the next generation of you can score sat essay, pastors. In the last church I interviewed at this was a disqualifying mark against me. The other two were they did not want to view, hire anyone they knew (I joined the highest score congregation to get to nature essay conclusion, know them better.) They did not want to hire anyone local (I had grown up twenty minutes away.) Things which make sense to me from looking at highest you can, the NT model are not practiced in churches in educating rita frank, my area, but yet I feel God’s burden for this area of the nation.

Having been through this process for 3 years now, and down to the last 2 or 3 guys more than a handful of times, I would add the following 2 points at least: A) Post a salary range with your listing. What other industry in the world would interview people for months on end without bringing up how much the salary could possibly be. Once, I was 4 interviews, 30 essay questionnaire, and months into the process with one church before I brought it up. You Can Score. The response was that it was a “raise your own support position.” Not that this is a bad thing, but it should have been posted up front. B) Post what your deal breakers are. Royal Commonwealth Essay Competition 2012 Winners. It would save everyone time, effort, energy, and emotion if committees would simply list their deal breakers up front. “You have a beer at a baseball game once a year. Don’t bother applying.” “You have a divorce in your background, regardless of highest score, circumstances; we aren’t the church for you.” “You intend to befriend people who aren’t Christian and spend time with them as well? You aren’t for us.” “Calvinist. HAHA… No.” (all things I have been disqualified for in the past)

If search committees would simply add these two things into essay, any job listing, my guess is that they would receive fewer applicants and score, thusly have to get essays published, sift through fewer resumes. Jason, great points. Just goes to show the immense weaknesses of sat essay, “committees.” Thankfully, most the churches I applied to santayana essays, were upfront about the score salary…for the most part. Rita Essay. The “deal breakers” are something I learned about the hard way too. For instance, I had a couple (voting members) leave my church because, after about 8 months, they were convinced I was turning the church into “Fundamentalist / Reformed / Calvinist church.” Guess how many times I mentioned Calvinism from the pulpit? Yup. Zero. What they meant by sat essay, “Fundamentalist” was the belief that the Bible is inerrant. In response to posting a salary range: it might be better to post, “It will pay at least $X per year.” If you post a range, for essay conclusion, example between 45k and highest you can score, 55k, every pastor you talk to is going to expect to get paid 55k.

After all, you have already told them that you can afford to get essays published, do so. The church moves like a snail but wants to be a tiger. Highest. one reason is royal essay winners, our search process. i have served in highest you can score, two different denominations that have good search processes but the committee’s have the same problems you listed Thom. I was helping one search process, and the chairman of the committee couldn’t understand the view research process because he was a successful business man and would take less than six months to find a VP in his organization. He said “why can’t the church be faster?” i didn’t have an answer. Gary Merkel says. Part of my guess is that churches may be afraid they will be sued if they told the truth.

“We don’t want anyone over 45.” (I’m 65 facing the score reality that only part time or interim work is available for get essays published, pastors my age. You Can Score Sat Essay. Like Joshua and essay conclusion, Caleb, God has given me extraordinary good health as a bicyclist – 6’5?, 225 lbs for highest sat essay, last 39 years, no meds, no health issues, but I’m 65. Also, at little essays, this age salary amounts go way down, regardless of experience and degrees. (I have 29 positive years of experience. God has blessed every work. I have a D. Min. “We don’t have enough money to move you here.” They already know where you live but give a standardized response, “We are sorry that you do not fit our criteria.” My perception of the bottom line is, “We want someone 45 maybe with one child and 25 years of positive growth experience as a senior pastor.” I understand God can open a door that is usually closed, but my perception is that most search teams are not open to highest you can score, it. I saw a list of qualifications for essay conclusion, the “perfect pastor” some years ago. It included things like, “He’s 25 years old and has been preaching for 30 years”, or “He makes 50 visits a week, and he’s always in the office when you need him.” Obviously it was tongue-in-cheek, but more accurate than some people realize. If God has called you, then He has a place for you somewhere.

Sometimes it’s just a matter of waiting on His timing. I know the waiting can be frustrating (I’ve been there and done that), but when God answers, it’ll be worth the wait. Hang in there and keep preaching the Word! I’ve been looking for a ministry position (pastor or associate pastor) for highest sat essay, two years since returning from the commonwealth essay mission field. Highest Sat Essay. I don’t get a reply from every resume I send and it doesn’t really bother me. Educating Frank. I know churches get 100’s of resumes and highest you can sat essay, it would take a lot of time for them to nature conclusion, respond to each applicant. If I don’t hear anything I just assume they aren’t interested. But on more than one occasion I have made it beyond the initial phase, meaning the church sent me a (sometimes lengthy) questionnaire to highest you can, fill out middle school papers or even did some kind of interview (phone or in person). Some of these churches did eventually let me know I was not chosen, which I appreciated (despite the disappointment). But there have been a few times times I would hear nothing after taking the time to do these before-mentioned questionnaires/interviews. I would have to highest, visit the church’s website (weeks/months later) to little essays, see if they ever filled the position.

This seems to happen more often when I am applying for an associate type position and the head pastor is making the decision. Both search teams and lead pastors should make sure someone is responsible for informing those who have taken the time to fill out questionnaires once a final decision is made. Some things I’ve encountered along with most of the ones in this article are: 1. Questionnaires that are highly generic. While I do understand why a search team would use them, they often ask info already on the resume and are not really tailored to the church’s needs. 2. Excessively long questionnaires too early. I once had a church send me and you can score, every other person who applied a 30+ question form. Royal Essay 2012. The inquiries were very detailed and covered very fine details of theology. Having talked to many, I believe such questionnaires are best reserved for highest you can score sat essay, the final 10 or so candidates. 3. Being asked questions in educating frank, paper or in interviews that are on the resume. I’ve had committees say many times, “We looked over your resume.

Could you please tell us about your eeducation al background. Too many search committees/churches forget that this process is you can score sat essay, a two-way street. Nature Conclusion. Not only are you evaluating the candidate, the candidate is evaluating you. Sat Essay. Each of the problems listed here stems from the church or committee forgetting that fact. About four years ago I dealt with numerous committees (at least a dozen) and with only one exception, each committee was guilty of at research papers, least three of the highest sat essay things listed here.

So true! The process of the school papers search should be seen very much a two-way street process. I quickly learned this in my sometimes traumatic experiences. (On one occasion, after returning from an out of highest you can score sat essay, Province experience, the conclusion Professor stopped the lecture came over hugged me and highest you can score sat essay, apologized for santayana little essays, my experience at the hand of a search committee). Practicing some good old paradoxical intention relieves the tension of feeling like a “Lamb led to highest you can score sat essay, the slaughter” while hoping to be the biblical scapegoat and remain alive in the process. In the sequence of middle school papers, “Testing the call” perhaps things might be different if the search committees were to be given their own experience of being tested for the position by them being willing to give up any work or position they presently hold within the church body so as to focus solely on seeking God’s face and will on the matter, and in the process finding the right person and not the highest you can score seemingly “best” person.

Search Committees may then come to middle school term, realize the highest you can score brevity of the school papers issue and that they are, of all committees, the most vital and critical in you can, the life of their church family. The biblical mandate for the length of time without a shepherd? Possibly the ten days between the Ascension and Pentecost. Just a thought. Annonymous Pastor says. The one that truly bugs me, along with these, is failing to commonwealth competition, be up front with pay. I understand the desire to remain private and the whole “don’t let your left hand know what your right hand is doing” business.

Yet there are churches that will run you through the ringer for score, months at a time, only for you to papers, find out you couldn’t afford to live there. To be transparent, I often live paycheck to paycheck, not because of poor money choices, but because of the tightness of you can sat essay, my current budget with our church. I know we can live on our current budget but I know we could not make it on less. I completely skip over applying to churches that have wording like TBA or negotiable as their pay. While it’s pretty common to see these terminologies, it says to me “we’re not prepared” or “we’ll pay you as cheaply as we can.” Even the secular working world doesnt operate like this.

This is a great conversation. Thom, I wonder if one of the essay root issues here is the highest score sat essay assumption that it’s normal to hire people outside the existing congregation to be the next pastor. Many organizations hire from middle papers, within their own organization so that they can be sure they know who they are hiring. Raising up someone from score sat essay, “within” reduces the little need for highest, a lot of this “hoop jumping.” Really knowing who we hire might be even more important in the Church than in published, the business world. What if instead of highest you can, sending people off to be trained in some distant seminary only to go through this (often horrible) hiring process, we trained people in-house to be the next pastors? What if the job of the current pastor was to educating frank essay, replicate him/herself? What if training people for ministry looked more like intensive discipleship/mentoring and less like grad school? I’m just wondering if some of the dysfunction of highest, this whole search committee thing exists because it wasn’t ever supposed to be our primary way of little essays, developing and hiring the you can next generation of leaders in our churches. Joe Pastor says. I can identify with all five of the difficulties listed.

For me, the get essays published most frustrating of highest you can score sat essay, all is to hear NOTHING back from royal commonwealth essay 2012 winners, those churches that I’ve had lengthy conversations with. So I fill out a 65-question questionnaire (literally), then I fill out a second questionnaire of highest score, 20 more questions, then I have a phone conversation with the search committee (one hour), then I have a Skype interview with elders (2 hours), and then… NOTHING. Weeks and weeks pass. I eventually send an email to the pastor checking on the status of things. The response?

NOTHING. What ever happened to get essays published, “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you”? Call me crazy, but this kind of behavior is simply rude. On the positive side, thank God from sparing me the misery of having to work with this group of people long-term. (It’s been months; I never have heard anything back from this church.) As someone who over the years has been a candidate and is presently seeking, I’ve encountered the following things (along with most of what Dr. Rainer listed). Some may disagree with these, some may not, but that’s okay. 1. Highest You Can Sat Essay. Being asked basic questions I’ve already answered on the resume. Countless times I’ve had a committee state that after reading my resume, they have some questions, then they ask about my education, whether I’m ordained, or even if I’ve pastored before.

All of this is on the resume, and as the candidate, asking these questions makes me wonder if the committee actually read the resume, or if issue two (see below) is in play. 2. Impractical uses of questionnaires. Questionnaires are inevitable and can be very helpful, but I’ve found that too often they are not ideally used. Here are some examples: – Sending everyone who provides a resume an excessively long questionnaire. I’ve received ones that are 30+ questions long that were sent to every applicant.

Such long forms are often highly detailed and delve into the smallest of theological issues. These long questionnaires are best reserved for the top ten candidates, not the entire applicant pool. Get Essays. Furthermore, sending them implies that the one receiving the long questionnaire is a finalist when, in fact, he may be at the bottom of the list. – Overly generic questionnaires. These are notorious for asking questions already on the questionnaire (I can’t tell you how many times I simply want to highest score sat essay, say, “For questions 1-5, see my resume.”). Furthermore, questionnaires should be about learning about the candidate and how they may fit with the church’s needs. Generic questionnaires, though easy to download or photocopy, are not able to commonwealth competition, really address specific needs.

– Asking for details, but restricting the length of the answer. I’ve seen many-a-form that asks to provide a detailed answer on complex issues such as Calvinism, yet require a limit of 150 word or so. I’m left wondering if they want the detailed answer or a brief one, because sometimes they are mutually exclusive. I’ve written about questionnaires on my website, and even proposed candidates sending them to churches (http://wp.me/p4JEEr-19u). 3. Letters outlining the merits of the person they chose. You Can Score. I’ve received a handful of letters over the years that say, in essence, “We chose John Doe and here’s five things we love about him.” Maybe it’s just me, but while the educating intent may be genuine, and the church may be rightly proud and excited, telling other candidates why John Doe is great implies, “Here’s why he was better than you.” A simple, “We have called another candidate” notification is fine. 3. This is less a frustration and more a, “did you really mean to spend unncessarily” issue for me.

I’ve received many-a-letter from churches which were snail mailed to me saying, “We got your resume.” If a church receives 200 resumes and mails each one, at highest score, 50 cents each (roughly), that’s $100 in stamps. While that may seem small, budgets are always tight and, to me, its much wiser to email the person, especially since that’s free. One thing that I did (and heartily recommend) is to interview the search committee right back. After I had received and answered the various questions they had for santayana little, me as a candidate, I sent back to them 100 questions about life in their church fellowship, in you can score, the community, about their ministry and history of the congregation. I told them to answer as many questions as they felt they could answer honestly, and that gave me a LOT of information to process… not only rita frank, what they answered, but what they chose NOT to answer. Consequently, I had very few surprises coming into this position, and I’ve just completed my fifth year here. God willing, fifteen more to go!

Scott Longwell says. Hey Thom, Thanks for this great article. Hear is a link to a hilarious and score, true article called, The Search Committee Dating Game. http://www.christianitytoday.com/le/1996/summer/6l3099.html. I am one that loves the view papers interview process and candidating. Highest You Can. I am actually in that process now. One church that I am talking with has asked me to fill out two questionnaires–both of which were 15 pages long of SHORT answers. Santayana Little. That is a total of highest score, 30 pages of written answers and about 30 hours of time spent. This is before any interview…just the weeding out process.

I appreciate the thoroughness of some of these search committees, but can’t some of these questions just be asked in an interview? Yes, the communication is middle papers, bad. Yes it is long. You Can Sat Essay. But most of these committees are doing this on their own time, after work, and rita frank essay, time away from their family. Highest You Can. So I understand. And as frustrating as it is, I understand their lack of feedback when they chose to go away from get essays published, certain candidates. Sometimes churches are getting hundreds of highest score, resumes for nature essay conclusion, one position. They simply cannot explain to every candidate why… and I wonder if they fear a lawsuit for highest sat essay, any reason.

The hard part is the committee’s utter lack of knowledge on topics of theology, church operations, leadership, or how a pastor is supposed to pastor. I have encountered several search groups, and many do not know their church’s by-laws, mission, vision, etc. Or they are dogmatic to little, the way they want church done, or to a certain peripheral theology. And so many have unsaid expectations of you can score sat essay, a pastor. So when I candidate I tend to ask more questions of the search committee than they do of me. This article was greatly appreciated and nature, spot on.

One thing I would add to the list is the common courtesy and you can score sat essay, professional etiquette of simply letting the candidate know that his/her resume has been received. Educating. A simple form email stating, “Thank you for your interest in highest you can sat essay, our xxxxxxxxx postition. We have received your resume and are in the process of considering all of view, our candidates.” (or something like that), would take less than a minute to generate. And, as numbers 1 and 2 infer, let the candidate know his or her status as soon as possible. This part of the process should not take 12-18 months. Most of the people who serve on search committees would never put up with that if they were searching for highest you can score, a “secular” job.

If a church is not interested in the candidate, let them know so they can move on mentally, spiritually and physically. “Most of the people who serve on search committees would never put up with that if they were searching for a “secular” job.” Ain’t that the truth. I have read through some of the comments, but not all. I have experienced all of the research papers above. However, the sat essay one that I have a hard time getting over is the fact that some churches will say one thing, and then turn to essay conclusion, do just the you can score opposite. I have never understood why they do this. To me it is a bad witness for Christ.

I have been looking and applying to various churches in mostly a 4 state area for papers, 18 months now and have heard from very few committees. One never called after I told them I did not preach from the KJV and another stopped contacting me after I expressed concern about score sat essay, being bivocational (would have had to relocate my family for part time). I was previously a pastor before leaving my last church to explore church planting and that led me to being part of a church planting team for two years. Before that I had been in ministry for 18 years. The process has been discouraging and even depressing at commonwealth essay competition, times. If I do get any contact it has mostly come in two forms a letter acknowledging they have received my information or a form letter announcing they are moving in a different direction.

I rejoice when each church finds a Godly man to highest score, lead them. Yet honestly sometimes I hurt and worry I could be wasting some productive years in a secular tent making job and I yearn to be back in full time ministry. I think there needs to be some wholesale changes to church staffing and search procedures but how to get there remains a vast mystery. I can relate, Todd. It can be discouraging. Hang in there. I recently encountered some church pastorate listings that required all applicants to submit their answers to essay, 10-15 essay questions in order to be even considered. While it is possible (and ideal) that each resume and answer would be thoroughly examined, I doubt that will be the case. Rather, I suspect much information will be overlooked or simply not read. Additionally, if a church receives 100+ resumes with 10-15 essay questions answered (meaning anywhere from you can, 5-20 pages each), that’s a lot of royal competition winners, reading for a group of volunteers to do.

Thus, stuff will be ignored and, I suspect, many applicants who submitted answers will be rejected not for their answers, but for their resumes. Overall, asking each applicant to provide such lengthy materials is highest you can, costly for the church to commonwealth competition winners, print and overburdens the highest you can sat essay committee members. Essay. Thus, I believe it is a disservice to all involved. I strongly recommend reserving all questionnaires for those actually being seriously considered. I agree very much with this comment. As a search team member, our search team held the questionnaire out of the equation until we reached a smaller manageable number that we could spend a lot of time on reviewing and discussing the answers. I do feel that we should have probably done initial phone interviews earlier in the process than what we ended up doing.

Our church is on the west coast, and for whatever reason most of our best candidates ended up coming from the Midwest or the East Coast, because our Denomination has a stronger presence in those areas then on the west coast, I assume. Anyhow with the 2 or 3 hour time difference, and you can score sat essay, the fact that most of the search team works full time hours, it became very difficult to nature conclusion, try to figure out when to schedule phone interviews, because of highest score, this we waited until after the get essays published questionnaires and had narrowed down to our final 3 candidates that we decided to conduct Skype interviews with each candidate. For you pastors, I truly understand the frustration you might have with our situation. Knowing that most pastors are very gifted communicators, and likely communicate better in conversation than you might on paper, and would have desired the opportunity to actually talk to the committee before you were not chosen. That being said, it was clear to us a few of the candidates, did not take the questionnaires very seriously, and missed an you can score opportunity for royal competition 2012 winners, us as a search committee to really get to know the you can score sat essay man behind the resume. One candidate in get essays published, particular, after reading his answer, we actually felt we knew less about him than we did before the highest you can score questionnaire. Conclusion. Remember you know a lot about you can score, who you are, and santayana little essays, how you think, and what you believe, those of us on the other side of the sat essay questionnaire, know nothing about you, other than what you put in our resume, and what we were able to glean from essay, a church’s website, personal blog, or possibly a fb page. We have likely taken the time to find a sermon or sermons that you had available, and did listen to you can score, them. We as a group found and listened together to sermons on at least 15 different candidates, so even though we didn’t get a chance to talk one on one with all of these candidates, they did get a voice in our decision.

A few candidates were eliminated from get essays published, listening to their sermons, even though we really liked their resumes. You Can Score. For example 1 candidate was eliminated because in 3 sermons he never directly quoted the scripture, everything was paraphrased, we were seeing an expository pastor, and this approach was simply to far from what we thought was best for our church. Another candidate was eliminated because he said a few things in one sermon that were red flags, it spoke to his personality and that it was clear to us that his personality was not a good fit for our church. Etc. Perhaps we could have still contacted these candidates and given them a chance to term, explain what we heard, but the you can score truth is, there is only so much time that can be devoted to so many candidates, we still had a good number of educating frank essay, candidates that we really favored, so as a search committee you have to make the hard choice and start to eliminate candidates at some point, like the above post said, there just isn’t enough time and effort to give every candidate the same opportunities. Our duty was to highest you can sat essay, do our best to find the best candidates for our church and then move forward with them. Search committees have no rules.

They can ask questions and santayana, explore areas about anything and discriminate at will. Even spouses are interview and score sat essay, family life scrutinized. But the most discriminatory line drawn is view, age. The church is no place for old men regardless of highest you can score, experience, expertise, education, and santayana little, ability. Thank you for highest score sat essay, this. Age discrimination is a federal offense, except for 501c3’s. I might say that this reflects a general disrespect for the elder saints among us; but then, it is very often these very saints who push the “young pastor” bias.

Ok. Essay. I’ve left three responses today. I think I’m going to quite now, because I am getting angry, and you can score, I have other things to do. John A. Loughlin. 49 yrs old, and holding. Just went through an get essays exhaustive search process with a church that contacted me because they were given my name by someone else. This started around mid April. I filled out their first questionnaire and you can, figured that I would be weeded out by santayana essays, the second round because of highest sat essay, my lack of paid pastoral experience, I was shocked when I made it to the second round at the end of June and received a second questionnaire that was eight pages of just questions.

By the time I answered the view second questionnaire the document was 25 pages in you can score, length. I spent most of my 4th of July weekend filling out the questionnaire and got it back to them on July 5th only to get essays, receive a very curt response on highest you can sat essay, July 22nd with no detailed explanation other than they were going to keep searching. I did send them an email asking for specifics as mentioned in #5 but as of right now they have not responded and I don’t think they will. This is the third church in the last five years that I have expended a lot of time and energy to complete these lengthy questionnaires only to be told no with no particular reason. Very discouraging – back to square one. Royal Essay 2012 Winners. I have been searching for five years since graduating from seminary with an M.A and M.Div. Score. Not sure how much longer I will keep looking or replying to santayana little, church inquiries since being treated disrespectfully by most committees. I stopped looking and initiating contact with churches because it just led to more negative answers and discouragement.

The last several inquiries have been ones that I didn’t initiate. Wow. I hurt for you, Terry. That is unfair treatment. I am seriously considering not filling out questionnaires anymore unless or until I am able to get a phone interview first. Highest You Can Sat Essay. I don’t know what it will look like yet, but I have decided to bring my own standards to frank essay, bear upon search committees, and to let them know up front how I do things, and how I expect to be treated. Surely there are loving, but confident ways to do this. Like I say, not sure how. I am determined to highest, get out of this “wooing–rejecting” process once for all, even if I never pastor. I hurt for you, bruh. I am there right now.

It is difficult, but right, for me to remember that these are God’s people, and that He loves them as they do Him. Get Essays Published. And that they are often (not always!) clueless about what their actions do to candidates. If some of them could see it, it would break their hearts. I have to believe that. Highest You Can. I choose to get essays published, believe it, anyway. John A Loughlin. I began my pastoral ministry at age 34 and was a pastor for score sat essay, eleven years. I got my BA in Theology during that time. Middle. Through much prayer I felt that I needed to further my education and went to seminary which required a move and getting a new job. I was hired full time by the seminary and my tuition was part of highest you can score sat essay, my benefit package. Nature Essay Conclusion. I worked full time, took a full load in school, coached little league for 3 sons, and got involved in a local church.

After I graduated with my M Div. I found that I would have a hard time getting a full-time pastorate, in you can score, part because I had not been a pastor for several years, and in part because I was almost 50. A search committee actually asked the question, “Why did you get out of the rita essay ministry?” I didn’t know I had! Another said, “We are looking for someone with more current ministry experience.” The few search committees that sent me a note that they were not considering me stated, “we are going in a different direction.” How did they know that? We had never even talked. I asked my wife what she thought “going in a different direction” meant and score, she quickly replied, “They want a 30 year old. One disappointing experience was when I showed up for an interview with a search committee and walked into the sanctuary where they were interviewing another candidate who had shown up late and held the meeting over into the time they had scheduled with me. To make things worse, the published man was someone I knew from seminary. For now I work a maintenance job and teach SS in my church. Highest You Can Sat Essay. At times I have been greatly disappointed and discouraged, but I am holding to essay, the fact that God is sovereign and will lead me to His place in His time.

Seminary Grad says. One plea should also be list the must haves and the desired to have skills up front and you can sat essay, distinguish the frank essay two. I see many part time or even associate pastor jobs looking for sat essay, someone with Masters degree and 10 years experience. That would be understandable for a senior pastor. When the job description only shows that I fear many churches are loosing out on many pastors who may not have the educating frank essay seemingly impossible requirements, which often don’t match the highest score sat essay responsibilities.

Also list the deal breakers openly. I applied for educating frank, an associate pastor position. Returned the questionnaire to be turned down. The reason was I didn’t play any musical instruments and the search committee wanted the associate pastor to also be the worship leader, a requirement and desire not otherwise listed. Seminary Grad says. Not to beat a dead horse but communication is key. I can’t stand lack of communication.

Granted I can be a very patient person if I know the highest you can sat essay process and where I am. But to view papers, wait months with out contact only to find out the search committee is just now looking at highest, your resume. It is an emotional rollercoaster. I understand the nature essay need for a lengthy process, just keep me informed of where you are in the process. Highest You Can. I.e. first round of interviews. View. Also do you have a timeframe set in place or just “playing it by highest sat essay, ear”

Wow how interesting, never knew this process even existed in indepenfant churches the Pastor hands the church to his son or daughter or a friend and we just keep on term papers, keeping on until we don’t like it then we move on to another church, we become the searchersfor a new home, after a while the highest score sat essay church closes and they sell the essay competition 2012 winners building to another growing church, terrible isn’t it, but some times it work for now like Joel Osteen. Pastor Dave Deppisch says. Wow– Where do I begin? All good points in your lead-in. However, i find the sat essay most disturbing is sending your info which actually fits with what a church is seeking, and then within 24 hours you get the essay conclusion infamous form letter….” after prayerful consideration”. With the amount of information I sent, it would be hard to read it all let alone pray over it. If they were more honest with what the “deal breakers” are they’d get fewer, but more qualified, applicants. I myself have been dealing with search committees over the past year and highest you can score, a half. After receiving another “we are going in another direction” after filling out 10 pages of questions, I am done.

I have a M.A. in Theology and I am nearly finished with a MDiv. Nature Conclusion. I am 31 years old and you can score, married with a stable family life. In short I meet the requirements that most ask for. Get Essays Published. I have preached at you can sat essay, churches that said they loved having me and would be contacting me next week, but never call. The process I have dealt with is beyond ridiculous. When I do receive a notice as to why i am no longer being considered, it is always the same. Santayana Essays. We are looking for a candidate with 10 years experience.

If this is the you can score sat essay case, please list it on the requirements. Our church is beginning the rita frank process to nominate candidates to form a Pastor Search Committee. Assuming they meet the minimum qualifications that the church has presented, what additional questions should we be asking of highest you can score sat essay, potential committee candidates (church members) that will serve on this very important team? Questions about their character or theology? So…for Southern Baptists, what might be some effective alternatives to the “Search Committee” model? I feel that often it is the model itself that keeps committees from knowing me in ways that more clearly reflect who I am and middle school term papers, how God has gifted me. It goes beyond whether they’ve done their homework, read my perfectly-edited responses to their questions, or looked at highest score sat essay, my stupid, self-promoting website. Only one church in five years (5!) has treated me like a person, not a hire. Commonwealth Essay Competition. And that church was not SBC. It was a Bible Church in highest you can score sat essay, Europe!

Recently, I let fly and told a church committee that the get essays published first thing they needed to do was get rid of their search model (I knew they weren’t going to score sat essay, “hire” me anyway, so, what the research hey!). Churlish of me, I know. But it’s something I would say to the whole convention (…of autonomous, disconnected churches that want nothing to do with each other and you can score sat essay, don’t listen to anyone anyway, including their pastors). Oh!…and I’m fighting a little bitterness. I am sure someone else has mentioned it. But what is get essays, with the non-biblical requirements?

I am a seminary graduate who is looking to highest sat essay, start the royal winners ministry when I leave the military in the next 14 months. I am checking out highest you can listsings on several websites to include my seminary’s listings. Must be 30-49, have a M.Div and essay competition 2012, 10+ years experience but the salary doesn’t match? I feel that the expectations are so high that us young pastors are not considered because we don’t have full time experience (I’ve been told volunteer doesn’t count) but on sat essay, the flip side the seasons pastors are not considered if that are beyond 50 years old. I saw a post about the perfect pastor being 20 with 30 years experience, never leaves the office and is always in the hospital doing visits.

Who preaches theological doctrine in 5 minutes, who earns 5 dollars an educating rita essay hour but has a nice car and cloths. John I can see how it feels like the church is highest sat essay, hiring us instead of treating us like a person. I feel that way as this is my second time searching. I did try when I had by bachelors but decided to view research, get my M.Div and try again. The “must comply with the bylaws and you can score sat essay, constitution of get essays published, our church” amuses me because it makes me feel like they want their preference not Gods. I do have a question after my ranting. Im leaving the military in highest, 14 months, when should I start sending my resume out since the search process is get essays, taking longer. I don’t want to be that guy who wont be considered because im so far out, but I also don’t want to highest, run into leaving the military without an offer. I know everything is in Gods hands and I am praying, just want to commonwealth essay competition winners, know a good timeline to start actively searching. Thanks all and God bless. Lee Harris says.

Would it be inappropriate for a candidate to contact the search committee and ask for highest score sat essay, an update? I realize this blog post is older, but I ditto Lee’s questions. Is it appropriate to contact a search team and research, ask for an update? I am not asking about the church that called for resumes and I sent mine blind to them and highest score, never heard a peep. I mean the church that called me out of the blue to ASK ME for my resume, or the one who replied to my resume saying, “Please fill out view papers this 2 hours questionnaire.” When is it appropriate to ask them for an updated on their process? Also, when is it appropriate to score sat essay, ask for more details about their church? I may know what their 4 line call for resumes said, what I can find about them out on the web…but I do not really know anything about them. I am filling out a questionnaire that takes 2 hours to complete and they have not even supplied me with a profile of their church or community or an idea of nature, what they are looking for highest you can sat essay, or who they are as a people…. Maybe they are interested in me, but I am not interested them….

When is it OK for me to rita frank, ask for highest you can score sat essay, those things? I am thinking, I will complete the questionnaire and return it with a cover letter (something like: Thank you for considering me, should your committee chose to middle, move forward with me as a candidate here are some of the things I would like to know about you early on….). Highest Score. Is that too forward? How about don’t let us know you want to pursue other candidates via text. Get Essays Published. that would be great. I am currently on a Pastoral Search Committee, and highest score sat essay, I want to papers, thank all of you who took time to add comments to this article. Highest You Can Score Sat Essay. I have learned much from your experiences and am very appreciative that you took the time to share them. With that being said, I want to view research, take a moment and attempt to speak for the many lay congregation members who have been tasked with the responsibility to help select the highest score sat essay next leader of their church. While many have not had any formal training on selecting a Pastor, many like our team have reached out to school term, the resources available. You Can Sat Essay. Books, blogs, published handbooks, and our own team has also consulted our local Denomination District office, and 2012, a well seasoned intern Pastor.

We approached this committee with a humble attitude, knowing that we ourselves cannot select the “perfect” pastor for our church, but trusting that if we prayerfully seek Gods will, and if we maintain integrity in all that we do in the steps taken, that God will bring us to highest sat essay, the right decision in selecting our next Pastor. I hear the frustrations many of commonwealth competition 2012, you have, and its never easy to accept when you are denied a position. I can tell you that our search team decided not to highest you can sat essay, pursue many qualified candidates, not because they were not qualified, or even that they didn’t have a lot to offer our church, but with over get essays published 100 resumes, we simply did not have time to conduct a personal interview with even a 1/3rd of these. Sat Essay. We did our best to find the resume’s that matched the needs of our local church, and narrowed the nature conclusion list down (through much prayer and discussion) to a more manageable number, eventually narrowing the list to our top 10, then our top 5, then our top 3, by utilizing those dreaded questionairres, but really they were really helpful for us in learning more about the Pastors, further than what we can ascertain from a resume. Highest Score. Its hard to essays, learn about someone from a resume, many candidates have had extensive resume coaching, and some clearly have not, but its hard to learn about the Man behind the resume. Carefully considered questions in a questionnaire begin to introduce us to the Pastors family life, prayer life, how they view the you can sat essay scriptures, their preference in how a Sunday Worship service looks, their passions, reservations, strengths and opportunities, while they may prove to be tedious they were a very helpful vessel in our search team experience. We very much personally liked many of the candidates we eliminated, they were eliminated not because they were not qualified, or even because of any personal reservations about their ability or experience, but because others remaining were better matches for the needs or our community and congregation. Being a small church we do not have endless resources, and the majority of our team have families and work at least full time, most of us work over 40 hours a week. Even with that we truly understand the responsibility put upon school, us, and have gone long over our planned time many times, have taken time to pray earnestly, our families have sacrificed for score, us to be away from them more often, and even when we are home, having our noses buried into resumes, questionnaires, and pastoral search resources (Such as this one) so that we are putting our best efforts into view research papers, the search process, and seeking Gods will for the next leader of our Church. Sure it would be great if Gabriel visited on our first meeting and handed us a scroll with the next Pastors name on it, but seeing that is not usually how it works, we have a responsibility to you can score sat essay, our best ability to wisely and prayerfully select our next Pastor.

Thank you everyone for your thoughts. As a search committee co-chair, I value your input, as we want to value our candidates and their time. This feed has been a great reminder about the educating rita frank importance of communication. A few things I wanted to share: Someone asked for highest, a book to help search committees, and we are finding In Search of a Leader, by Robert Dingman to be highly valuable. It’s a bit dated and the author has passed, but in little essays, a committee-based denomination (if you know any denomination jokes you can probably guess!), this has been very beneficial. The key for us, as we gathered from the book, has been that we are looking for the pastor who will best meet the needs of you can, our current church. This has taken time in frank essay, prayer, discussion, and research before even posting our materials, to evaluate who we really are and highest, what we really need. I believe that God has been using this time to do work the church needs to do without a permanent pastor. Candidates who submitted resumes before we even posted the position are likely frustrated, but as much as candidates would like to be hired quickly, we all know what can happen when things are done hastily and without sufficient prayer.

It was really a mind shift for us to realize we aren’t looking for nature conclusion, the best/most qualified candidate, but the best fit for US. In addition, if it’s any encouragement to highest sat essay, some of you, if the search committee/church is really evaluating itself and in prayer, many churches realize they NEED someone over commonwealth competition 2012 winners 40 for certain jobs/situations and you can score, often life experience in a career before ministry is an asset, not a liability. Finally, both parties in prayer (candidate + committee) should also be looking out for get essays, the best interest of highest you can score sat essay, each other as the body of essay, Christ; you wouldn’t apply for a job you know you couldn’t do well, and we shouldn’t recommend hiring someone we know we can’t support. I can think of one candidate with a unique situation in which we are starting to highest, sense that the environment into which the pastor will come won’t allow for sufficient support for his family, though we have no objections to him or his family. It would be a disservice to the family. Santayana Little Essays. Specifics may never show up in a rejection letter, but trust that God has a reason for someone not getting that job.

If the search team was really just incompetent, consider yourself spared! (I faced that in the secular world myself once!) Pray that we recognize the highest you can right candidate God has prepared for a congregation like ours!

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latex dissertation September 12, 2017. This document describes how to use the puthesis (Purdue University thesis) LaTeX typesetting system documentclass to format Purdue University master's bypass reports, master's theses, PhD dissertations, and PhD preliminary reports. All the needed software is free. New puthesis.cls file released today  (February 22, 2017) A new puthesis.cls file was released today that makes the highest score, leader dots in the table of contents and other places extend farther to the right. Published! I'm working on highest you can score a new version of santayana puthesis for sat essay the new specifications. The Graduate School will accept old or new specifications theses until I get puthesis updated for the new specifications. Change Requests Should come Faculty or Staff  (February 24, 2017) I used to make changes to puthesis based on view research papers what a graduate student wrote about what their school or department's Graduate Office told them. Score Sat Essay! The process is now more formala faculty or staff member from that school or department's Graduate Office or the Purdue Graduate School needs to competition winners, contact me directly to request changes that will affect more than one person.

Special Note: Use Overleaf  (May 4, 2016updated October 28, 2016) The Graduate School and I recommend you use Overleaf. I answer puthesis questions about LaTeX and how to use the Overleaf interface to LaTeX. I don't answer puthesis questions about these interfaces to LaTeX: AmigaTeX, emTeX, fpTeX, gwTeX, Jupyter worksheets, MacTeX, Mathematica notebooks, MiKTeX, OzTeX, PasTeX, PCTeX, proTeXt, Scientific Workplace, teTeX, TeX Live, etc. Special Note: Collaborating With Your Major Professor(s) using Overleaf  (May 4, 2016) See Can I add inline or margin comments to the pdf? for how to use LaTeX commands to make inline or marginal notes to communicate with your major professor(s). See Rich commenting is here! . for how to use tho Overleaf editor to add pop-up comments to communicate with your major professor(s). Special Note: Not at you can, West Lafayette Campus. If you are not at view research papers, Purdue's West Lafayette campus check with your school/department/program to get help locallythey'll be more familiar with any special rules. Special Note: Purdue Polytechnic Institute. I support puthesis for highest you can score all schools/departments/programs at Purdue University's West Lafayette Campus except for the Purdue Polytechnic Institutethey use their own version of puthesis.

If you are a Purdue Polytechnic student see the published, Purdue Polytechnic Thesis and Dissertation Formatting web page. There is no combination of you can sat essay options that will automatically give proper headings, tables, and figures according to Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , sixth edition, fifth printing, January 2011. (Informally this is known as the APA formatI call it APA6.) APA6 specifications are geared toward short papers and journal articles. It does not specify the nature essay conclusion, format for the table of highest you can score contents, list of tables, list of frank essay figures, etc. Highest! It does not specify the royal commonwealth competition 2012 winners, numbering that should be used for chapters, sections, subsections, subsubsections, equations, etc. Score Sat Essay! From page 5 of the manual (thanks to commonwealth 2012 winners, John S. Sat Essay! Hansen, Reference Librarian, University if Wisconsin-Stout for nature providing the citation): The Publication Manual presents explicit style requirements but acknowledges that alternatives are sometimes necessary; authors should balance the rules of the Publication Manual with good judgement. Because the score sat essay, written language of psychology changes more slowly than psychology itself, the frank, Publication Manual does not offer solutions for all stylistic problems. In that sense, it is a transitional document: Its style requirements are based on the existing scientific literature rather than imposed on the literature. (American Psychologgical Association, 1994, p. xxiii) I am lobbying that schools and you can sat essay, departments that prescribe APA format to allow the use of the get essays, (in my opinion, and I have almost thirty years of typesetting experience) better default puthesis behaviour for highest you can sat essay headings, tables, figures, etc. Based on the questions I'm getting, I think some schools and get essays, departments have switched to highest you can, using the puthesis defaults or people have figured out get essays published how to get what their schools and score sat essay, departments want without my help. APA6 style text citations and bibliographies can continue to be used, contact me if you have any problems. The puthesis template is the graduate schools' official template, so all formatting (unless there is some sort of error) should be correct.

Ashlee Messersmith, Thesis/Dissertation Assistant, Thesis and Dissertation Office, West Lafayette campus, Purdue University. Puthesis stands for “ P urdue U niversity thesis ” (pronounced “pew thesis”). It is a LaTeX typesetting system documentclass used to format Purdue master's bypass reports, master's theses, PhD dissertations, and PhD preliminary reports. The software is free and is available for published Apple Macintosh, Microsoft Windows, Linux, Unix, and the web ((Free Overleaf accounts). The Graduate School announced it is sponsoring free Overleaf Pro accounts in January, 2016. Please inform me if you notice any differences between the Graduate School's or your school or department's specifications and what puthesis does. Thousands of people have graduated using it. Highest You Can! You won't need to “reinvent the middle school term, wheel.”

All formatting details are done automatically, you can concentrate on the content of your thesis instead of worrying about margins, typefaces, etc. It is especially convenient for typesetting mathematics. Many people think it produces more attractive output than other systems. All the software needed is free and is available for a wide variety of operating systems. Purdue has an sat essay (Overleaf) license so you can use LaTeX on papers the web.

Some (especially engineering, mathematics, and science) journals use LaTeX. You may be able to cut large chunks out of your thesis, change a few lines at the top of the resulting file, and send that to a journal. Using LaTeX and you can sat essay, BibTeX is very common in the scientific community. View! Sooner or later you may need to highest score, learn it anyway. Many candidates have made favorable comments about puthesis when depositing their theses.

We strongly recommend candidates consider learning puthesis prior to the writing process. Using puthesis cuts formatting discrepancies to almost zero, drastically reduces the possibility of santayana revision requests, and helps ensure stress-free deposits! —Mark D. Jaeger, Manager, Thesis/Dissertation Office. The puthesis class file for highest LaTeX has helped hundreds of santayana ECE graduate students meet the requirements for format approval. Using it allows them to focus on the content of their thesis without concern for highest the myriad of view papers formatting details that it automatically handles. The Graduate School's Thesis/Dissertation Office also recommends the use of puthesis and LaTeX. —Andy Hughes, ECE Thesis Format Advisor. Sign up for the puthesis mailing list if you use puthesis so you get a few important messages a year.

These LaTeX packages are incompatible with puthesis. Using “thesis” for “thesis” and “dissertation” The document necessary to highest you can sat essay, get a Purdue PhD is a “dissertation”. For historical reasons, to use the same nomenclature as other Purdue departments, and be able to lump instructions describing master's bypass reports, master's theses, PhD dissertations, and PhD preliminary reports together the word “thesis” will be used to refer to any of these. “Dissertation” will be used to refer to things that are dissertation-specific only. Puthesis requires LaTeX and BibTeX.

See LaTeX for more information. Puthesis is designed to run on, and view research, I only highest you can sat essay answer LaTeX questions when you are using the current version of view Overleaf on the web the current version of MacTeX on highest score sat essay Macs the current version of TeX Live on Linux, Unix and Windows I only answer questions about the user interface for the current version of Overleaf TeX Live 2014 on Linux and Windows I've been asked about these LaTeX-related things in the past but don't support them LyX Scientific Workplace. I recommend saving any old puthesis files in your thesis directory with other names and then get any newer puthesis files below. The template files below are meant for you to rita frank, save and score sat essay, modify as necessary for your thesis. In each file search for middle school term “CHANGE” and change things as necessary. I recommend putting “%%” before any existing lines that need to be changed and adding any new line(s) immediately below the existing lines. If you are on a Linux or Unix computer you may be able to use the following procedure to highest you can, simplify getting the files:

This procedure will create a “ template ” subdirectory if one doesn't already exist. The all.bib through vita.tex files listed below will get overwritten in the template directory. Be careful! tar xf template.tar to save the trouble of getting each file individually. If that doesn't work, get each file separately. If you are using Windows computer you may be able to use the following procedure to simplify getting the files: This procedure will create a “ template ” subdirectory if one doesn't already exist. The all.bib through vita.tex files listed below will get overwritten in the template directory. Be careful! unzip template.zip to save the educating frank essay, trouble of getting each file individually. You Can! If that doesn't work, get each file separately.

If you weren't able to educating rita frank essay, get all the template files using the instructions above you can get them one at highest sat essay, a time here: Depending on royal essay your installation of LaTeX you may need to highest sat essay, put copies of the puthesis.cls and frank, pulongtable.sty files in the template directory to be able to do a latex thesis command there. If LaTeX complains about missing files. If LaTeX complains about missing files when you do your thesis, then, and only then, get the appropriate files below. Email latex @ecn.purdue.edu to get any files not listed. If you need the files below (especially report.cls) your LaTeX may not be set up right.

All theses must follow the Purdue University Graduate School's A Manual for highest score the Preparation of Graduate Theses . Individual departments and schools may have additional rules and commonwealth essay competition 2012, regulationsthey're listed immediately after the school or department in the table below. The general form of the documentclass command is. documentclass[ options ] Separate multiple options with commas. The “use ece now, option when available” messages below mean you can at least use the ece option to check that your LaTeX input is recognized by LaTeX. If you're lucky, using ece for your document or ece with some of the other options beginning with the score, endnote option below will do the formatting correctly for little your thesis. I don't know which combination of options is best for your school or department. Cathy Ralston (2011-06-30) Melissa Geiger (2011-06-30) Environmental and Hydraulics: Judy Haan (2011-06-30)

Geomatics and Transportation: Dorothy Miller (2011-06-30) Molly Stetler (2011-06-30) Weird commands defined by puthesis. In addition to you can, the commands shown in term papers the template files, puthesis also defines the highest you can score, following commands.

As far as puthesis is concerned, these commands can be used anywhere. Double check comments in the template files to make sure it is ok to use then them there. For example, no subscripts or superscripts are allowed in the thesis title. Right now the essay 2012, num command just prints the number in math mode so any minus signs come out as minus signs and highest you can sat essay, not hyphens. Later it will do what is described in the next paragraph. The num command, separates numbers of more than four digits into groups of three on either side of the decimal point, separated by a space. If the magnitude of a number is less than one, the decimal point should be preceded by a zero. Units and royal commonwealth essay 2012 winners, abbreviations (ECE-specific)

Use the International System of Units (SI Units). Refer to highest, units listed in view research Appendix I of Thesis Format for highest you can information on prefered usage of units, conversion factors, etc. Unit symbols should be used with measured quantites, e.g., 1mm, but unit names are used in research text without quantities, e.g., “a few millimeters”. If quantities must be expressed in English units, the SI equivalents should also be given in parentheses, i.e., “a distance of 4.7 in highest score (12 cm)”. Most acronyms and published, abbreviations should be defined the first time they are used in text. Highest Score! A list of acronyms and abbreviations, including a list of those that need not be defined, is papers, given in Appendix II of Thesis Format . Defining commands not specific to your thesis. If you would like to use the same commands in multiple documents, put them in a mydefs.tex file and use input to read in highest you can sat essay those definitions. For example, if I used typed $xfor 2014_n$ often in view papers many different documents I might put. Then, whenever I typed xn it would be the score, same as typing $x_n$ . Educating Rita Frank! This definition can be made more flexible by including ensuremath like this. newcommand That way xn can be used in text or math mode and you can sat essay, LaTeX will go in and out of math mode if necessary.

Defining commands specifc to your thesis. I like to put thesis-specific command definitions after any input command I use. If I was writing a lot about different vectors with elements 1 to some upper limit, I could put the following in my root file. I only support documents that use “ documentclass [options] ” and published, use the latest puthesis.cls file available from this web page. Can I run LaTeX on the web? Answer. Converting LaTeX to Word? Answer.

How can I get Adobe Reader to read a new PDF file and update the screen? Answer.